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Christa McAuliffe

Sharon Christa McAuliffe was an American teacher and astronaut from Concord, New Hampshire, one of the seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. She received her bachelor's degree in education and history from Framingham State College in 1970 and a master's degree in education and administration from Bowie State University in 1978, she took a teaching position as a social studies teacher at Concord High School in New Hampshire in 1983. In 1985, she was selected from more than 11,000 applicants to participate in the NASA Teacher in Space Project and was scheduled to become the first teacher in space; as a member of mission STS-51-L, she was planning to conduct experiments and teach two lessons from Space Shuttle Challenger. On January 28, 1986, the shuttle broke apart 73 seconds after launch. After her death and scholarships were named in her honor, in 2004 she was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. Sharon Christa McAuliffe was born on September 1948, in Boston, the capital of Massachusetts.

She was the oldest of the five children of accountant Edward Christopher Corrigan, of Irish descent. McAuliffe was a great niece of Lebanese-American historian Philip Khuri Hitti, she was known by her middle name from an early age, although in years she signed her name "S. Christa Corrigan", "S. Christa McAuliffe"; the year she was born, her father was completing his sophomore year at Boston College. Not long after, he took a job as an assistant comptroller in a Boston department store, they moved to Framingham, where she attended and graduated from Marian High School in 1966; as a youth, she was inspired by the Apollo moon landing program. The day after John Glenn orbited the Earth in Friendship 7, she told a friend at Marian High, "Do you realize that someday people will be going to the Moon? Maybe taking a bus, I want to do that!" She wrote years on her NASA application form: "I watched the Space Age being born, I would like to participate."In 1970, she married her longtime boyfriend whom she had known since high school, Steven J. McAuliffe, a 1970 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute, they moved closer to Washington, D.

C. so that he could attend the Georgetown University Law Center. They had two children and Caroline, who were nine and six when she died, she obtained her first teaching position in 1970, as an American history teacher at Benjamin Foulois Junior High School in Morningside, Maryland. From 1971 to 1978, she taught history and civics at Thomas Johnson Middle School in Lanham, Maryland. In addition to teaching, she completed a Master of Arts in education supervision and administration from Bowie State University in Maryland. In 1978, she moved to Concord, New Hampshire, when Steven accepted a job as an assistant to the New Hampshire Attorney General. McAuliffe taught 7th and 8th grade American history and English in Concord, New Hampshire, 9th grade English in Bow, New Hampshire, before taking a teaching post at Concord High School in 1983, she was a social studies teacher, taught several courses including American history and economics, in addition to a self-designed course: "The American Woman".

Taking field trips and bringing in speakers were an important part of her teaching techniques. According to The New York Times, she "emphasized the impact of ordinary people on history, saying they were as important to the historical record as kings, politicians or generals." In 1984, President Ronald Reagan announced the Teacher in Space Project, Christa learned about NASA's efforts to find their first civilian, an educator, to fly into space. NASA wanted to find an "ordinary person," a gifted teacher who could communicate with students while in orbit. McAuliffe became one of more than 11,000 applicants. NASA hoped that sending a teacher into space would increase public interest in the Space Shuttle program, demonstrate the reliability of space flight at a time when the agency was under continuous pressure to find financial support. President Reagan said it would remind Americans of the important role that teachers and education serve in their country; the Council of Chief State School Officers, a non-profit organization of public officials in education, was chosen by NASA to coordinate the selection process.

Out of the initial applicant pool, 114 semi-finalists were nominated by state and agency review panels. McAuliffe was one of two teachers nominated by the state of New Hampshire; the semi-finalists gathered in Washington, DC, from June 22–27, 1985, for a conference on space education and to meet with the Review Panel that would select the 10 finalists. On July 1, 1985, she was announced as one of the 10 finalists, on July 7 she traveled to Johnson Space Center for a week of thorough medical examinations and briefings about space flight; the finalists were interviewed by an evaluation committee composed of senior NASA officials, the committee made recommendations to NASA Administrator James M. Beggs for the primary and backup candidates for the Teacher in Space Project. On July 19, 1985, Vice President George H. W. Bush announced that she had been selected for the position. Another teacher, Barbara Morgan, served as her backup. According to Mark Travis of the Concord Monitor, it was her manner that set her apart from the other candidates.

NASA official Alan Ladwig said "she had an infectious enthusiasm", NASA psychiatrist Terrence McGuire told New Woman magazine that "she was the most broad-based, best-balanced person of the 10."Later that year, sh

Doctor–patient relationship

The doctor–patient relationship is a central part of health care and the practice of medicine. The doctor–patient relationship forms one of the foundations of contemporary medical ethics. A patient must have confidence in the competence of their physician and must feel that they can confide in him or her. For most physicians, the establishment of good rapport with a patient is important; some medical specialties, such as psychiatry and family medicine, emphasize the physician–patient relationship more than others, such as pathology or radiology, which have little contact with patients. The quality of the patient–physician relationship is important to both parties; the doctor and patient's values and perspectives about disease and time available play a role in building up this relationship. A strong relationship between the doctor and patient will lead to frequent, quality information about the patient's disease and better health care for the patient and their family. Enhancing the accuracy of the diagnosis and increasing the patient's knowledge about the disease all come with a good relationship between the doctor and the patient.

Where such a relationship is poor the physician's ability to make a full assessment is compromised and the patient is more to distrust the diagnosis and proposed treatment, causing decreased compliance to follow the medical advice which results in bad health outcomes. In these circumstances and in cases where there is genuine divergence of medical opinions, a second opinion from another physician may be sought or the patient may choose to go to another physician that they trust more. Additionally, the benefits of any placebo effect are based upon the patient's subjective assessment of the physician's credibility and skills. Michael and Enid Balint together pioneered the study of the physician patient relationship in the UK. Michael Balint's "The Doctor, His Patient and the Illness" outlined several case histories in detail and became a seminal text, their work is continued by the Balint Society, The International Balint Federation and other national Balint societies in other countries. It is one of the most influential works on the topic of doctor-patient relationships.

In addition, a Canadian physician known as Sir William Osler was known as one of the "Big Four" professors at the time that the Johns Hopkins Hospital was first founded. At the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Osler had invented the world's first medical residency system. In terms of efficacy, the doctor–patient relationship seems to have a "small, but statistically significant impact on healthcare outcomes". However, due to a small sample size and a minimally effective test, researchers concluded additional research on this topic is necessary. Recognizing that patients receive the best care when they work in partnership with doctors, the UK General Medical Council issued guidance for both of doctors named "Ethical guidance for doctors" and for patients "What to expect from your doctor" in April 2013 The following aspects of the doctor–patient relationship are the subject of commentary and discussion; the default medical practice for showing respect to patients and their families is for the doctor to be truthful in informing the patient of their health and to be direct in asking for the patient's consent before giving treatment.

In many cultures there has been a shift from paternalism, the view that the "doctor always knows best," to the idea that patients must have a choice in the provision of their care and be given the right to provide informed consent to medical procedures. There can be issues with. Furthermore, there are ethical concerns regarding the use of placebo. Does giving a sugar pill lead to an undermining of trust between doctor and patient? Is deceiving a patient for his or her own good compatible with a respectful and consent-based doctor–patient relationship? These types of questions come up in the healthcare system and the answers to all of these questions are far from clear but should be informed by medical ethics. Shared decision making is the idea that as a patient gives informed consent to treatment, that patient is given an opportunity to choose among the treatment options provided by the physician, responsible for their healthcare; this means the doctor does not recommend what the patient should do, rather the patient's autonomy is respected and they choose what medical treatment they want to have done.

A practice, an alternative to this is for the doctor to make a person's health decisions without considering that person's treatment goals or having that person's input into the decision-making process is grossly unethical and against the idea of personal autonomy and freedom. The spectrum of a physician's inclusion of a patient into treatment decisions is well represented in Ulrich Beck's World at Risk. At one end of this spectrum is Beck's Negotiated Approach to risk communication, in which the communicator maintains an open dialogue with the patient and settles on a compromise on which both patient and physician agree. A majority of physicians employ a variation of this communication model to some degree, as it is only with this technique that a doctor can maintain the open cooperation of his or her patient. At the opposite end of this spectrum is the Technocratic Approach to risk communication, in which the physician exerts authoritarian control over the patient's treatment and pushes the patient to accept the treatment plan with which they are presented in a paternalistic manner.

This communication model places the physician in a position of omniscience and omnipote


FedEx Corporation is an American multinational delivery services company headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee. The name "FedEx" is a syllabic abbreviation of the name of the company's original air division, Federal Express, used from 1973 until 2000; the company is known for its overnight shipping service and pioneering a system that could track packages and provide real-time updates on package location, a feature that has now been implemented by most other carrier services. FedEx is one of the top contractors of the US government. FedEx Corporation is an import/export company, incorporated October 1997, in Delaware. FDX Corporation was founded in January 1998 with the acquisition of Caliber System Inc. by Federal Express. With the purchase of Caliber, FedEx started offering other services besides express shipping. Caliber subsidiaries included a small-package ground service. FDX Corporation was founded to oversee all of the operations of those companies and its original air division, Federal Express.

In the 1990s, FedEx Ground planned, but abandoned, a joint service with British Airways to have BA fly a Concorde supersonic jet airliner to Shannon Airport in Ireland with FedEx packages on board, FedEx would have flown the packages subsonically to their delivery points in Europe. Ron Ponder, a vice president at the time, was in charge of this proposed venture. In January 2000, FDX Corporation changed its name to FedEx Corporation and re-branded all of its subsidiaries. Federal Express became FedEx Express, RPS became FedEx Ground, Roberts Express became FedEx Custom Critical, Caliber Logistics and Caliber Technology were combined to comprise FedEx Global Logistics. A new subsidiary, called FedEx Corporate Services, was formed to centralize the sales and customer service for all of the subsidiaries. In February 2000, FedEx acquired an international logistics company. FedEx acquired WorldTariff, a customs duty and tax information company. FedEx Corp. acquired held Kinko's, Inc. in February 2004 and re-branded it FedEx Kinko's.

The acquisition was made to expand FedEx's retail access to the general public. After the acquisition, all FedEx Kinko's locations offered only FedEx shipping. In June 2008, FedEx announced. In September 2004, FedEx acquired Parcel Direct, a parcel consolidator, re-branded it FedEx SmartPost. In December 2007, the U. S. Internal Revenue Service "tentatively decided" the FedEx Ground Division might be facing a tax liability of $319 million for 2002, due to misclassification of its operatives as independent contractors. Reversing a 1994 decision which allowed FedEx to classify its operatives that own their own vehicles as independent contractors, the IRS audited the years 2003 to 2006, with a view to assessing whether similar misclassification of operatives had taken place. FedEx denied that any irregularities in classification had occurred, but faced legal action from operatives claiming benefits that would have accrued had they been classified as employees. In June 2009, FedEx began a campaign against United Parcel Service and the Teamsters union, accusing its competitor of receiving a bailout in an advertising campaign called "Brown Bailout".

FedEx claimed that signing the Federal Aviation Administration re-authorization bill, which would let some of its workers unionize more was equivalent to giving UPS a "bailout". Independent observers criticized FedEx's wording, claiming that it was "an abuse of the term". FedEx Express employees are regulated under the Railway Labor Act. On January 14, 2013, FedEx named Henry Maier CEO and President of FedEx Ground, to take effect after David Rebholz retired on May 31, 2013. On July 17, 2014, FedEx was indicted for conspiracy to distribute controlled substances in cooperation with the Chhabra-Smoley Organization and Superior Drugs. According to the U. S. Department of Justice, "FedEx is alleged to have knowingly and intentionally conspired to distribute controlled substances and prescription drugs, including Phendimetrazine. A representative for the company contested these claims, stating that it would violate personal rights of customers to deny service and that "We are a transportation company — we are not law enforcement".

On July 17, 2016 the Department of Justice U. S. Attorney's Office confirmed in a statement that it had asked U. S. District Court Judge Charles Breyer to dismiss the indictment but did not say why. In April 2015, FedEx acquired their rival firm TNT Express for €4.4 billion as it looked to expand their operations in Europe. In February 2016, FedEx announced the launch of FedEx Cares, a global giving platform, committed to invest $200 million to strengthen more than 200 communities by 2020. In March 2018, FedEx announced the acquisition of P2P Mailing Limited, a last-mile deliv

Battle of Castione

The Battle of Castione was fought between the Golden Ambrosian Republic and the canton of Uri on 6 July 1449. The site of the battle is near that of the earlier Battle of Arbedo, both in the territory of the current-day municipality of Arbedo-Castione in the Swiss canton of Ticino; the cause of both battles was the contest for control of the nearby fort of Bellinzona, which at the time happened to be at the point of overlap of the spheres of influence of the Old Swiss Confederacy and the Duchy of Milan. Control of Bellinzona was the strategic key to controlling the Gotthard Pass and the valleys of Ticino and Misox. Uri had won Bellinzona in 1419, but lost it again as a result of the battle of Arbedo of 1422. Uri launched a renewed campaign to regain the valleys in the southern Alps in 1439, in 1441 forced Milan to yield the Leventina; the unstable situation in the Duchy of Milan with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447 and the formation of the short-lived Golden Ambrosian Republic encouraged Uri to push forward as far as Bellinzona once again.

Milan charged Condottiere Giovanni della Noce with leading the campaign against the Swiss and re-establish Milanese control over the Sottoceneri. Della Noce defeated the force of Uri near Castione, in a battle; the village was burned down, Uri was forced to retreat to the Misox. Milan secured control over the Riviera. A formal peace treaty was enacted in 1450, in 1466, Milan agreed to grant the Leventina to Uri permanently; the defeat at Castione halted Swiss expansion south of the Alps for several decades, until the Confederate campaign of 1478, the Swiss victory in the Battle of Giornico in 1487. In Swiss historiography, the account of the battle of Castione was corrupted, because historian Theodor von Liebenau confused it with the battle of Castiglione Olona, which led to the dissolution of the Ambrosian Republic. Proper identification of the battle was left to historians of the 20th century. Battle of Castione in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. G. Chiesi, «Una battaglia dimenticata», in BSSI, 1979, 153-202 Battles of the Old Swiss Confederacy Transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy

Tiger Arena

Tiger Arena is a 5,000-seat multi-purpose arena in Savannah, United States. It is home to the Savannah State University Tigers men's and women's basketball teams and women's volleyball team. Tiger Arena has hosted the Georgia High School Association boys and girls playoffs, the annual Georgia Athletic Coaches Association's North-South All-Star Game, the Savannah Holiday Classic high school girls basketball tournament, it was home to the Savannah Steam of American Indoor Football. The facility cost $9.6 million to build. It replaced Willcox-Wiley Gymnasium, an athletic complex built in 1936. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas

David L. Thomas

David Lloyd Thomas is a Republican former member of the South Carolina Senate. He represented District 8 from 1984 to 2012, he is a partner at the firm Moore, Taylor & Thomas, P. A. Current U. S. Representative Joe Wilson of South Carolina's 2nd congressional district was a partner with this firm prior to his election to Congress to succeed Floyd Spence, he has degrees from UNC-Charlotte, TCU, Southwestern Theological Seminary, the University of South Carolina. He served as an at-large member of the Greenville City Council from 1979 to 1984 and in his last year on the council was Mayor Pro-Tempore under Mayor Bill Workman. Thomas first won election to the state senate in 1984, he was reelected six times, never facing a Democratic challenger—in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008. He lost the 2012 Republican primary in a five-way race, finishing in third place after receiving only 20.5% of the vote—well short of qualifying for the runoff. On May 20, 2009 Thomas voted to force Governor Mark Sanford to take the ARRA funds, or the federal stimulus, use the one time money for reoccurring needs.

Thomas was one of the first conservative Republican state senators to call for the resignation or impeachment of Governor Mark Sanford. In August 2009, he wrote a letter to state legislative leaders saying that in his view, Sanford's use of expensive plane tickets on state business were an impeachable offense. In September 2011 USA Today ran a story on legislative pensions and how legislators abused their power to "pump up their pensions." Thomas was the poster child for this article. USA Today found. At the time of the USA Today article, Thomas had paid for thirty years of service necessary to draw legislative retirement pay instead of legislative salary which comes from the General Fund of South Carolina's State Budget. Nineteen other South Carolina senators have chosen to take the $32,390 retirement pay from the General Assembly Retirement System, which comes from the General Fund of South Carolina's State Budget, rather than the $10,400 salary. South Carolina has one of the lowest pay scales for legislators among the fifty states.

Thomas was Chairman of the Banking and Insurance Committee and Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee Sub-committee on Constitutional/Administrative Officers. He is the founder of Palmetto Pride, an organization aimed at litter cleanup. Thomas was the Greenville chairman of the 1980 Ronald W. Reagan for President campaign, while Greenville Mayor Jesse L. Helms was supporting former Governor John B. Connally Jr. of Texas. Thomas was the state co-chair, along with State Representative Terry Haskins of the 1988 Jack Kemp for President campaign. In 2008, he served as State Legislative Co-Chair of the Mike Huckabee for President, he ran for Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina in 2002. He finished first in the Republican primary but failed to reach the 50% threshold needed to avoid a run-off election, getting 37% of the vote, he lost the run-off election to fellow State Senator Andre Bauer 51%-49%, a difference of 4,491 votes. On June 6, 2009, Thomas announced his candidacy for the U. S. House of Representatives, challenging incumbent Bob Inglis in the Republican primary for the 4th District.

Thomas ran well to Inglis' right, has criticized many of Inglis' recent votes. Inglis had been one of the most conservative members of the House when he represented the district from 1993 to 1999, but his voting record since his return to Congress in 2005 has been more moderate. Thomas finished fourth in the primary, getting only 12 percent of the vote and losing his own state senate district. Thomas did not have to give up his seat to run for Congress. South Carolina state senators serve four-year terms coinciding with presidential elections, Thomas was not up for re-election until 2012. Thomas elected to take a yearly lifelong payout of $32,390 in deferred pay from the General Assembly Retirement System rather than his $10,400 salary, he became eligible for the payout at age 55. Thomas has been married to his wife Fran since 1984, they live in Fountain Inn in Greenville County, his family is from Spartanburg’s Glendale community. He attends Calvary Baptist Church in Simpsonville. David Thomas for Congress official congressional campaign site South Carolina Legislature - Senator David L. Thomas official SC Senate website Project Vote Smart - Senator David L. Thomas profile Follow the Money - David Thomas 2006 2004 2002 2000 1996 campaign contributions