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Christadelphians

The Christadelphians are a restorationist and millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism. There are 50,000 Christadelphians in around 120 countries; the movement developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century around the teachings of John Thomas, who coined the name Christadelphian from the Greek words for Christ and brothers. Claiming to base their beliefs on the Bible, Christadelphians differ from mainstream Christianity in a number of doctrinal areas. For example, they reject the Trinity and the immortality of the soul, believing these to be corruptions of original Christian teaching, they were found predominantly in the developed English-speaking world, but expanded in developing countries after the Second World War. Congregations are traditionally referred to as "ecclesias". Christadelphianism traces its origins to John Thomas, who emigrated to North America from England in 1832. Following a near shipwreck he vowed to find out the truth about life and God through personal Biblical study.

He sought to avoid the kind of sectarianism he had seen in England. In this he found sympathy with the emerging Restoration Movement in the United States at the time; this movement sought a reform based upon the Bible alone as a sufficient guide and rejected all creeds. However, this liberality led to dissent as John Thomas developed his personal beliefs and began to question mainstream orthodox Christian beliefs. While the Restoration Movement accepted Thomas's right to have his own beliefs, when he started preaching that they were essential to salvation, it led to a fierce series of debates with a notable leader of the movement, Alexander Campbell. John Thomas believed that scripture, as God's word, did not support a multiplicity of differing beliefs, challenged the leaders to continue with the process of restoring 1st-century Christian beliefs and correct interpretation through a process of debate; the history of this process appears in the book Dr. Thomas, His Life and Work by a Christadelphian, Robert Roberts.

During this period of formulating his ideas John Thomas was baptised twice, the second time after renouncing the beliefs he held. He based his new position on a new appreciation for the reign of Christ on David's throne; the abjuration of his former beliefs led to the Restoration Movement disfellowshipping him when he toured England and they became aware of his abjuration in the United States of America. The Christadelphian community in the United Kingdom dates from Thomas's first lecturing tour, his message was welcomed in Scotland, Campbellite and Adventist friends separated to form groups of "Baptised Believers". Two thirds of ecclesias, members, in Britain before 1864 were in Scotland. In 1849, during his tour of Britain, he completed Elpis Israel in which he laid out his understanding of the main doctrines of the Bible. Since his medium for bringing change was print and debate, it was natural for the origins of the Christadelphian body to be associated with books and journals, such as Thomas's Herald of the Kingdom.

In his desire to seek to establish Biblical truth and test orthodox Christian beliefs through independent scriptural study he was not alone. Among other churches, he had links with Benjamin Wilson. In terms of his rejection of the trinity, Thomas's views had certain similarities with Unitarianism which had developed in a formal way in Europe in the 16th century. Although the Christadelphian movement originated through the activities of John Thomas, he never saw himself as making his own disciples, he believed rather that he had rediscovered 1st century beliefs from the Bible alone, sought to prove that through a process of challenge and debate and writing journals. Through that process a number of people became convinced and set up various fellowships that had sympathy with that position. Groups associated with John Thomas met under various names, including Believers, Baptised Believers, the Royal Association of Believers, Baptised Believers in the Kingdom of God and The Antipas until the time of the American Civil War.

At that time, church affiliation was required in the United States and in the Confederate States of America in order to register for conscientious objector status, in 1864 Thomas chose for registration purposes the name Christadelphian. Through the teaching of John Thomas and the need in the American Civil War for a name, the Christadelphians emerged as a denomination, but they were formed into a lasting structure through a passionate follower of Thomas's interpretation of the Bible, Robert Roberts. In 1864, he began to publish The Ambassador of the Coming Age magazine. John Thomas, out of concern that someone else might start a publication and call it The Christadelphian, urged Robert Roberts to change the name of his magazine to The Christadelphian, which he did in 1869, his editorship of the magazine continued with some assistance until his death in 1898. In church matters, Roberts was prominent in the period following the death of John Thomas in 1871, helped craft the structures of the Christadelphian body.

The denomination grew in the English-speaking world in the English Midlands and in parts of North America. In the early days after the death of John Thomas, the group could have moved in a

G-Force (album)

G-Force is a 1980 studio album by the namesake UK-American band led by Irish rock guitarist Gary Moore. While touring America with Thin Lizzy in support of the band's album Black Rose: A Rock Legend, Moore quit the band and moved to Los Angeles, hoping to establish a solo rock presence. With the opportunity to tour America in support of Van Halen, Moore recruited his one-time Thin Lizzy bandmate, drummer Mark Nauseef, vocalist/bassist Glenn Hughes, dubbing the band "G-Force". Several months into rehearsals, Hughes left the band after an alcohol-fuelled altercation with Moore and was replaced with vocalist Willie Dee and Motown session bassist Tony Newton; the subsequent tour was a success, the band went on to support Whitesnake on their 1980 Ready an' Willing tour. However, the project was short-lived, only producing the one eponymous album, re-mixed by Dennis Mackay; the album consisted of more conventional hard rock radio-oriented music than Moore's previous efforts. The band recorded the Newton and Dee-penned song "Trust Your Lovin'", only released as a B-side to the 7" single "You".

Soon after the album was released, G-Force disbanded and Moore joined Greg Lake of Emerson, Lake & Palmer fame on a new venture, a collaboration that led to Lake's eponymous debut solo album. ^† — Separated into two tracks on some issues of the album G–ForceWillie Dee – lead and backing vocals, keyboards, Korg bass synthesizer, production Gary Moore – guitars and backing vocals and string arrangements on tracks 4 and 8, production Tony Newton – bass guitar, string arrangements on track 6, production Mark Nauseef – drums, percussion syntesiszer, productionAdditional musiciansJoachim Kuhn – additional keyboards Tom Scottsaxophone on track 8, string arrangements on track 4 and 6 Thee Ox – marimbaProductionMack, Mark Sackett, Tom La Tondre – engineers Dennis Mackay – remixing on tracks 1-3, 5, 7 and 9 Moshe Brakha – photography

Mystery of the Samurai Sword

Mystery of the Samurai Sword is the 60th title of the Hardy Boys Mystery Stories, written by Franklin W. Dixon, it was published by Wanderer Books in 1979 and by Grosset & Dunlap in 2005. Shortly after his arrival in United States, a Japanese business tycoon mysteriously disappears. Mr. Hardy, entrusted with the man's security, is baffled and shocked, he feels worse when the FBI takes him off the case. However, his sons, Frank & Joe, are there to investigate this case. A valuable samurai sword, said to have belonged to the missing tycoon's family for generations, is stolen from an auction gallery in New York, the boys suspect a connection. One clue leads to another, danger confronts them on their search for the solution to the puzzle. Who are their enemies? Did the criminals kidnap the missing businessman, or did he hide of his own volition? What is the secret of the stolen samurai sword

Victor Purcell

Victor William Williams Saunders Purcell CMG was a British colonial public servant, historian and Sinologist in Malaya. He was educated at Bancroft's School and joined the British Army as an officer in 1914, he fought in France in the First World War and was wounded in combat on two occasions. He was taken prisoner by the Germans in 1918 and spent the remainder of the war in a P. O. W. Camp. After the war, Purcell entered Trinity College, Cambridge under the veteran admissions scheme to study history. At Cambridge, he was secretary of The Cambridge Union, he chose to specialize in Chinese affairs. After some years of language study in China, he embarked on a twenty-five year career in the Chinese secretariat of the MCS. In 1926 he spent seven months as District Officer on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, with wide-ranging but undemanding responsibilities in that remote mining community, he became interested in the topic of Chinese education and in 1939 returned to Cambridge where he wrote a dissertation on the topic, drawing on his experiences among the Chinese community in Malaya, accepted for a Ph.

D. He returned to Southeast Asia during the Second World War and was involved in information and publicity, he finished the war with the rank of colonel, having served with Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma in the South East Asia Command at Ceylon. From 1949 he lectured in Far Eastern History at Cambridge University and gained the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Litt. D During this period he published a mock epic poem The Sweeniad under the pseudonym Myra Buttle, which parodied the style of T. S. Eliot. In 1978 he was honoured by a postage stamp of Christmas Island. Victor Purcell: Early Penang, Penang 1928 Victor Purcell: The Further Side of No Man’s Land, London 1929 Victor Purcell: An Index to the Chinese Written Language on a New Non-radical System with Reference to the Dictionaries of Kanghsi and Giles, Singapore 1929 Victor Purcell: The Spirit of Chinese Poetry, original essay, Singapore 1929 Victor Purcell: Problems of Chinese Education, London 1936 Victor Purcell: The Dog and the Don, Singapore 1938 Victor Purcell: Chinese Evergreen, the story of a journey across south China, London 1938 Victor Purcell: Cadmus: The Poet and the World, Melbourne 1944 Victor Purcell: Malaya: Outline of a Colony, London 1946 Victor Purcell: The Chinese in Malaya, London 1948.

Victor Purcell: Toynbee in Elysium, a fantasy in one act, signed Myra Buttle, London 1959 Victor Purcell: The Bitches’s Brew or the Plot against Bertrand Russell, signed Myra Buttle, London 1960 Victor Purcell: The Revolution of Southeast Asia, London 1962 Victor Purcell: The Boxer Uprising, a background study, Cambridge 1963 Victor Purcell: Malaysia, London 1965 Victor Purcell: Memoirs of a Malayan Official, London 1965 Victor Purcell: South and East Asia since 1800, Cambridge 1965 Hai Ding Chiang: Sino-British mercantile relations in Singapore's entrepot trade, 1870-1915. In: J. Chen und N. Tarling: Studies in the social history of China and Southeast Asia: essays in memory of Victor Purcell. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 1970. S. 247-266

Universal Acceptance

Universal Acceptance is the principle that every top-level domain should function within all applications regardless of script, number of characters, or how new it is.. INFO TLD. There were a limited number of TLDs available in strings of two or three Latin-script characters; this began to change in 2000, when ICANN introduced new generic top-level domains that were longer than three characters, such as.info and.museum, led to the crafting of Mohan's Three Laws of Universal Acceptance. In 2010, the first Internationalised Domain Names, or domain names using non-Latin characters, were introduced. In 2013 ICANN’s New gTLD Program introduced over 1,000 new gTLDs. One issue surrounding the expansion of the Domain Name System’s Root Zone has been the ability of Internet-based applications and systems to handle these domain names. For the principle of Universal Acceptance to be realized, all valid domain names and email addresses must be accepted, stored and displayed and by all Internet-enabled applications and systems.

In January 2015, Ram Mohan and Cyrus Namazi convened a group of experts to discuss the proliferation of Universal Acceptance issues after the increase in the number of TLDs in the root. In February 2015, Mohan and Namazi founded the Universal Acceptance Steering Group at the ICANN52 meeting in Singapore; the first face to face meeting of the UASG was held at the ICANN53 meeting in Buenos Aires. The UASG is now an ICANN community-led program, supported by ICANN, to facilitate the adoption of Universal Acceptance principles by software developers and website owners. In 2002, Ram Mohan CTO of the. INFO TLD, experienced the first instances of Universal Acceptance problems, crafted three laws that appeared valid in the domain name space: An old TLD will be accepted more than a new TLD. An ASCII-only TLD will be accepted more than an IDN TLD. A two or three letter TLD will be accepted more than a longer ccTLD or gTLD; as of 2019, these laws appear to still hold true. The success of Universal Acceptance will result in these laws becoming obsolete.

One of the primary ways of interfacing with the Internet is through web browsers. For this reason, the UASG commissioned a report on the performance of major browsers in the treatment and acceptance of 17 different domain names registered for the purpose of providing test cases for UA readiness; the study found that desktop browsers performed well, but only Internet Explorer performed as expected. Common problems among the other browsers included the failure to properly render the URLs in the tab title bar and failing to treat an ideographic full stop as a delimiter. On mobile platforms, the results of the tests were much more varied, with the same browsers performing differently based on the operating system, with one of the most common problems being the proper display of Unicode URLs; the study concluded that developers are making progress in making browsers UA Ready, but there is more work to on every browser except Internet Explorer, a browser, discontinued. Internationalized email address is part of Universal Acceptance Steering Group, where Email Service providers are motivated to start providing email address for IDNs and engage them to solve issues related to interoperability with legacy systems.

Downgrading is not recommended using punycode however providing ASCII Alias email address with EAI is the recommended practice. Aliasing as downgrading technique is being practiced by BSNL, which used XgenPlus email solution. Leaders for UASG are chosen every two years by vote. In February 2015, Ram Mohan was elected founding chair, Edmon Chung, Richard Merdinger and Mark Svancarek were elected vice chairs. In March 2019 Dr. Ajay Data was elected Chair and Dusan Stojicevic, Mark Svancarek and Dennis Tan Tanaka were elected vice chairs

Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau

Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau, was a French physician, naval engineer and botanist. Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau was born in Paris in 1700, the son of Alexandre Duhamel, lord of Denainvilliers. In his youth he developed a passion for botany, but at his father's wish he studied law from 1718 to 1721. After inheriting his father's large estate, he expanded it into a model farm, where he developed and tested new methods of horticulture and forestry; the results of this work, he published in numerous publications. Commission by the French Academy of Sciences in 1728 Duhamel investigate the saffron cultivation in Gâtinais. In the following years continued to investigate physiological problems of crops, he investigated growth of the trees in cooperation with Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon. From 1740 he started focusing on meteorological problems, in particular their impact on agricultural production. In 1738 he was elected to the French Academy of Sciences, served three times as its president, he was appointed Inspector-General of the Marine in 1739, made scientific studies of shipbuilding, the conservation of wood, the paramedical and fair of sailors, etc.

In 1741 he co-founded a school of Marine science, which in 1765 became the Ecole des Ingénieurs-Constructeurs, the forerunner of the modern Ecole du Génie Maritime. He was involved in the foundation of the "Académie de marine de Brest", on 31 July 1752. Following the work of Réaumur, in 1757 he released the Description des Arts et Métiers and opposed the writers of the Encyclopédie, his fondness for concrete problems and popularization made him one of the forerunners of modern agronomy and silviculture. In 1767, du Monceau was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, he died in Paris on 13 August 1782. Having been requested by the French Academy of Sciences to investigate a disease, destroying the saffron plant in Gâtinais, he discovered the cause in a parasitical fungus which attached itself to the roots; this achievement gained him admission to the French Academy of Sciences in 1738. From on until his death he busied himself chiefly with making experiments in plant physiology.

Having learned from Sir Hans Sloane that madder possesses the property of giving colour to the bones, he fed animals successively on food mixed and unmixed with madder. From a number of experiments he was led to believe himself able to explain the growth of bones, to demonstrate a parallel between the manner of their growth and that of trees. Along with the naturalist Buffon, he made numerous experiments on the growth and strength of wood, experimented on the growth of the mistletoe, on layer planting, on smut in corn, others, he was the first, in 1736, to distinguish between the alkalis and soda. From the year 1740 on he made meteorological observations, kept records of the influence of the weather on agricultural production. For many years he was inspector-general of the marine, applied his scientific experience to the improvement of naval construction. In his additions to l'Art de l'Épinglier, Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau wrote about the "division of labour": There is nobody, not surprised of the small price of pins.

We are going to go through these operations in a few words to stimulate the curiosity to know their detail. The first operation is to have brass go through the drawing plate to calibrate it; this text is believed to have inspired Adam Smith for his famous work An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations published in 1776. Following the work of René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, in 1757 Duhamel released the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers and opposed the writers of the Encyclopédie; the Encyclopédistes didn't take this for Criticised him on occasion. For example, Denis Diderot recalled: This Duhamel has invented an infinity of machines which serve no purpose, has written and translated a multitude of books on agriculture, of which it is not known if they have any useful result, still awaited. - Denis Diderot, 1767. Diderot seems to forget his debt to Duhamel du Monceau for the Encyclopédie, including the articles "Agriculture," "Rope," "Pipe" and "Sugar." The succession of Grandjean Fouchy, perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences, clash sees supporters of Condorcet, led by d'Alembert, those of the astronomer Bailly, led by Count de Buffon.

In 1773, the appointment of Condorcet as deputy Grandjean Fouchy sees the triumph of the party of the philosophers against the use of naval officers linked to Duhamel. But in January 1775, supporters of Bailly, including Patrick D'Arcy and Jean-Charles de Borda, both naval officers make up a commission to monitor the work of the Secretary, that Condorcet considered censorship. To be elected, he must give up the pension ECU 1000 and submit an application in proper form to respect the rules of Académie2. Condorcet would refer to this episode: "Though he loved many innovations in science and devoted his life to introduce useful ones in the arts, he didn't like them in politics and less in the statutes of the academies" - Marquis de Condorcet, 1738 Asteroid 100231 Monceau, discovered by astronomer Eric Walter Elst at the La Silla Observatory in 1994, was named in his memory; the official naming citation was published by the Minor P