Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula; the urban area is home to 377,200 residents, the territorial authority has 385,500 people, which makes it the second-most populous city in New Zealand after Auckland and before Wellington. The Avon River flows with an urban park located along its banks. Archaeological evidence has indicated that people first settled in the Christchurch area in about 1250. Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it the oldest established city in New Zealand; the Canterbury Association, which settled the Canterbury Plains, named the city after Christ Church, Oxford. The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square. Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch's economy; the early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.
Christchurch is one of five'gateway cities' for Antarctic exploration, hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and January 2012, with the most destructive of them occurring at 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday, 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage. By late 2013, 1,500 buildings in the city had been demolished, leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project; the name of "Christchurch" was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley, whose alma mater was Oxford; the Māori name Ōtautahi was adopted in the 1930s. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian.
"ChCh" is sometimes used as an abbreviation of "Christchurch". Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE; these first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha iwi, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngāti Māmoe iwi, they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu iwi, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu by the Weller brothers, whalers of Otago and Sydney, a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840, their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour.
These sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, Cressy. The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850; the Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford. The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848; the exact basis for the name is not known. It has been suggested that it is named in Dorset, England; the last explanation is the one accepted. At the request of the Deans brothers — whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area – the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather's farm was located. Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner; however this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained.
This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle. Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead Railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867. Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period. Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, abolished in 1876. Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869, 1881 and 1888.
In 1947, New Zeal
The Blessed William Knight was an English layman put to death for his Roman Catholic faith at York, England. With him suffered the Blesseds George Errington of Herst, Northumberland. Knight a secret convert to the Catholic Church, was the son of a Leonard Knight and lived at South Duffield, a hamlet in the Selby District of North Yorkshire. On coming of age, he claimed from his uncle some property, left to him by his father, an Anglican, his uncle who denounced him to the authorities for being a Roman Catholic, he was at once seized and committed to the custody of a pursuivant named Colyer who treated him with indignity and severity. He was sent in October 1593, to York Castle, where William Gibson and George Errington were confined, the latter having been arrested some years before for participation in a rising in the North. A Church of England clergyman was among the prisoners at York. To gain his freedom, he had recourse to an act of treachery: feigning a desire to convert to the Roman Church, he won the confidence of Knight and his two companions, who explained their faith to him.
With the connivance of the authorities, he was directed to Henry Abbot at liberty, who endeavoured to procure a priest to reconcile him to the Church. When the minister had sufficient evidence, Abbot was arrested and, together with Knight and his two comrades, accused of attempting to persuade the clergyman to embrace Roman Catholicism — an act of treason under the penal laws; the men were found guilty, with the exception of Abbot, executed suffered hanging and quartering at York on 29 November 1596. Knight was about 24 years old. Knight was one of the eighty-five martyrs of England and Wales beatified by Pope John Paul II on 22 November 1987 during a trip to Great Britain; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1910, Ven. William Knight
James McConvill is an Australian lawyer, a legal scholar, a writer and lecturer. He is the editor of the international corporate governance journal, The Corporate Governance Law Review, he works at Victoria University, where he takes corporations law and looks after the Master's degree and Doctorate students. After completing law school from Deakin University, McConvill worked as a corporate lawyer for three years with the Australian firm, Allens Arthur Robinson. Following his time at AAR, he worked at Deakin University and LaTrobe University before becoming a principal at The Corporate Research Group, International, an Australian think-tank on corporate governance, his academic specialty, he has become director of the Asia-Pacific Centre for American Law. McConvill has written several books on corporate government and related subjects Principles of contemporary corporate governance, by J J Du Plessis. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-61783-3 Shareholder participation and the corporation: a fresh inter-disciplinary approach in happiness.
By James McConvill. Abingdon. ISBN 978-1-84568-011-4 In the pursuit of truth: reflections on law and contemporary affairs by James McConvill South Yarra, Vic.: Sandstone Academic Press, ©2006. ISBN 978-0-9757839-2-4 Coming down the mountain: rethinking takeovers regulation in Australia by James McConvillSouth Yarra Victoria, Australia: Sandstone Academic Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9757839-1-7 An introduction to CLERP 9 by James McConvill. Chatswood, N. S. W.: LexisNexis, 2004. ISBN 978-0-409-32181-4 The false promise of pay for performance: embracing a positive model of the company executive by James McConvill. South Yarra, Australia: Sandstone Academic Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-9757839-0-0 He has written at least 50 peer-reviewed articles in American, British and Australian legal journals. McConvill gained national attention in Australia during 2005, when editor of the Deakin Law Review, for agreeing to publish an article called "Rethinking the White Australia Policy" by Professor Drew Fraser; the article was withdrawn after the Sudanese community in Australia threatened to sue Deakin University.