Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
The Oude Kerk is Amsterdam’s oldest building and oldest parish church, founded circa 1213 and consecrated in 1306 by the bishop of Utrecht with Saint Nicolas as its patron saint. After the Reformation in 1578 it became a Calvinist church, it stands in De Wallen, now Amsterdam's main red-light district. The square surrounding the church is the Oudekerksplein. By around 1213, a wooden chapel had been erected at the location of today's Oude Kerk. Over time, this structure was replaced by a stone church, consecrated in 1306; the church has seen a number of renovations performed by 15 generations of Amsterdam citizens. The church stood for only a half-century. Not long after the turn of the 15th century and south transepts were added to the church creating a cross formation. Work on these renovations was completed in 1460, though it is that progress was interrupted by the great fires that besieged the city in 1421 and 1452. Before the Alteratie, or Reformation in Amsterdam of 1578, the Oude Kerk was Roman Catholic.
Following William the Silent’s defeat of the Spanish in the Dutch Revolt, the church was taken over by the Calvinist Dutch Reformed Church. Throughout the 16th-century battles, the church was looted and defaced on numerous occasions, first in the Beeldenstorm of 1566, when a mob destroyed most of the church art and fittings, including an altarpiece with a central panel by Jan van Scorel and side panels painted on both sides by Maarten van Heemskerck. Only the paintings on the ceiling, which were unreachable, were spared. Locals would gather in the church to gossip, peddlers sold their goods, beggars sought shelter; this was not tolerated by the Calvinists and the homeless were expelled. In 1681, the choir was closed-off with an oak screen. Above the screen is the text, The prolonged misuse of God's church, were here undone again in the year seventy-eight, referring to the Reformation of 1578. In that same year, the Oude Kerk became home to the registry of marriages, it was used as the city archives.
The chest was kept safe in the iron chapel. The bust of famous organist and composer Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck celebrates the lifetime he spent playing in the church, his early career began at the age of fifteen when he succeeded his deceased father Pieter Swybertszoon as the Oude Kerk’s organist. He went on to compose music for all 150 Psalms and secured an international reputation as a leading Dutch composer, his music would be played over the city from the church’s bell tower. He is buried in the church. Rembrandt was a frequent visitor to the Oude Kerk and his children were all christened here, it is the only building in Amsterdam that remains in its original state since Rembrandt walked its halls. In the Holy Sepulchre is a small Rembrandt exhibition, a shrine to his wife Saskia van Uylenburgh, buried here in 1642; each year on 9 March, at 8:39 am, the early morning sun illuminates her tomb. An early spring breakfast event is held annually; the church covers an area of some 3,300 m2. The foundations were set on an artificial mound, thought to be the most solid ground of the settlement in this marshy province.
The roof of the Oude Kerk is the largest medieval wooden vault in Europe. The Estonian planks date to boast some of the best acoustics in Europe; the Oude Kerk contains 12 misericords. The floor consists of gravestones; the reason for this is. Local citizens continued to be buried on the site within the confines of the church until 1865. There are 2500 graves in the Oude Kerk, under which are buried 10,000 Amsterdam citizens, including: Jacob van Heemskerck, naval hero Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck and organist Adriaen Block and explorer Catharina Questiers and dramatist Jacob de Graeff Dircksz. Amsterdam regent Andries de Graeff, Amsterdam regent Cornelis de Graeff, Amsterdam regent Catharina Hooft, woman of the Dutch golden age Pieter Lastman, painter Willem van der Zaan, Admiral Laurens Bake, poet Abraham van der Hulst, Admiral Saskia van Uylenburgh, Wife of Rembrandt Cornelis Hooft, statesman Jan Jacobszoon Hinlopen, merchant Kiliaen van Rensselaer, owner of the only successful patroonship in New Netherland, Rensselaerswyck.
Frans Banning Cocq, burgomaster of Amsterdam and central figure in Rembrandts masterpiece The Night Watch Nicasius de Sille, Ambassador Caspar Commelijn, botanist Jan van der Heyden and print maker Johannes Hudde, burgomaster of Amsterdam and mathematician Lucretia Wilhelmina van Merken and poet The Oude Kerk holds four pipe organs, the old church organ built in 1658 and the cabinet organ built in 1767. The third was built by the German Christian Vater in 1724 and is regarded as one of the finest Baroque organs in Europe, it was acknowledged by the church Commissioners as "perfect". The organ was dismantled whilst renovations were made to the church tower in 1738, upon reassembling it, Casper Müller made alterations to give the organ more force, it became to acknowledge the improvement of sound. The fourth was constructed for the church by Organi Puccini of Pisa in 2010. Beginning in spring of 2019 the restored Vater-Müller organ will again be played; the Oude Kerk is now a centre for contemporary heritage.
Artists including Marinus Boezem, Christian Boltanski, Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller were commissioned by the Oude
The Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein is the state museum of modern and contemporary art in Vaduz, Liechtenstein. The building by the Swiss architects Meinrad Morger, Heinrich Degelo and Christian Kerez was completed in November 2000; the museum collection of international modern and contemporary art is the national art collection of the Principality of Liechtenstein. In 2015 the new Hilti Art Foundation exhibition building was added to the Kunstmuseum; this important private collection from Liechtenstein comprises outstanding works of classical modernism and contemporary art. In 1967, the State of Liechtenstein received a gift of ten paintings which resulted in the foundation of the State Art Collection of Liechtenstein the following year; the first curator of the collection was Dr. Georg Malin, a Liechtenstein artist and art historian, he soon expanded the collection to include international contemporary art. The building of the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein how it presents itself today was realized with the support of a group of private donors.
Together with the government of Liechtenstein and the City of Vaduz, they planned and implemented the construction of the museum. In August 2000, the building was donated to the Principality of Liechtenstein as a millennium gift; the government established a public foundation to operate the museum. The Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein was formally opened on 12 November 2000. Mr. Friedemann Malsch has been the director of the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein since 1996. Since May 2015, Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein is expanded by the Hilti Art Foundation's new exhibition building and enriched by a first-class and internationally renowned private art collection. With the new exhibition spaces, the Hilti Art Foundation continues and intensifies its long standing collaboration with the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein. A visible expression of this connection is the design of the new building in the form of a cube. Conceived by the Basel based company Morger Partner Architekten, the building forms a unified presence with the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein directly adjacent.
The cubic form as well as the construction and material of the facade reflect the common bonds of the two institutions under the aegis of a single museum. As a further sign of togetherness, access to the new exhibition spaces is provided through a shared entrance with Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein; the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein was built by the Swiss architects Meinrad Morger and Heinrich Degelo, along with Christian Kerez. Together they have created a museum building of great structural discreet simplicity; the closed form is a "black box" of black basalt stone. River pebbles embedded in the building's exterior provide a subtle coloration, forming a link to the landscape of the Rhine Valley; the hand-carved surface of the facade invites touching, reflects the surroundings. Long rows of windows open the black cube to both outside. Inside the black box is a perfect White Cube; the building is structured with maximum space devoted to art. The visible exterior of the building corresponds exactly to the public exhibition spaces.
There are six exhibition rooms arranged around two diametrically opposed staircases. The ground plan, reminiscent of a windmill's sails, enables diagonal views through the whole building; these exhibition rooms offer art the largest possible freedom through their precision. With the new exhibition spaces, the Hilti Art Foundation continues and intensifies its long standing collaboration with the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein. A visible expression of this connection is the design of the new building in the form of a cube. Conceived by the Basel based company Morger Partner Architekten, the building forms a unified presence with the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein directly adjacent; the cubic form as well as the construction and material of the facade reflect the common bonds of the two institutions under the aegis of a single museum. As a further sign of togetherness, access to the new exhibition spaces is provided through a shared entrance with Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein; the collection is the heart of the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, from which all other areas and activities develop.
The collection is the driving force behind the exhibition programme and provides the impetus for our broad and active education programme. It represents the larger part of the state's art collection and as such is an important and integral part of the public image of Liechtenstein; the collection of international modern and contemporary art covers the period from the nineteenth century to the present. Special attention has been given to the selection of independent artistic positions. Furthermore, the artworks are not only of the highest quality, but engage in a stimulating dialogue with other works; the acquisition policy intentionally avoids limitations of geography, epoch or specific media. Abstract and minimal art, conceptual art and Arte Povera encounter anthropological approaches of the kind found in symbolism and surrealism, or in the individual mythologies of Joseph Beuys and in other aspects of Arte Povera. In 2007, the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein together with the Kunstmuseum St. Gallen and the Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt acquired the collection of Cologne-based galerist Rolf Ricke that includes works by Richard Artschwager, Bill Bollinger, Donald Judd, Gary Kuehn, Fabian Marcaccio, Steven Parrino, David Reed, Richard Serra, Keith Sonnier or Jessica Stockholder.
Although the collection is divided between three, in terms of possessive right, i
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Jewish Museum (Manhattan)
The Jewish Museum is an art museum and repository of cultural artifacts, housed at 1109 Fifth Avenue, in the former Felix M. Warburg House, along the Museum Mile in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City; the first Jewish museum in the United States, as well as the oldest existing Jewish museum in the world, it contains the largest collection of art and Jewish culture excluding Israeli museums, more than 30,000 objects. While its collection was established in 1904 at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the museum did not open to the public until 1947 when Felix Warburg's widow sold the property to the Seminary, it focuses both on modern and contemporary art. The museum's collection exhibition, Scenes from the Collection, is supplemented by multiple temporary exhibitions each year; the collection that seeded the museum began with a gift of Jewish ceremonial art objects from Judge Mayer Sulzberger to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America on January 20, 1904, where it was housed in the seminary's library.
The collection was moved with the Seminary, to 122nd and Broadway. The Jewish Theological Seminary received over 400 Jewish ceremonial items and created,'The Museum of Jewish Ceremonial Objects' the Jacob Schiff Library; the collection was subsequently expanded by major donations from Hadji Ephraim Benguiat and Harry G. Friedman. In 1939, in light of WWII, Poland sent about 350 objects to New York city from homes and synagogues in order to preserve them. Following Felix Warburg's death in 1937, in January 1944 his widow Frieda donated the family mansion to the seminary as a permanent home for the museum, the site opened to the public as'The Jewish Museum' in May 1947. Frieda Warburg said at the opening that the museum would not be a somber memorial, but rather a celebration of the Jewish faith and traditions; the first expansion of the museum was the addition of a sculpture garden in 1959 by Adam List. The building was expanded in 1963 and further by architect Kevin Roche in 1993. In the 1960s, the museum took a more active role in the general world of contemporary art, with exhibitions such as Primary Structures, which helped to launch the Minimalist art movement.
In the decades since, the museum has had a renewed focus on Jewish artists. From 1990 through 1993, director Joan Rosenbaum led the project to renovate and expand the building and carry out the museum’s first major capital campaign, of $60 million; the project, designed by architect Kevin Roche, doubled the size of the museum, providing it with a seven-story addition. In 1992, the Jewish Museum and the Film Society of Lincoln Center teamed up to create The New York Jewish Film Festival, which presents narrative features, short films and documentaries. Today, the museum provides educational programs for adults and families, organizing concerts, films and lectures related to its exhibitions. Joan Rosenbaum was the museum's director from 1981 until her retirement in 2010. In 2011 the museum named Claudia Gould as its new director. In 2012 Jens Hoffmann joined as Deputy Director and Public Programs. Felix M. Warburg House was constructed in François I style, 1906-1908 for Felix and Frieda Warburg, designed by C.
P. H. Gilbert. François I style was found in New York City in the late 19th century through the works of Richard Morris Hunt. Hunt was a renowned architect throughout the Northeast in New England and was one of the first American architects to study at the elite Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. C. P. H. Gilbert was an apprentice of Hunt and emulated Hunt's classic Châteauesque style for the Warburg house while adding some Gothic features; the original house is built in limestone with mansard roofs, dripping moldings, gables. This architectural style was based on French revivalism and exuded wealth, a point which Felix Warburg wanted to make to his neighbors, it featured a green yard in front of the house, converted into the museum's entrance. Once converted into a museum, the architect Kevin Roche, who designed additions to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, was selected to design additions to the Jewish Museum. After $36 million, the development of 11,000 more square feet of exhibition space, two and a half years, Roche finished his additions in June 1993.
He intended his additions to be a continuation of the museum's Gothic revival features. This is clear in the Fifth Avenue facade and the auditorium; the Fifth Avenue facade, made of Indiana limestone, is carved in Gothic revival style. The auditorium is set in a retrofitted Gothic revival style ballroom and finds uses for the mansion's stained-glass dome and screen; the cafe in the basement has stained glass windows. Although these additions that were intended as a continuation of the museum's Gothic revival features, Roche included additions that were meant to prevent the museum from appearing outdated and modernizing the facilities. For instance, Roche ensured that the education center and the auditorium would have the appropriate technology for their purposes, such as interactive visual displays; the museum has nearly 30,000 objects including paintings, archaeological artifacts, Jewish ceremonial art and many other pieces important to the preservation of Jewish history and culture. Artists included in the museum's collection include James Tissot, Marc Chagall, George Segal, Eleanor Antin and Deborah Kass.
This represents the largest collection of Jewish art and broadcast media outside of museums in Israel. It has a collection exhibition called Scenes from the Collection, which displays works of art from antiquity to the present; the museum's collection includes objects from ancient to modern eras, in all media, originate
Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme
The Musée d’Art et d’Histoire du Judaïsme or mahJ is the largest French museum of Jewish art and history. It is located in the Hôtel de Saint-Aignan in the Marais district in Paris; the museum conveys the rich history and culture of Jews in Europe and North Africa from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. Its fine collection of religious objects, archives and works of art promotes the contributions of Jews to France and to the world in the arts; the museum's impressive collections include works of art from Amedeo Modigliani. The museum has a bookshop selling books on Jewish art and history and Judaica, a media library with an online catalogue accessible to the public, an auditorium which offers conferences, concerts and seminars, it provides guided weekly visits in English during the tourist season for individuals as well as students and teachers, workshops for children and adults. In 1985 Claude-Gérard Marcus, Victor Klagsbald, Alain Erlande-Brandenburg launched a project to create a museum of Jewish art and history in Paris, backed by the City of Paris and the ministry of Culture, represented by Jack Lang, Minister of Culture.
The project had two goals: first, to provide Paris with an ambitious museum dedicated to Judaism and second, to present national collections acquired from the reserves of the national museum of the Middle Ages. At the time, only a modest museum devoted to Judaism existed on the rue des Saules; the project was led by Laurence Sigal starting in 1988. The mayor of Paris at the time, Jacques Chirac, provided the Hotel de Saint-Aignan in the Marais as a site for the future museum; the Musée d’art et d’histoire du Judaïsme opened in 1998. The decision to set up the museum in the Marais was a conscious one. Since the end of the 18th century, a large population of Jews has lived in the Marais. At first, these were immigrants from Eastern Europe, from North Africa during decolonization. Today, the Marais has been profoundly transformed: traditional shops have been replaced by trendy designer boutiques. However, the neighborhood is a cultural center for museums such as the musée Carnavalet, the musée Picasso, the Mémorial de la Shoah.
The two architects in charge of redesigning the interior of the building, Catherine Bizouard and Francois Pin, not only crafted the areas for the permanent collections but created a media library, an auditorium, a bookshop, an area dedicated to educational workshops. The museum provides areas for temporary exhibitions, educational activities, research, making it a dynamic and innovative cultural venue; the museum's permanent collection was assembled from three main sources. The first is the Musée d’art juif de Paris, whose collection was given to the mahJ, it consisted of European religious objects, graphic works by Russian and German Jewish artists and artists from the School of Paris, architectural models of European synagogues destroyed by the Nazis. The second source is the Musée national du Moyen-Age in Paris, known as the musée Cluny; this collection was built up by a French Jew from the 19th century. He collected 149 religious objects during his travels throughout Europe, including furniture, ceremonial objects, Hebrew manuscripts.
A Holy Arch from Italy from the 15th century, wedding rings, illuminated ketubbot are examples of artefacts in his collection. Strauss in regarded as the first collector of Jewish objects. Part of his collection was displayed during the 1878 Exposition Universelle, provoking a strong interest. After his death, his collection was acquired by Baroness Nathaniel de Rothschild in 1890, she gave it to the State to be donated to the Musée Cluny. Sixty six rare medieval funeral steles, discovered in 1894 rue Pierre-Sarrazin, are on a long-term loan from the musée Cluny; the third source is a set of long-term loans from museums such as le Centre Pompidou, the Musée d'Orsay, the Musée du Louvre, the Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie. The museum's collection was enriched by loans from the Consistory of Paris, the Jewish Museum in Prague and donations from the Fondation du Judaïsme français; the museum acquired a large photography collection. The collection has over 1500 photographs of Jewish communities from the past and present, of historical events, of Jewish architectural heritage.
At its creation, the museum outlined five missions that it seeks to fulfill: Present two thousand years of history of Jewish communities in France and contextualize them in the overall history of Judaism. Conserve, study and promote the museum's collection and documents relating to Jewish history and art. Make the collection as accessible as possible to a large public. Organize the diffusion of all forms of artistic expressions relating to Jewish culture in all its diversity. Create and execute educational operations and enterprises to promote Jewish culture; the mahJ chose a time period covering Jewish history from its beginnings in France until the birth of the State of Israel, without including the Holocaust. The project for the Mémorial de la Shoah, now located 800 yards from the museum existed when the mahJ was created, with the goal of commemorating the Holocaust; the mahJ and the Memorial complement each other. The museum explores Jewish history and identity without the memory of the Holocaust being the main element.
The Holocaust is such a singular and momentous event that it can overshadow the rich heritage of Judaism outside of it, deserves its own focused space. Furthermore, the museum favors a historical approach to Judaism
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Es Baluard is the museum of modern and contemporary art of Palma, Spain. Founded on 30 January 2004, Es Baluard exhibits a collection of contemporary art, of Balearic artists or made by those related somehow to the Balearic Islands. In addition to showing the pieces that form the museum's permanent collection, Es Baluard celebrates temporary exhibitions. Since its foundation, Es Baluard has hosted works of Rebecca Horn, Fabrizio Plessi, Jaume Plensa, Andy Warhol, Joan Miró, Santiago Rusiñol, Anselm Kiefer, Robert Mapplethorpe and Joana Vasconcelos, Juan Uslé, Alberto García-Alix, Eduardo Arroyo and Christian Boltanski, among others. Fundació Es Baluard administers the museum; the foundation is formed by Govern de les Illes Balears, Consell de Mallorca, Ajuntament de Palma and Fundació d’Art Serra. In 2008 was constituted the Acquisitions Commission, formed by internal and external experts with the aim of increasing the collection. Museum Es Baluard is in a privileged place, the old bastion of Sant Pere, a 16th-century building on Palma's bay and designed by the Italian engineer Giovan Giacomo Palearo Fratin ‘El Fratín’.
The Museum area is half of them for exhibition. Architects Jaime and Luís García Ruiz, Ángel Sánchez-Cantalejo and Vicente Tomás are the enlargement's authors. Es Baluard Museu d’Art Modern i Contemporani de Palma's collection includes works by the major artists and movements that have converged and are converging in the Balearic Islands since the inception of the twentieth century until today and relates them to works from other artistic contexts in Spain and abroad. Starting at the time in which pictorial modernism spurred the renovation of landscape painting in Spain and a large group of Catalan painters –Joaquim Mir, Santiago Rusiñol, Hermen Anglada-Camarasa, Joaquín Sorolla and Antoni Gelabert-, coincided in Mallorca, following with a tour of the avant-gardes up to the major movements of the mid-twentieth-century – with artists such as Picasso, Joan Miró, Fernand Léger, René Magritte, Van Dongen, Nicolas de Staël, Juli Ramis, Wifredo Lam, among others - the Es Baluard collection lays special emphasis on the artistic currents of the second half of the past century and early years of the twenty-first century.
In this sense, it covers the broad diversity of contemporary languages: from painting and sculpture to drawing, photography and installations with works by Marina Abramović, Miquel Barceló, Jim Bird, Christian Boltanski, José Manuel Broto, Miguel Angel Campano, Ramon Canet, Maria Carbonero, Anthony Caro, Toni Catany, Alberto García-Alix, Rebecca Horn, Ñaco Fabré, Anselm Kiefer, Imi Knoebel, Jorge Mayet, Joan Morey, José María Sicilia and Juan Uslé, etc. The Es Baluard Museu d’Art Modern i Contemporani de Palma collection contains works acquired by the museum each year with the assessment of the Acquisitions Commission, works from the institutions that make up the Board (Govern de les Illes Balears, Consell de Mallorca, Ajuntament de Palma and Fundació d’Art Serra, temporary loans from other institutions, businesses and private collections and donations that adhere to the collection’s criteria in all cases; the current exhibition of the permanent collection at Es Baluard is entitled Implosió, it was curated by Es Baluard´s director Nekane Aramburu.
It was opened to the public on Thursday 30 January 2014 during the 10th Anniversary celebrations of Es Baluard, by Jose Ramon Bauza. He talked about the significance of Es Baluard for exhibiting the artwork of famous artists such as Miro and Keifer alongside that of contemporary artists, he emphasised the importance of cultural tourism on a global scale, of its relevance to tourism in Mallorca and the responsibility that the people of Mallorca had to look after and visit the gallery. He praised the founder Pera Siera as a visionary who had great courage and vision to see Es Baluard evolve into the inspirational museum it has become, the importance of the public / private collaboration, he formally declared the exhibition open and welcomed the people of Mallorca to enjoy the exhibition! A performance by Janksy was broadcast live on the Fluido Rosa programme on RNE Radio 3, which consisted of poetry performed by Laila MaLo and music by Jaume Reus; the room was filled to bursting with an avid and entertained audience that were reluctant to leave to allow space for new arrivals.
People hovered and jumped at the entrance, eager to catch a glimpse of the artwork projected to accompany the performance. 2015Implosió. Carte Blanche for Agustín Fernández Mallo Marta Pujades. Crowned men La Mer au Milieu des Terres // Mare Medi Terraneum Gabinet. Ignasi Aballí Gabinet. Jean Marie del Moral. El ojo de Miró Eduardo Kac. Lagoogleglifo Michael Najjar. Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? Reproductibilitat 2.0. Col·lecció Macba2014Observatori. Logbook: Natasha Hall and her crew Sound Ressonances. Composition by Hayden Chisholm Gabinet. Manolo Millares Natxa Pomar. Las Hermanitas Rafel Joan. Paintings 1983 - 2013 Project Moscow. Primavera Russa Gabinet: 6x6 Saltando Muros Tabula Rasa or the possibility of building a generation Miao Xiaochun. Microcosmos Marcelo Viquez. Riesgo Necesario Reproductibilitat 1.2. Fundación Aena + Es Baluard Implosió. Carte Blanche for CòmicNostrum2013Mallorca and interpretation of the landscape. Works from the Es Baluard's collection Llorenç Ginard.
Sculptures José Manuel Broto. Great Scores Cabinet: Pep Bonet Rep