The Swiss Brethren are a branch of Anabaptism that started in Zürich, spread to nearby cities and towns, and was exported to neighboring countries. Todays Swiss Mennonite Conference can be traced to the Swiss Brethren, in 1525, Felix Manz, Conrad Grebel, George Blaurock and other radical evangelical reformers broke from Ulrich Zwingli and formed a new group because they felt reforms were not moving fast enough. Rejection of infant baptism was a belief of the Swiss Brethren. On the basis of Sola scriptura doctrine, the Swiss Brethren declared that since the Bible does not mention infant baptism and this belief was subsequently refuted by Ulrich Zwingli. Consequently, there was a dispute, in which the council affirmed Zwinglis position. This solidified the Swiss Brethren and resulted in their persecution by all other reformers as well as the Catholic Church, because of persecution by the authorities, many Swiss Brethren moved from Switzerland to neighboring countries. The Swiss Brethren became known as Mennonites after the division of 1693, many of the Mennonites in France, Southern Germany, the Netherlands and North America, as well as most Amish descend from the Swiss Brethren.
In 1527 Michael Sattler authored the Schleitheim Articles, the first Anabaptist confession of faith, George Blaurock was a co-founder of the Swiss Brethren movement. He was educated at the University of Leipzig and served as a priest, though he came to see Huldrych Zwingli, he soon became attached to the reformers more radical followers. After a break with Zwingli in January 1525 and acting against a Zürich city council ruling, Grebel did so, and afterwards Blaurock proceeded to baptize the others who were present. Blaurock worked closely with Felix Manz until Manz was martyred in Zürich in 1527, on that same day, Blaurock was severely beaten and permanently expelled from Zürich. He kept moving, laboring at Bern, the Grisons, after his arrest and fourth banishment in 1527, Blaurock left Switzerland never to return. He conducted a successful ministry in Tyrol. In August 1529 he was arrested by Innsbruck authorities and tortured for information, on 6 September 1529, Blaurock was burned at the stake near Klausen.
Conrad Grebel was a co-founder of the Swiss Brethren movement and he was probably born in Grüningen about 1498. His family moved to Zürich around 1513, Grebel spent about six years in three universities, but without finishing his education or receiving a degree. In 1521 he joined a group gathered around Zürich reformer Huldrych Zwingli to study the Greek classics, the Latin Bible, the Hebrew Old Testament, core members of the group broke with Zwingli because they thought the reform process was proceeding too slowly. At a gathering in January 1525 George Blaurock asked Grebel to baptize him upon a confession of faith, Blaurock baptized Grebel and the others, initiating a wave of rebaptisms that would spread throughout the Swiss cantons
The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
Philippine Independent Church
The Philippine Independent Church is an independent Christian denomination in the form of a national church in the Philippines. Isabelo de los Reyes was one of the initiators of the separation and it is known as the Aglipayan Church, after its first Supreme Bishop, Gregorio Aglipay, who like José Rizal, became a Freemason, in May 1918. Pope Leo XIII instructed the Archbishop of Manila, Bernardino Nozaleda y Villa to excommunicate those who initiated the schism, since 1960 the church has been in full communion with the Episcopal Church in the United States, and through it, the entire Anglican Communion. Many saints canonized by Rome after the 1902 Schism are not recognized by the Aglipayan church, as of 2015 the Supreme Bishop was Ephraim Fajutagana, whose central office is located at the National Cathedral of the Holy Child in Ermita, Manila. The churchs official name is Iglesia Filipina Independiente, or, in English, during the Philippine Revolution, Isabelo de los Reyes and Aglipay acted to reform the Filipino Catholic clergy.
Aglipay was the convener of the Filipino Ecclesiastical Council, in response to Mabinis manifesto urging the Filipino clergy to organize a Filipino national Church and he was a member of the Malolos Congress, the lone member coming from the religious sector, although he represented Ilocos Norte. He was a leader of Ilocos Norte during the Philippine–American War with the rank of Lieutenant General. Following the Philippine–American War, Aglipay and De los Reyes founded the Philippine Independent Church in 1902, the new church rejected the spiritual authority of the Pope and abolished the celibacy requirement for priests, allowing them to marry. At that time, all of its clergy were former Catholic priests, Aglipay drew upon the Masons for some concepts of theology and worship. He was supported by Miguel Morayta, the Grand Master of the Spanish Orient Lodge of Freemasonry in Madrid, Aglipay became a Mason in 1918. The new Philippine Independent Church reformed the Latin Tridentine liturgy, adopting the vernacular in worship, Mass in the PIC has been said in Spanish since the earliest days of its independence, but it is said in Tagalog.
Visiting other churches while traveling abroad, Aglipay developed his theology, coming to reject the divinity of Jesus, other PIC officials refused to accept this revised theology. Aglipays unitarian and progressive ideas were evident in his novena, Pagsisiyam sa Birhen sa Balintawak,1925 and its English translation. Eventually there would be a schism, after Aglipays death in 1940 the courts awarded the name, some factions formally joined other denominations including the Episcopal Church and the American Unitarians. In 1961, the Philippine Independent Church joined the Anglican Communion, congregations are found throughout the Philippine diaspora in North America, Middle East and Asia. The church is the second-largest single Christian denomination in the country after the Roman Catholic Church, the Church believes in ordination both of priests and bishops. Like many Anglican and Lutheran denominations and unlike the Catholic Church, since its establishment, the Church allows its priests to marry, rejecting mandatory clerical celibacy.
The main liturgy on Sunday is the eucharist, which is said in the vernacular, the church is noncommittal regarding transubstantiation and Real Presence in the Eucharist
Swiss Reformed Church
Since 1920, the Swiss Reformed Churches have been organized in 26 member churches of the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches. According to a 2012 Swiss census,26. 9% of Swiss population were reported as registered members of a Reformed cantonal church, the Swiss Reformed Churches, have approximately 2.4 million members. The Reformation spread primarily in the cities of Switzerland, which was composed of loosely connected cantons. Breakthrough began in the 1520s in Zurich under Zwingli, in Bern in 1528 under Berchtold Haller, after the early death of Zwingli in 1531, the Reformation continued. The French-speaking cities Neuchâtel and Lausanne changed to the Reformation ten years under William Farel, the German Reformed ideological center was Zurich, the French speaking Reformed movement bastion was Geneva. A distinctive feature of the Swiss Reformed churches in the Zwinglian tradition is their historically almost symbiotic link to the state, which is only loosening gradually in the present.
One of these secessionist churches still exists today, the Evangelical Free Church of Geneva, founded in 1849, an important issue to liberal theologians was the Apostles Creed. Until the late 1870s, most cantonal reformed churches stopped prescribing any particular creed, like many European Protestant denominations, several of the Swiss Reformed churches have openly welcomed gay and lesbian members to celebrate their civil unions within a church context. As early as 1999, the Reformed Churches in St. Gallen, since then, the Reformed Church in Aaargau has allowed for prayer services to celebrate same-sex couples. Organizationally, the Reformed Churches in Switzerland remain separate, cantonal units, the German churches are more in the Zwinglian tradition, the French more in the Calvinist tradition. They are governed synodically and their relation to the canton ranges from independent to close collaboration
Canton of Geneva
The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation, the canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland, and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a influence on the canton. The Republic of Geneva was proclaimed in 1541, under John Calvin, the Republic of Geneva reinforced its alliance to the Protestant cantons of the Swiss Confederacy, becoming an everlasting ally in 1584. The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, and in February 1794, after the death of Robespierre in July of the same year, there was a counter-revolution, which gained the upper hand by 1796. This prompted the French invasion of 1798, and the annexation of Geneva as part of the French département du Léman, Geneva finally joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton, having been enlarged by French and Savoyard territories at the Vienna Congress.
The area of the canton of Geneva is 282 square kilometers, the canton is surrounded on almost all sides by France and bordered by the Swiss canton of Vaud on northeast. The adjoining French départements are Ain and Haute-Savoie, the current boundaries of the canton were established in 1815. There are 45 municipalities in the canton, Geneva does not have any administrative districts. There are 10 cities with a population of over 10,000 as of 2007, Genève, Lancy, Carouge, Onex, Thônex, Grand-Saconnex, Chêne-Bougeries. The constitution of the canton was established in 1847, and has, the cantonal government has seven members who are elected for four years. The legislature, the Grand Council, has 100 seats, with deputies elected for four years at a time, the last elecation was held on 7 October 2013. In a similar way to what happens at the Federal level, in addition, any law can be subject to a referendum if it is demanded by 7,000 persons entitled to vote, and 10,000 persons may propose a new law.
The republique and canton of Geneva has 11 seats in the National Council, on 18 October 2015, in the federal election the most popular party was the The Liberals which received three seats with 20. 5% of the votes. In the federal election, a total of 106,852 votes were cast, and she is part of the Council of States since 2007. Councilor Robert Cramer, member of the Green Party, was re-elected in the round with a majority of 42,075 votes. He is part of the Council of States since 2007, ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^b * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton. ^c Part of the FDP for this election ^d Part of the SD for this election The population of the canton is 484,736, as of 2013, the population included 194,623 foreigners from 187 different nations, or about 40. 1% of the total population
Jansenism was a Catholic heretical theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. The movement originated from the published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen. It was first popularized by Jansens friend Abbot Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, of Saint-Cyran-en-Brenne Abbey, through the 17th and into the 18th centuries, Jansenism was a distinct movement within the Catholic Church. The theological centre of the movement was the convent of Port-Royal Abbey, which was a haven for writers including Duvergier, Pierre Nicole, Blaise Pascal, Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy, especially the Jesuits. Although the Jansenists identified themselves only as rigorous followers of Augustine of Hippos teachings, Jansenist leaders endeavored to accommodate the popes pronouncements while retaining their uniqueness, and enjoyed a measure of peace in the late 17th century under Pope Clement IX.
However, further controversy led to the apostolic constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius, promulgated by Pope Clement XI in 1713, the origins of Jansenism lie in the friendship of Jansen and Duvergier, who met in the early 17th century when both were studying theology at the University of Leuven. Duvergier was Jansens patron for a number of years, getting Jansen a job as a tutor in Paris in 1606, two years later, he got Jansen a position teaching at the bishops college in Duvergiers hometown of Bayonne. The duo studied the Church Fathers together, with a focus on the thought of Augustine of Hippo. Duvergier became abbot of Saint Cyran Abbey in Brenne and was known as the Abbé de Saint-Cyran for the rest of his life, Jansen returned to the University of Leuven, where he completed his doctorate in 1619 and was named professor of exegesis. Jansen and Duvergier continued to correspond about Augustine, especially Augustines teachings on grace, upon the recommendation of King Philip IV of Spain, Jansen was consecrated as bishop of Ypres in 1636.
Jansen died in a 1638 epidemic and this manuscript, published in 1640 as Augustinus, expounded Augustines system and formed the basis for the subsequent Jansenist Controversy. Jansen emphasized a particular reading of Augustines idea of efficacious grace which stressed that only a portion of humanity were predestined to be saved. Jansen insisted that the love of God was fundamental, and that only perfect contrition, Duvergier was not released until after Richelieus death in 1642, and he died shortly thereafter, in 1643. Jansen insisted on justification by faith, although he did not contest the necessity of revering saints, of confession, Jansens opponents condemned his teachings for their alleged similarities to Calvinism. Pascal himself claimed that Molinists were correct concerning the state of humanity before the Fall, the heresy of Jansenism, as stated by subsequent Roman Catholic doctrine, lay in denying the role of free will in the acceptance and use of grace. Jansenism asserts that Gods role in the infusion of grace cannot be resisted, Catholic doctrine, in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, is that Gods free initiative demands mans free response—that is, humans freely assent or refuse Gods gift of grace.
However, on August 1,1642, the Holy Office issued a decree condemning Augustinus, in 1602, Marie Angélique Arnauld become abbess of Port-Royal-des-Champs, a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux. There, she reformed discipline after an experience in 1608
Augustinergasse is a medieval lane that today is part of the innercity pedestrian zone of Zürich, Switzerland. It is named after the former Augustinian Abbey that is now Augustinerkirche, bordered in the north by Münzplatz and by St. Peterhofstatt towards Münsterhof, it is named after the former Augustinian monastery, now the Augustinerkirche church. The Rennweg, formerly the Rennweg–Augustinergasse stop on lines 6,7,11 and 13 of the Zürich tram system is located some 150 metres further south along the Bahnhofstrasse road, augustinergasse was the home of the medieval artisans of Zürich. Beginning in the 17th century, rich factory owners settled there, much more modestly decorated is the exterior of the former monasterys church, the Augustinerkirche that as of today is the parish church of the Christ Catholic community of Zürich. The Augustinian church was transformed during the Reformation in Zürich into a secular workshop, from 1596 to 1841 its choir served as mint and residential district of the mint master, and in the Jakobskapelle, the mint masters pitched their embossing dies.
Therefore, the Münzplatz was named after the mint in the choir, the so-called Folderbrunnen was built in 1537 as the local water well, and is still a popular meeting point of locals and tourists. Augustinerkirche was once one of the five churches in the medieval town of Zürich. First built around 1270 as a Romanesque church belonging to the Augustinian abbey, on occasion of the Reformation, in 1841 the Roman Catholic community of Zürich planned to rebuild the building to commemorate the old Augustinian church. But, as the majority of the Catholic community rejected the decisions of the First Vatican Council of 1870, for the same reason, Augustinerkirche is still their parish church. Today the building is one of the three churches in the Lindenhof district of the city of Zürich. The inner moat was enforced by the built Schanzengraben, augustinerturm was the tower named after the Augustinian priory, and was part of the third, left-bank fortifications. It was situated close to the Augustinerkirche, there are findings of strong tower remains, which were brought to light on occasion of the foundation work at present Bahnhofstrasse 40.
It is believed that the three upper, and built timbered floors were open on the side towards to the city. The attached fort was demolished in 1811, augustinertor and Augustinerbollwerk were named after the Augustinian priory, and were part of the 16th-century fortifications. They were situated close to the present Augustinerkirche, in 1575 the prior gate Kecinstürlin, a small gate, was replaced, and the construction lasted to 1578. There are no further documented, but the bulwark was probably a circular, heavy. Usually, enthroned above the gate were the coat of arms of Zürich and it is assumed that the bulwark may have not been entered with carts, as the previous Ketzinstürli, the gate of the bulwark was established only for passenger services. The gate was known as Augustinertörlein, meaning the small Augustinian gate, on the map series of Bullinger and on the drawings by the illustrator Franz Hegi, the bastion had a red tile roof
Canton of Solothurn
The Canton of Solothurn is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the northwest of Switzerland, the territory of the canton comprises land acquired by the city. Between 1798 and 1803 the canton was part of the Helvetic Republic, in 1803 Solothurn was one of the 19 Swiss cantons that were reconstituted by Napoleon. Even though the population was strictly Roman Catholic, Solothurn did not join the Catholic separatist movement in 1845, the federal constitutions of 1848 and 1874 were approved. The current constitution of the dates from 1987. The canton is located in the north-west of Switzerland, to the west and south lies the cantons of Jura and Bern, to the east is Aargau. To the north the canton is bounded by the canton of Basel-Landschaft, parts of two of the districts are exclaves and are located along the French border. The lands are drained by the Aare river and its tributaries, the landscape is mostly flat, but it includes the foothills of the Jura massif. Part of this, the massif of the Weissenstein, overlooks Solothurn, the flat lands are a plain created by the Aare river.
The total area of the canton is 791 km², from 2005, Solothurns ten districts are merged pairwise into five electoral districts, termed Amtei. From 2005, the districts have only a statistical significance, the population is mostly German speaking. About 44% of the population are Roman Catholic, with most of the remainder being Protestants, the population of the canton is 266,418. As of 2007, the population included 46,898 foreigners, up to the 19th century agriculture was the main economic activity in the canton. Agriculture is still of importance, but manufacturing and the industry are now more significant. The industries of the canton are specialized in watches, textiles, cement, until recently the manufacturing of shoes was an important economic activity, but global competition thought that the Swiss canton was not competitive enough. The canton is home to the Gösgen Nuclear Power Plant near Däniken which started operation in 1979, ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^b * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
The canton has good connections with other parts of Switzerland, both by rail and by road, there is a railway junction at Olten with direct trains to Geneva, Zurich and the Ticino via Lucerne
The Anglican Communion is an international association of autonomous churches consisting of the Church of England and national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it. Full participation in the life of each church is available to all communicant Anglicans. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England, has a place of honour among the bishops of the Anglican churches and he is recognised as primus inter pares. The archbishop does not exercise authority in the provinces outside England, the churches of the Anglican Communion considers themselves to be part of the nicos one, holy and apostolic church and to be both Catholic and Reformed. For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without a dominant guiding figure such as Luther, Calvin, for others, their self-identity represents some combination of the two. The communion encompasses a spectrum of belief and practice including evangelical, liberal. With a membership estimated at around 85 million members, the Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Some of these churches are known as Anglican, such as the Anglican Church of Canada, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches, and some other associated churches have a separate name. The Anglican Communion has no legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an Anglican Communion Office in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its ecclesiology and ethos and by participation in international consultative bodies. Early in its development, Anglicanism developed a vernacular prayer book, unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a magisterium nor by appeal to one founding theologian, nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine. Instead, Anglicans have typically appealed to the Book of Common Prayer and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican theology and this had the effect of inculcating the principle of Lex orandi, lex credendi as the foundation of Anglican identity and confession.
These parameters were most clearly articulated in the rubrics of the successive prayer books. With the expansion of the British Empire, and hence the growth of Anglicanism outside Great Britain and Ireland, the first major expression of this were the Lambeth Conferences of the communions bishops, first convened by Archbishop of Canterbury Charles Longley in 1869. One of the influential early resolutions of the conference was the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches, the Apostles Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol, and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christs Words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him. The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the needs of the nations
Reformation in Switzerland
The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate and population of Zürich in the 1520s. It led to significant changes in life and state matters in Zürich. Seven cantons remained Roman Catholic, which led to inter-cantonal wars known as the Wars of Kappel, after the victory of the Catholic cantons in 1531, they proceeded to institute counter-reformatory policies in some regions. The schism and distrust between Catholic and Protestant cantons would define their interior politics and paralyse any common foreign policy well into the 18th century. Despite their religious differences, and despite an exclusively Catholic defence alliance of the seven Catholic cantons, soldiers from both sides fought in the French Wars of Religion. The Three Leagues of the Grisons, at that time not yet a member of the confederacy, were involved in the war from 1620 on, after the violent conflicts of the late 15th century the Swiss cantons had had a generation of relative political stability.
As part of their struggle for independence, they had already in the 15th century sought to limit the influence of the Church on their political sovereignty. Many monasteries had already come under secular supervision, and the administration of schools was in the hands of the cantons, many of the problems of the Church existed in the Swiss Confederacy. Many priests were educated, and spiritual Church doctrines were often disregarded. Many priests did not live in celibacy but in concubinage, the new reformatory ideas thus fell on fertile ground. The main proponent of the Reformation in Switzerland was Ulrich Zwingli and his own studies, in the renaissance humanist tradition, had led him to preach against injustices and hierarchies in the Church already in 1516 while he was still a priest in Einsiedeln. When he was called to Zürich, he expanded his criticism onto political topics and his ideas were received favourably, especially by entrepreneurs and the guilds. The first disputation of Zürich of 1523 was the breakthrough, the city decided to implement his reformatory plans.
In the following two years, profound changes took place in Zürich, priests were relieved from celibacy, the opulent decorations in the churches were thrown out. The state assumed the administration of Church properties, financing the social works, the last abbess of the Fraumünster, Katharina von Zimmern, turned over the convent including all of its rights and possessions to the city authorities on 30 November 1524. She even married the next year, over the next few years, the cities of St. Gallen, Basel, Bienne and finally Bern all followed the example set by Zürich. Their subject territories were converted to Protestantism by decree, in Basel, reformer Johannes Oecolampadius was active, in St. Gallen, the Reformation was adopted by mayor Joachim Vadian. In Glarus, and in the Grisons, which all three had a more structure, individual communes decided for or against the Reformation