Aaron is a prophet, high priest, the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions. Knowledge of Aaron, along with his brother Moses, comes from religious texts, such as the Bible and Quran; the Hebrew Bible relates that, unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court and his elder sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt. When Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served as his brother's spokesman to the Pharaoh. Part of the Law that Moses received from God at Sinai granted Aaron the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, he became the first High Priest of the Israelites. Aaron died before the Israelites crossed the North Jordan river and he was buried on Mount Hor. Aaron is mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible. According to the Book of Exodus, Aaron first functioned as Moses' assistant; because Moses complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron as Moses' "prophet". At the command of Moses, he let his rod turn into a snake.
He stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues. After that, Moses tended to speak for himself. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always active. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the "rod of God"; when the revelation was given to Moses at biblical Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. While Joshua went with Moses to the top, however and Hur remained below to look after the people. From here on in Exodus and Numbers, Joshua appears in the role of Moses' assistant while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest; the books of Exodus and Numbers maintain that Aaron received from God a monopoly over the priesthood for himself and his male descendants. The family of Aaron had the exclusive right and responsibility to make offerings on the altar to Yahweh; the rest of his tribe, the Levites, were given subordinate responsibilities within the sanctuary.
Moses anointed and consecrated Aaron and his sons to the priesthood, arrayed them in the robes of office. He related to them God's detailed instructions for performing their duties while the rest of the Israelites listened. Aaron and his successors as high priest were given control over the Urim and Thummim by which the will of God could be determined. God commissioned the Aaronide priests to distinguish the holy from the common and the clean from the unclean, to teach the divine laws to the Israelites; the priests were commissioned to bless the people. When Aaron completed the altar offerings for the first time and, with Moses, "blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people: And there came a fire out from before the LORD, consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat when all the people saw, they shouted, fell on their faces". In this way, the institution of the Aaronide priesthood was established. In books of the Hebrew Bible and his kin are not mentioned often except in literature dating to the Babylonian captivity and later.
The books of Judges and Kings mention priests and Levites, but do not mention the Aaronides in particular. The Book of Ezekiel, which devotes much attention to priestly matters, calls the priestly upper class the Zadokites after one of King David's priests, it does reflect a two-tier priesthood with the Levites in subordinate position. A two-tier hierarchy of Aaronides and Levites appears in Ezra and Chronicles; as a result, many historians think that Aaronide families did not control the priesthood in pre-exilic Israel. What is clear is that high priests claiming Aaronide descent dominated the Second Temple period. Most scholars think the Torah reached its final form early in this period, which may account for Aaron's prominence in Exodus and Numbers. Aaron plays a leading role in several stories of conflicts during Israel's wilderness wanderings. During the prolonged absence of Moses on Mount Sinai, the people provoked Aaron to make a golden calf.. This incident nearly caused God to destroy the Israelites.
Moses intervened, but led the loyal Levites in executing many of the culprits. Aaron, escaped punishment for his role in the affair, because of the intercession of Moses according to Deuteronomy 9:20. Retellings of this story always excuse Aaron for his role. For example, in rabbinic sources and in the Quran, Aaron was not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon because he felt mortally threatened by the Israelites. On the day of Aaron's consecration, his oldest sons and Abihu, were burned up by divine fire because they offered "strange" incense. Most interpreters think this story reflects a conflict between priestly families some time in Israel's past. Others argue that the story shows what can happen if the priests do not follow God's instructions given through Moses; the Torah depicts the siblings, Moses and Miriam, as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus, a view reflected in the biblical Book of Micah. Numbers 12, reports that on one occasion and Miriam complained about Moses' exclusive claim to be the LORD's prophet.
Their presumption was rebuffed by God who affirmed Moses' uniqueness as the
Equestrian statue of Frederick the Great
The equestrian statue of Frederick the Great is an outdoor sculpture in cast bronze at the east end of Unter den Linden in Berlin, honouring King Frederick II of Prussia. Designed in 1839 by Christian Daniel Rauch and unveiled in 1851, it influenced other monuments. After having been encased in cement for protection during World War II, the statue and its base were removed by the East Germans in 1950 and re-erected in 1963 at Sanssouci in Potsdam, but returned to Unter den Linden in 1980. After German reunification the monument was restored, it is a registered monument of the City of Berlin. The monument is 13.5 metres tall, the mounted statue itself being 5.66 metres high on an unusually tall pedestal, 7.84 metres with two bands of sculpture above inscriptions: the middle depicts 74 great men of Frederick the Great's time in life size, many in full relief, the upper section, reliefs of the king's life, with the four cardinal virtues at the corners. The statue itself depicts Frederick in military uniform and an ermine-trimmed cloak, wearing his decorations, with his characteristic bicorne hat.
The statue stands at the east end of Unter den Linden, facing east at the west end of the former Forum Fridericianum towards the site of the royal palace. It is enclosed by a low wrought-iron fence, recreated when the monument was restored and replaced in its original position. Frederick William III commissioned the monument from Christian Daniel Rauch in 1839, it was cast beginning in 1845 by Karl Ludwig Friebel, whom Rauch brought from Lauchhammer for the purpose. It is one of Rauch's best known works, influenced other monuments erected in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During World War II, the monument was encased in concrete for protection. In May 1950, the East German Magistrat decided to remove it to the park at the palace of Sanssouci in Potsdam. Metal thieves damaged it after the protective casing was removed, it was dismantled and taken away between 13 and 19 July. After being stored in pieces and at one point melted down, by 1962 the monument had been re-erected in the hippodrome at Charlottenhof Palace.
In the 1980s, the East German government changed its politics of memory and its position on the Prussian heritage. In 1980 Erich Honecker called Frederick "the Great" in an interview with Robert Maxwell; the statue was restored and returned to Unter den Linden 6 metres east of its old position. West Germany saw a similar return of a more positive view on Prussia with the Berlin exhibition Preußen – Versuch einer Bilanz; the preparations to celebrate the 750th anniversary of the founding of Berlin in 1987 led to further reconsideration of the Prussian heritage. After German reunification, the Senate of Berlin had the monument scientifically restored and it was replaced in its original position, with the wrought-iron fence and 19th-century lamp posts recreated. After having paint thrown at it during a protest against the Bundeswehr, it was restored once more in 2006 and given a coating of wax to protect against graffiti. Johann Gottfried Schadow, Rauch's teacher and had received many commissions under the previous king, Frederick William II, had expected to carry out this commission.
In 1821–22 he had made a lifesize bronze of Frederick the Great with two greyhounds, at Sanssouci. He created a marble statue of Frederick for the city of Stettin, now lost, a bronze reproduction of, now in the grounds outside the New Wing at Charlottenburg Palace. In 1865 two students of Rauch's, Aloisio Lazzerini and Carlo Baratta, made an half-size copy in marble of Rauch's equestrian statue, in the park at Sanssouci. Another smaller copy of Rauch's statue was made to commemorate Frederick's overnight stay in the Dehlitz section of Lützen before the Battle of Rossbach in 1757, stood in a park there from 1858 until World War II, when it was moved for safekeeping to Lützen Castle. List of equestrian statues in Germany Statue of Frederick the Great Names inscribed on the Equestrian statue of Frederick the Great Jutta von Simson. Das Berliner Denkmal für Friedrich den Großen. Die Entwürfe als Spiegelung des preußischen Selbstverständnisses. Frankfurt/Berlin: Ullstein/Propyläen, 1976, ISBN 3-549-06619-8 Frank Pieter Hesse and Gesine Sturm.
Ein Denkmal für den König. Das Reiterstandbild für Friedrich II. Unter den Linden in Berlin. Beiträge zur Denkmalpflege in Berlin 17. Schelzky & Jeep, 2001, ISBN 978-3-89541-158-8 Wieland Giebel. Das Reiterdenkmal Friedrichs des Großen. Berlin: Story, 2007, ISBN 978-3-929829-69-3 Majestät reiten wieder, video on restoration completed in 2001, Mefisto Video GmbH Media related to Reiterstandbild Friedrichs des Großen at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Lazzerini and Baratta's marble replica at Sanssouci at Wikimedia Commons
Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space and causation are mere sensibilities. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features, he drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori, that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality. Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. Kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy the fields of epistemology, political theory, post-modern aesthetics. In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason, he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists which philosophy had led to, is held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought. Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation, he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith. Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history; these include the Universal Natural History, the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, the Critique of Judgment, which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter. Kant's father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city. Kant believed. While scholars of Kant's life long accepted the claim, there is no evidence that Kant's paternal line was Scottish and it is more that the Kants got their name from the village of Kantwaggen and were of Curonian origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children. Kant was born on 22 April 1724 into a Prussian German family of Lutheran Protestant faith in Königsberg, East Prussia. Baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew, he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science. Kant maintained Christian ideals for some time, but struggled to reconcile the faith with his belief in science.
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, he reveals a belief in immortality as the necessary condition of humanity's approach to the highest morality possible. However, as Kant was skeptical about some of the arguments used prior to him in defence of theism and maintained that human understanding is limited and can never attain knowledge about God or the soul, various commentators have labelled him a philosophical agnostic. Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, it is held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life, leading to an oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks. He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author before starting on his major philosophical works, he had a circle of friends with whom he met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg.
A common myth is. In fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Groß-Arnsdorf. Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age, he first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740. In 1740, aged 16, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, he studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist, familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind", he dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th cent
Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs was a German painter, active in Dresden and Madrid, who while painting in the Rococo period of the mid-17th century became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting that replaced Rococo as the dominant painting syle. Mengs was born in 1728 at Ústí nad Labem in Kingdom of Bohemia, the son of Ismael Mengs, a Danish painter who established himself at Dresden, at the court of Saxonian-Polish electors and kings, his elder sister, Therese Maron was a painter, as was their younger sister Julia. Birth in Bohemia was mere coincidence, as with his sister Therese, because father maintained an extramarital relationship with housekeeper Charlotte Bormann and in an effort to conceal the birth of an illegitimate child, he decided to take the mistress under the pretext of "vacations" to the nearest bigger town abroad, namely to Ústí nad Labem, where she gave birth to another child. After a few weeks, Ismael Mengs took his son and her mother back to Dresden, where they lived for the next 13 years.
In 1741 Mengs's father moved his family from Dresden to Rome. In 1749 he was appointed first painter to Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, but this did not prevent him from continuing to spend much of his time in Rome. There he married Margarita Guazzi, who had sat for him as a model in 1748, he converted to Catholicism, in 1754 he became director of the Vatican school of painting. His fresco painting of Parnassus at Villa Albani gained him a reputation as a master painter. In 1749 Mengs accepted a commission from the Duke of Northumberland to make a copy, in oil on canvas, of Raphael's fresco The School of Athens for his London home. Executed in 1752–5, Mengs' painting is full-sized, but adapts the composition to a rectangular format, with some additional figures, it is now in the collection of the Albert Museum. Mengs was buried in the Roman Church of Santi Michele e Magno. On two occasions he accepted invitations from Charles III of Spain to go to Madrid. There he produced some of his best work, most notably the ceiling of the banqueting hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid, the subject of, the Triumph of Trajan and the Temple of Glory.
After the completion of this work in 1777, Mengs returned to Rome, where he died two years in poor circumstances, leaving twenty children, seven of whom were pensioned by the king of Spain. His portraits and self-portraits recall an attention to detail and insight lost in his grander paintings, his closeness to Johann Joachim Winckelmann has enhanced his historical importance. Mengs came to share Winckelmann's enthusiasm for classical antiquity, worked to establish the dominance of Neoclassical painting over the popular Rococo style. At the same time, the influence of the Roman Baroque remained strong in his work in his religious paintings, he would have fancied himself the first neoclassicist, while in fact he may be the last flicker of Baroque art. Rudolf Wittkower wrote: "In the last analysis, he is as much an end as a beginning". Goethe regretted that "so much learning should have been allied to a total want of initiative and poverty of invention, embodied with a strained and artificial mannerism."
Mengs had a well-known rivalry with the contemporary Italian painter Pompeo Batoni. He was a friend of Giacomo Casanova. Casanova provides accounts of his personality and contemporary reputation through anecdotes in his Histoire de Ma Vie. Among his pupils in Italy were Anton von Maron, Antonio Maron, his pupils in Spain included Agustín Esteve. Besides numerous paintings in Madrid, the Ascension and St Joseph at Dresden and Andromeda at Saint Petersburg, the ceiling of the Villa Albani are among his chief works. A Noli me tangere was commissioned as an altar-piece by All Souls College, is now held in the National Gallery, London. Another altar-piece was installed in Oxford. In his writings, in Spanish and German, Mengs expressed an eclectic theory of art, seeing perfection as attainable by a well-schemed combination of diverse excellences: Greek design, with the expression of Raphael, the chiaroscuro of Correggio, the colour of Titian. Ascension, 1751/1766 St Joseph, 1751/1766 The Glory of Saint Eusebius, 1757 Portrait of Ferdinand I, 1759 Charles III, 1761 Infante Don Louis de Borbon Karl Woermann, Ismael und Raphael Mengs Wittkower, Rudolf.
"Art and Architecture Italy, 1600–1750". Pelican History of Art. 1980. Penguin Books Ltd. p. 469. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Anthon Rafael Mengs". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of pastellists before 1800, online edition Paintings by Anton Raphael Mengs at WikiGallery.org Europe in the age of enlightenment and revolution, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Mengs'Self-portrait' at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool'Portrait of Charles III' at the Museo del Prado "Mengs, Raphael". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel was a Prussian architect, city planner, painter who designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings, his most famous buildings are found around Berlin. Schinkel was born in Margraviate of Brandenburg; when he was six, his father died in the disastrous Neuruppin fire of 1787. He became his father, David Gilly, in Berlin. After returning to Berlin from his first trip to Italy in 1805, he started to earn his living as a painter; when he saw Caspar David Friedrich's painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog at the 1810 Berlin art exhibition he decided that he would never reach such mastery of painting and turned to architecture. Working for the stage, in 1816 he created a star-spangled backdrop for the appearance of the "Königin der Nacht" in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera The Magic Flute, quoted in modern productions of this perennial piece. After Napoleon's defeat, Schinkel oversaw the Prussian Building Commission.
In this position, he was not only responsible for reshaping the still unspectacular city of Berlin into a representative capital for Prussia, but oversaw projects in the expanded Prussian territories from the Rhineland in the west to Königsberg in the east, such as New Altstadt Church. From 1808 to 1817 Schinkel renovated and reconstructed Schloss Rosenau, Coburg, in the Gothic Revival style, he rebuilt the ruins of Chorin Abbey. Schinkel's style, in his most productive period, is defined by a turn to Greek rather than Imperial Roman architecture, an attempt to turn away from the style, linked to the recent French occupiers, he believed that in order to avoid sterility and have a soul, a building must contain elements of the poetic and the past, have a discourse with them. His most famous extant buildings are found around Berlin; these include the Neue Wache, the National Monument for the Liberation Wars, the Schauspielhaus at the Gendarmenmarkt, which replaced the earlier theatre, destroyed by fire in 1817, the Altes Museum on Museum Island.
He carried out improvements to the Crown Prince's Palace and to Schloss Charlottenburg. Schinkel was responsible for the interior decoration of a number of private Berlin residences. Although the buildings themselves have long been destroyed portions of a stairwell from the Weydinger House could be rescued and built into the Nicolaihaus on Brüderstr. and its formal dining hall into the Palais am Festungsgraben. Between 1825–1827, he collaborated with Carl Theodor Ottmer on designs for the Berliner Singakademie for Sing-Akademie zu Berlin. Since 1952, it has been known as the Maxim Gorki Theatre. Schinkel moved away from classicism altogether, embracing the Neo-Gothic in his Friedrichswerder Church. Schinkel's Bauakademie, his most innovative building, eschewed historicist conventions and seemed to point the way to a clean-lined "modernist" architecture that would become prominent in Germany only toward the beginning of the 20th century. Schinkel died in Province of Brandenburg. Schinkel, however, is noted as much for his theoretical work and his architectural drafts as for the few buildings that were executed to his designs.
Some of his merits are best shown in his unexecuted plans for the transformation of the Athenian Acropolis into a royal palace for the new Kingdom of Greece and for the erection of the Orianda Palace in the Crimea. These and other designs may be studied in his Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe and his Werke der höheren Baukunst, he designed the famed Iron Cross medal of Prussia, Germany. It has been speculated, that due to the difficult political circumstances – French occupation and the dependency on the Prussian king – and his early death, which prevented him from seeing the explosive German industrialization in the second half of the 19th century, he was not able to live up to the true potential exhibited by his sketches. Karl Friedrich Schinkel's paintings Selection of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's works Schinkelplatz Statue of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Berlin References SourcesKarl Friedrich Schinkel 1781 - 1841: the drama of architecture, ed. by John Zukowsky. With essays by Kurt W. Forster and Wolfgang Pehnt, ISBN 0-86559-105-9.
Jörg Trempler: Schinkels Motive, Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-88221-866-4. Christoph Werner: Schloss am Strom. Die Geschichte vom Leben und Sterben des Baumeisters Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Bertuch-Verlag, Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-937601-11-2. Christoph von Wolzogen: Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Unter dem bestirnten Himmel. Biographie. Edition Fichter, Frankfurt 2016, ISBN 978-3-943856-33-0. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Schinkel, Karl Friedrich". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Carter, Rand. "Karl Friedrich Schinkel, The Last Great Architect". Prefatory essay from Collection of Architectural Designs including those designs which have been executed and objects whose execution was intended by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Used as a reference