Lucien Lelong was a French couturier, prominent from the 1920s to the 1940s. Born in Paris as the son of Arthur Lelong, the owner of a textile shop, he trained at the Hautes Etudes de Commerciales in Paris and opened his fashion house in the early 1910s; the first Lelong designs were featured in Vogue magazine in 1913. Poor health caused the end of his career. Lelong did not create the garments that bore his label. "He did not design himself, but worked through his designers," wrote Christian Dior, a member of the Lelong team from 1941 until 1946, during which time he created the collections in collaboration with Pierre Balmain. "Nevertheless," Dior continued, "in the course of his career as couturier his collections retained a style, his own and resembled him." Other designers who worked for Lelong included Nadine Hubert de Givenchy. Among Lelong's clients were Marie Duhamel, Jeanne Ternisien, the Duchess de la Rochefoucauld, Greta Garbo, Gloria Swanson and Rose Kennedy. Lelong was married three times.
His first wife, whom he divorced on 16 July 1927, was Anne-Marie Audoy. He married on 10 August 1927, as his second wife, Princess Natalie Paley, who had worked as a saleswoman in the Lelong perfume department, she was a daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia and his morganatic wife, Olga Karnovich. They divorced in 1937. Lelong's third wife, Sanda Dancovici, who outlived him, went on to marry the French journalist Maurice Goudeket, the widower of Colette. Lelong died of a stroke in France. "Interactive timeline of couture houses and couturier biographies". Victoria and Albert Museum
Denver Art Museum
The Denver Art Museum — DAM is an art museum located in the Civic Center of Denver, Colorado. The museum is one of the largest art museums between the West Chicago, it is known for its collection of American Indian art, its other collections of more than 70,000 diverse works from across the centuries and world. The museum's origins can be traced back to the founding of the Denver Artists Club in 1893; the Club renamed itself the Denver Art Association in 1917 and opened its first galleries in the City and County building two years later. The museum opened galleries in the Chappell House in 1922; the house, located on Logan Street, was donated to the museum by Mrs. George Cranmer and Delos Chappell. In 1923, the Denver Art Association became the Denver Art Museum. In 1948, the DAM purchased a building on Acoma and 14th Avenue on the south side of Civic Center Park. Denver architect Burnham Hoyt renovated the building, which opened as the Schleier Memorial Gallery in 1949. While the Schleier Gallery was a significant addition, the DAM still sought to increase its space.
Additional pressure came from the Kress Foundation, who offered to donate three collections valued at over $2 million on the condition that DAM construct a new building to house the works. DAM sought help from the city and county of Denver to raise funds, however, in 1952 voters failed to approve a resolution bond. Despite this setback, the museum continued to raise funds and opened a new building, the South Wing, in 1954; this made it possible for DAM to receive the three Kress Foundation collections. The North Building, a seven-story 210,000-square-foot addition, opened in 1971, allowing the museum to display its collections under one roof; the building was designed by Italian modernist architect Gio Ponti, with local architects James Sudler Associates of Denver. Ponti said, “Art is a treasure, these thin but jealous walls defend it.” It is his only completed design built in the United States. Ponti wanted the DAM building, housing the important art within, to break from the traditional museum archetypes.
The two-towered "castle-like" façade has 24 sides, more than one million reflective glass tiles, designed by Dow Corning, cover the building's exterior. The Duncan Pavilion and the Frederic C. Hamilton Building were both added to the museum in 2006; the Duncan Pavilion, a 5,700-square-foot second story addition to the Bach Wing, came to receive the bridge traffic from the new Hamilton Building and the existing North Building. Duncan Pavilion was designed to be kid- and family-friendly while suitable for multi-use, it was intended to complement both buildings. The Hamilton Building was designed as a joint venture by Studio Daniel Libeskind and Denver firm Davis Partnership Architects; the new building opened on October 7, 2006, is clad in titanium and glass. The project was recognized by the American Institute of Architects as a successful Building Information Modeling project; the Duncan Pavilion is a second story addition to the Bach Wing of the Denver Art Museum and opened in February 2006. It is a link between the Daniel Libeskind-designed Hamilton Building and the 1971 Gio Ponti-designed North Building.
The project's intent included preserving the integrity of the oldest part of the museum, the Bach Wing built in 1954, while providing a significant mechanical upgrade for it. The Duncan Pavilion's open assembly area receives the pedestrian bridge from the Hamilton Building with a pedestrian elevator and glass staircase linking pedestrian traffic to the Signature Gallery on the first floor. An upgraded extension of the existing freight elevator creates the final link in the system facilitating artwork traffic between the existing and new buildings so the artwork can be received and serviced in the Hamilton Building and transported to and from the Ponti building's galleries without exiting the protective environment of the museum; the Frederic C. Hamilton Building, celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2016, holds the Modern and Contemporary art, African art and Oceanic art collections, along with part of the Western American art collection and special exhibition spaces; the building serves as the main entrance to the rest of the museum complex.
This project doubled the size of the museum. The complex deconstructivist geometric design of the Hamilton building consists 20 sloping planes, covered in 230,000 square feet of titanium panels; the angular design juts in many directions, supported by a 2,740-ton structure that contains more than 3,100 pieces of steel. One of the angled elements extends 167 feet over and 100 feet above the street below. None of the 20 planes is perpendicular to another; the design uses many extended angular planes to be reminiscent of the natural landscape. Similar to the many-peaked roof of the Denver International Airport, the Hamilton Building emulates the sharp angles of the nearby Rocky Mountains, as well as the geometric crystals found at the mountains' base near Denver. Architect Daniel Libeskind said, “I was inspired by the light and geology of the Rockies, but most of all by the wide-open faces of the people of Denver.” ContextRegarding the design concept, Libeskind commented, “The project is not designed as a standalone building but as part of a composition of public spaces and gateways in this developing part of the city, contributing to the synergy amongst neighbors large and intimate.”Libeskind designed a landscaped pedestrian plaza for the DAM complex, which displays significant works of outdoor sculpture.
The works include:'Scottish Angus Cow and Calf' by Dan Ostermiller,'Big Sweep' by
Ravensbrück concentration camp
Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück. The largest single national group consisted of 40,000 Polish women. Others included 26,000 Jewish women from various countries: 18,800 Russian, 8,000 French, 1,000 Dutch. More than 80 percent were political prisoners. Many slave labor prisoners were employed by Halske. From 1942 to 1945, medical experiments to test the effectiveness of sulfonamides were undertaken. In the spring of 1941, the SS established a small adjacent camp for male inmates, who built and managed the camp's gas chambers in 1944. Of some 130,000 female prisoners who passed through the Ravensbrück camp, about 50,000 of them perished, some 2,200 were killed in the gas chambers and 15,000 survived until liberation. Construction of the camp began in November 1938 by the order of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler and was unusual in that it was intended to hold female inmates.
Ravensbrück first housed prisoners in May 1939, when the SS moved 900 women from the Lichtenburg concentration camp in Saxony. Eight months after the start of World War II the camp's maximum capacity was exceeded, it underwent major expansion following the invasion of Poland. By the summer of 1941 with the launch of Operation Barbarossa an estimated total of 5,000 women were imprisoned, who were fed decreasing hunger rations. By the end of 1942, the inmate population of Ravensbrück had grown to about 10,000. Between 1939 and 1945, some 130,000 to 132,000 female prisoners passed through the Ravensbrück camp system. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, about 50,000 of them perished from disease, starvation and despair. Only 15,000 of the total survived until liberation, on 29–30 April 1945 some 3,500 prisoners were still alive in the main camp. During the first year of their stay in the camp, from August 1940 to August 1941 47 women died. During the last year of the camp's existence, about 80 inmates died each day from disease or famine-related causes.
Although the inmates came from every country in German-occupied Europe, the largest single national group in the camp were Polish. In the spring of 1941, the SS authorities established a small men's camp adjacent to the main camp; the male inmates built and managed the gas chambers for the camp in 1944. There were children in the camp as well. At first, they arrived with mothers who were Romani or Jews incarcerated in the camp or were born to imprisoned women. There were few children early on, including a few Czech children from Lidice in July 1942; the children in the camp represented all nations of Europe occupied by Germany. Between April and October 1944 their number increased consisting of two groups. One group was composed of Romani children with their mothers or sisters brought into the camp after the Romani camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau was closed; the other group included children who were brought with Polish mothers sent to Ravensbrück after the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Most of these children died of starvation.
Ravensbrück had 70 sub-camps used for slave labour that were spread across an area from the Baltic Sea to Bavaria. Among the thousands executed at Ravensbrück were four members of the British World War II organization Special Operations Executive: Denise Bloch, Cecily Lefort, Lilian Rolfe and Violette Szabo. Other victims included the Roman Catholic nun Élise Rivet, Elisabeth de Rothschild, Russian Orthodox nun St. Maria Skobtsova, the 25-year-old French Princess Anne de Bauffremont-Courtenay, Milena Jesenská, lover of Franz Kafka, Olga Benário, wife of the Brazilian Communist leader Luís Carlos Prestes; the largest single group of women executed at the camp were 200 young Polish members of the Home Army. Among the survivors of Ravensbrück was author Corrie ten Boom, arrested with her family for harbouring Jews in their home in Haarlem, the Netherlands, she documented her ordeal alongside her sister Betsie ten Boom in her book The Hiding Place, produced as a motion picture. Polish Countess Karolina Lanckoronska, an art historian and author of Michelangelo in Ravensbrück, was imprisoned there from 1943 until 1945.
Eileen Nearne, a member of the Special Operations Executive, was a prisoner in 1944 before being transferred to another work camp and escaping. Ravensbrück survivors who wrote memoirs about their experiences include Gemma LaGuardia Gluck, sister of New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, as well as Germaine Tillion, a Ravensbrück survivor from France who published her own eyewitness account of the camp in 1975. 500 women from Ravensbrück were transferred to Dachau, where they were assigned as labourers to the Agfa-Commando. A male political prisoner, Gustav Noske, stayed in Ravensbrück concentration camp after his arrest by the Gestapo in 1944. Noske was freed by advancing Allied troops from a Gestapo prison in Berlin. Camp commandants included SS-Standartenführer Günther Tamaschke from May 1939 to August 1939, SS-Hauptsturmführer Max Koegel from January 1940 till August 1942, SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Suhren from August 1942 until the camp's liberation at the end of April 1945. Besides the male Nazi administrators, the camp staff included over 150 female SS guards assigned to oversee the prisoners at some point during the camp's operational peri
Marc Roger Maurice Louis Bohan is a French fashion designer, best known for his 30-year career at the house of Dior. Bohan grew up in Sceaux; as a child, Marc Bohan was encouraged into fashion by his mother. After school at the Lycée Lakanal, in 1945 he secured a job at Robert Piguet where he remained for four years. In 1949 he accepted a job as an assistant to Edward Molyneux, he worked as a designer for Madeleine de Rauch in 1952, before opening his own Paris salon and producing one collection in 1953. In 1954, Bohan was offered a job at Jean Patou, designing the haute couture collection, where he stayed until 1958. From 1958 to 1960 Bohan designed for the Christian Dior, London line. In September 1960, Dior's creative director Yves, his deceptively simple, elegant designs drew their inspiration from the 1920s, rejected the extremes of contemporary fashion. One notable collection in 1966 was inspired by the Russian style of Dr Zhivago. Bohan's classic pieces are now found in museum collections around the world.
In 2009, the Musee Christian Dior at Granville held a major Bohan retrospective. In 1989 Bohan left Dior, before joining for the house of Norman Hartnell in London, where he worked for the label until 1992. Bohan has since designed under his own name. Bohan designed for Princess Grace of Monaco, Lynn Wyatt, Betsy Bloomingdale. Princess Grace supported Bohan by opening the Baby Dior boutique in 1967. Actress Sophia Loren was among his many clients Jacqueline Kennedy admired Bohan's designs and had them adapted by Oleg Cassini and Chez Ninon. In 1976, Bohan was chosen to design the wedding dress of Silvia Sommerlath at her wedding to King Carl Gustaf of Sweden. Two years he designed the wedding gown of Princess Caroline of Monaco for her 1978 wedding to Philippe Junot. Bohan’s first wife, Dominique Gaborit, whom he married in 1950, died in 1962, he married Huguette Rinjonneau. They had one daughter: Marie-Anne. Bohan has a home at a restored 18th-century country house in Burgundy. Sports Illustrated Designer of the Year award, 1963.
Marc Bohan on IMDb Marc Bohan at FMD
Jeanne-Marie Lanvin was a French haute couture fashion designer. She founded the beauty and perfume company Lanvin Parfums. Jeanne Lanvin was born in Paris on 1 January 1867, the eldest of 11 children of Constantin Lanvin and Sophie Deshayes, she became an apprentice milliner at Madame Félix in Paris at the age of 16 and trained with Suzanne Talbot before becoming a milliner on the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1889. In 1909, Lanvin joined the Syndicat de la Couture; the clothing Lanvin made for her daughter began to attract the attention of a number of wealthy people who requested copies for their own children. Soon, Lanvin was making dresses for their mothers, some of the most famous names in Europe were included in the clientele of her new boutique on the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, Paris. From 1923, the Lanvin empire included a dye factory in Nanterre. In the 1920s, Lanvin opened shops devoted to home décor, menswear and lingerie. However, her most significant expansion was the creation of Lanvin Parfums SA in 1924 and the introduction of her signature fragrance, Arpège, in 1927, inspired by the sound of her daughter Marguerite practicing her scales on the piano.
In 1922, Lanvin collaborated with celebrated French designer Armand-Albert Rateau in redesigning her apartment, her homes and her businesses. For this domicile, Rateau designed some remarkable 1920–22 furniture in bronze; the pair developed a friendship, Rateau came aboard Lanvin's empire as manager of Lanvin-Sport designing the Lanvin spherical La Boule perfume flacon for Arpège. To this day, Arpège perfume containers are imprinted with Paul Iribe's gold image of Lanvin and her daughter Marguerite. Rateau managed Lanvin-Décoration in the main store on the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. In 1895, Lanvin married Count Emilio di Pietro, an Italian nobleman, two years gave birth to a daughter, Marguerite; the couple's only child, Marguerite di Pietro became an opera singer, married the Count Jean de Polignac, became, on the death of her mother, the director of the Lanvin fashion house. Lanvin and di Pietro divorced in 1903. Lanvin's second husband, whom she married in 1907, was Xavier Melet, a journalist at the newspaper Les Temps and the French consul in Manchester, England.
Lanvin died on 6 July 1946. Her original office is preserved in Lanvin’s corporate offices at 16 Rue Boissy d’Anglas in Paris. Chevalier de l'Ordre de la Légion d'Honneur, to Jeanne Lanvin, 1926 Officier de l'Ordre de la Légion d'Honneur, to Jeanne Lanvin, 1938 Lanvin for more information on the fashion house Arpège Colette, Emilio Terry, et al.. Homage à Marie-Blanche, Comtesse Jean de Polignac, Monaco. "Jeanne Lanvin" and "Claude Montana" in Morgan, Ann. Contemporary Designers, New York: Macmillan. | ISBN 0-333-33524-4 "Castillo", "Jules-François Crahay", "Jean Gaumont-Lanvin" in Remaury, director. Dictionnaire de la Mode au XXe Siècle, Paris: Éditions du Regard. | ISBN 2-84105-181-1 Barillé, Elisabeth. Lanvin, Paris: Assouline. | ISBN 2-84323-015-2) Picon, Jérôme. Jeanne Lanvin, Paris: Flammarion. | ISBN 2-08-210044-8 "Armand Albert Rateau" and "Jeanne Lanvin" in Byars, Mel. The Design Encyclopedia, New York: The Museum of Modern Art. | ISBN 0-87070-012-X Menkes, Suzy. "At Lanvin, a master of improvisation", International Herald Tribune.
Lanvin home page Jeanne Lanvin at FMD Biography of Lanvin of Toutenparfum.com The'Jeanne Lanvin' fragrance, named after Lanvin's founder, on the Lanvin Parfums website "Jeanne Lanvin – Evening gown". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 15 November 2007. "Interactive timeline of couture houses and couturier biographies". Victoria and Albert Museum
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent