Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark
Charlotte Amalie of Denmark was a Danish princess, daughter of King Frederick IV of Denmark and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow. In the early 1730s, her brother the king tried to arrange a marriage between her and Frederick, Prince of Wales, but the negotiations did not succeed and she remained unmarried. As was the custom for unmarried princesses, she lived with her mother until her mothers death, in 1721, when her mother died and her father remarried to Anna Sophie, Charlotte Amalie tried to prevent the worst hostility toward her stepmother at court. She was separated from Anna Sophie when her brother succeeded to the throne in 1730, after this, she lived at the royal court in winters, and at Charlottenlund Palace in summer with her own court. She had no influence upon the affairs of state, and lived a life at court her entire life. On 8 April 1771, she was ordered to leave court and she spent the rest of her life with her nephews widow, the queen dowager Juliana Maria. This meant that she continued to spend much of her time at court, as she preferred black wigs, she had ordered her staff to wear them, and her court became known as The court of the black wigs.
After 1778, she no longer showed herself to the public, Charlotte Amalie is known as the benefactress of the writer Charlotte Baden, who was the niece of one of her chief ladies-in-waiting, Anna Sophie von den Osten. Baden was raised at her court, and Charlotte Amalie provided her with an education, in her will from 1773, Charlotte Amalie created a foundation, Prinsesse C. A. s stiftelse, to finance the upbringing of poor girls of all classes. Charlottenlund Palace, where she spent her summers, was built, brandt - Clavus 1889 Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 1979-84. Bonde, Carl Carlson, ed. Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok
Louise of Great Britain
Louise of Great Britain was Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1746 until her death, as the first wife of King Frederick V. She was the youngest surviving daughter of George II of Great Britain, Princess Louise was born as the fifth daughter and youngest child of the Prince and Princess of Wales, on 7 December 1724, at Leicester House, London. She was baptised Louisa there on 22 December and her godparents were her elder sister and two cousins, Princess Amelia of Great Britain, Princess Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, and Frederick, Prince Royal of Prussia, Frederick the Great. On 11 June 1727, when Louise was two old, her grandfather, George I, and her father ascended the throne as George II. On 30 August, as a child of the sovereign, Louise was granted use of the arms of the realm, in a dynastic marriage, Louise wed Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway on 11 December 1743 in Copenhagen. A first ceremony was conducted on 10 November 1743 in Hannover with her brother, the marriage was proposed by Great Britain.
At the time of the marriage, both France and Great Britain wished to make an alliance with Denmark, and Great Britain had the advantage of being able to make a marriage alliance. Fredericks father, King Christian VI, hoped the marriage would lead to British support for his or his sons claim to the throne of Sweden, on a more personal level, there were hopes that marriage would suppress the frequent drinking and debauched behavior of the Crown Prince. The couple had five children, one of whom did not survive infancy, although the marriage was arranged, the couple got along quite well, and at least during the first years, their relationship was described as happy. Frederick was comfortable with her, and Louise pretended not to notice his adultery, though Frederick came to feel high regard for her and always treated her with kindness, however, he reportedly was not in love with her and continued to have affairs after their marriage. She quickly made herself popular in the Danish court, and her father-in-law remarked that she seemed to him to be kind, when her husband ascended the throne, on 6 August 1746, as Frederick V, Louise became Queen of Denmark and Queen of Norway.
Queen Louise was very popular in Denmark, and the popularity of the royal couple has been attributed to Louise. Interested in music and theatre, the royal court acquired a more easy-going tone than under her strictly religious parents-in-law, Louise had a vivacious personality, allowing her to socialize easily with others. Her effort to speak the Danish language, including with her children, was much appreciated and she studied the Danish language under the court priest Erik Pontoppidan, and hired teachers so that her children could learn to speak their countrys language. She was described as educated and good at conversation, not beautiful but very dignified. She finds pleasure in reading and music, she plays the clavichord well, Queen Louise unsuccessfully opposed the dynastic marriage between her daughter Sophia Magdalena and Crown Prince of Sweden in 1751. The reason was her fear that her daughter would not be treated by the Queen of Sweden. Louisa Ulrika was known for her views and for being opposed to the match
Frederick VI of Denmark
Frederick VI was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his fathers illness and was referred to as the Crown Prince Regent. For his motto he chose God and the just cause and since the time of his reign, Frederick was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Frederick belonged to the House of Oldenburg and his parents were King Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. He was born after 15 months of marriage, just a day before his fathers 19th birthday, as the eldest son of the ruling king, he automatically became crown prince at birth. On 30 January of the year, he was baptised at Christiansborg Palace by Ludvig Harboe. His godparents were King Christian VII, the dowager queen Juliana Maria and his half-uncle, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent and lover of Caroline Matilda, Fredericks mother. Both were ideologically influenced by Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau, while Struensee was in power, young Frederick was raised at Hirschholm Palace following the educational approach advocated by Rousseau in his famous work Émile.
Instead of receiving direct instruction, Frederick was expected to learn everything through his own efforts through playing with two boys as per Struensees instructions. On 8 January 1772, after the revolt against Struensee, Fredericks 18-year-old half-uncle Hereditary Prince Frederick was made regent, the real power, was held by Hereditary Prince Fredericks mother, Queen Dowager Juliana Maria, aided by Ove Høegh-Guldberg. It is said that during the coup, he engaged in a fistfight with his half-uncle over the regency and he continued as regent of Denmark under his fathers name until the latters death in 1808. During the regency, Frederick instituted widespread liberal reforms with the assistance of Chief Minister Andreas Peter Bernstorff, crises encountered during his reign include disagreement with the British over neutral shipping. This resulted in two British attacks on Copenhagen, the Battle of Copenhagen of 1801 and the Battle of Copenhagen of 1807, the conflict continued in the Gunboat War between Denmark-Norway and the United Kingdom, which lasted until the Treaty of Kiel in 1814.
There was speculation that he was to marry a Prussian princess and they married in Gottorp on 31 July 1790 and had eight children. Their eldest daughter, Princess Caroline married her father’s first cousin, the youngest, Princess Wilhelmine, became the wife of the future Frederick VII of Denmark. None of Frederick VIs sons survived infancy and when he died, he was succeeded by his cousin Christian VIII of Denmark, Frederick became King of Denmark on 13 March 1808. When the throne of Sweden seemed likely to become vacant in 1809, Fredericks brother-in-law, Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenborg, was first elected to the throne of Sweden, followed by the French Marshal Bernadotte. During the Napoleonic Wars, he tried to maintain Danish neutrality, however after the British bombardment of Copenhagen, after the French defeat in Russia in 1812, the Allies again asked him to change sides but he refused
Alexander Roslin was a Swedish portrait painter who worked in Scania, Paris, Warsaw and St. Petersburg, primarily for members of aristocratic families. He combined insightful psychological portrayal with a representation of fabrics. In his choice of style and lustrous, shimmering colors Alexander Roslin exemplifies Rococo and he lived in France from 1752 until 1793, a period that spanned most of his career. Rococo artists opted for a more jocular and ornate style, characterized by lightness and graceful approach to art and architecture. The painting by Roslin depicting Jeanne Sophie de Vignerot du Plessis, Alexander Roslin was born on 15 July 1718, in Malmö, the son of naval physician Hans Roslin and Catherine Wertmüller. Stockholm had become an intellectual and artistic center since Queen Christina had established connections with Paris, at the age of sixteen he became apprenticed to the court painter Georg Engelhard Schröder in Stockholm, studying painting there until 1741 and beginning to paint large portraits in oils.
Schröder was influenced by Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas de Largillière, in 1741, Roslin settled in Gothenburg, and the following year moved to Scania, where he remained until 1745 painting portraits and creating religious paintings for the church at Hasslöv. In 1745, Roslin left Sweden for Bayreuth, where he had invited to work for Frederick. In 1747, he moved to Italy to study the works of the great masters, while in Italy he portrayed, among others, the family of Philip, Duke of Parma in 1752. In the same year Roslin moved to Paris, at the age of 34, here, in 1759, he married the pastel painter Marie-Suzanne Giroust. The couple had three sons and three daughters, in 1768 Roslin painted her dressed in Bolognese fashion, Lady with Veil, a portrait that the art critic and philosopher Denis Diderot judged très piquante. In 1767 he painted a portrait of them both, she is depicted working in pastels on a portrait of Henrik Wilhelm Peill, while Roslin points at a gold box he received from Peill as a present.
The frame of the painting is inscribed Loin et près, showing that the portrait was a token of friendship and this painting was purchased by the Swedish National Museum in 2013. In Paris he was a protégé of François Boucher and his work became fashionable. He was chosen as a member of the French Art Academy and his early portraits are painted in bright, cool colours, and show the influence of Jean-Marc Nattier and Hyacinthe Rigaud. Around the 1760s he started using daring colouring in his paintings, such as in the portrait of his wife, Lady with Veil, and the Jennings Family. Roslin had great skill in painting the surfaces and texture of precious materials such as fabrics and jewels. In Paris he soon became one of the foremost portraitists of his time, valued mostly for practiced rendering of fabrics and gentle complexions
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain was Queen consort of Denmark and Norway by marriage to King Christian VII. Caroline Matilda was born in Leicester House, London, on 22 July 1751 as the ninth and youngest child of Frederick, Prince of Wales and her father died suddenly about three months before her birth, on 31 March 1751. Both of her names were used to distinguish her from her paternal aunt, the princess was christened ten days after being born, on 1 August, at the same house, by the Bishop of Norwich, Thomas Hayter. Her godparents were her brother George, her aunt Caroline and her sister Augusta. She was brought up by her mother away from the English court and was described as natural and informal. She spent most of the time with her family in Leicester House, in 1764, a marriage was suggested between the Danish House of Oldenburg and the British House of Hanover, specifically between Christian, Crown Prince of Denmark, and a British princess. The marriage was suitable because both the British and Danish royal families were Protestant and of the rank, and thus had the same status as well as religion.
Additionally, the deceased Queen Louise had been popular in Denmark. The official betrothal was announced on 10 January 1765, on 14 January 1766, in the middle of preparations for the wedding, King Frederick V died and his 17-year-old son became King Christian VII. On 1 October of that year in the chapel of St Jamess Palace the marriage was celebrated by proxy, in which the groom was represented by Prince Edward, Duke of York. Twelve days later, Caroline Matilda arrived in Roskilde, where she met her future husband, the official wedding ceremony took place on 8 November 1766 in the Royal Chapel at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Marriage celebrations and balls lasted for another month, on 1 May 1767, Caroline Matilda was crowned Queen of Denmark in Copenhagen. The young Queen at the Danish court was described as particularly temperamental, however, her natural and unaffected personality was not popular at the strict Danish court, despite the fact that originally she was warmly received in Copenhagen.
The weak-willed, self-centered, and mentally ill Christian VII was cold to his wife and this was not difficult, as Christian VII did not like her. Caroline Matilda, though not interested in politics, after the birth of an heir has come to play a key role at the court. Her dislike of the favorites of her husband increased when, in 1768, Holck managed to exile Louise von Plessen from court and she refused to accept von Plessens successor, Anne Sofie von Berckentin, whom she suspected to have taken part in the plot to exile von Plessen. Thus, Plessen was not replaced until Margrethe von der Lühe agreed to accept the post in 1768, in May 1768 Christian VII took his long tour of Europe, including stays in Altona and London. Caroline Matilda spent the summer at Frederiksborg Castle with her son before returning to Copenhagen in the autumn
George III of the United Kingdom
He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britains American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence, further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, although it has since been suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, on George IIIs death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV. Historical analysis of George IIIs life has gone through a kaleidoscope of changing views that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them.
Until it was reassessed in the half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House and he was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months prematurely and he was unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker. One month later, he was baptised at Norfolk House. His godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York, Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. He was the first British monarch to study science systematically and his religious education was wholly Anglican. At age 10 George took part in a production of Joseph Addisons play Cato and said in the new prologue, What.
It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated. Georges grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, however, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his fathers titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh, now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. Georges mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her moral values
Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach was queen-consort of Denmark and Norway as the wife of King Christian VI of Denmark and Norway. She was born in Castle Schonberg, to Christian Heinrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach by his wife and she was raised at the court of the Queen of Poland, Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, in Saxony. King Frederick IV of Denmark allowed his son, Crown Prince Christian and she came from a small, relatively poor and large German princely family, the King gave his permission. In the Crown Princes letters he wrote that he fell for the Sophie Magdalenes intense religiosity and it would affect his reign. The wedding took place on 7 August 1721 at Pretzsch Castle in Saxony, a French envoy to the Danish court sent a description home of the 20-year-old Crown Princess. Shes a proud, impressive woman, although she is not high growth or of beautiful forms. Shes not exactly pretty, but her attitude was notorious. Her skin is white, her face-range is fine and soulful with light blue eyes.
She dressed with the greatest splendor and used a lot of diamonds, about the Crown Prince, the French diplomat made one unflattering description. Hes a small, sickly-looking gentleman and his face is elongated, somewhat haggard, his nose is very big. The eyes are prominent and mouth pulled up in a forced, stereotyped smile. She never forgot that she came from a noble family. As a queen, she received several of her relatives in Denmark and her younger sister, Sophie Caroline, Dowager Princess of Ostfriesland, was appointed by her as abbess at Vallø, with an annual pension of 16,600 thalers, a large sum in those times. At the National Archives was store a letter from Sophie Magdalene to her husband and she asked him to allow the return of her sister to Ostfriesland. The reason was that the queen was jealous of her. The king replied that he with all his heart was willing to let her go, if with this he could win his wifes confidence and heart, at end, Sophie Caroline was not expelled. Sophie Magdalene and her grandson, the King Christian VII, had a warm and he could find at the side of his grandmother a loving refuge from his strict overhofmester, Ditlev Reventlow.
In addition, Sophie Magdalene hosted almost all Christians birthdays celebrations, for Sophie Magdalene was source of great concern and disappointment that none of her two surviving children inherited the strict ideals and lifestyle of their parents. Despite their Pietism, the couple loved the splendor and luxury
The cross represents Christs dominion over the orb of the world, literally held in the hand of an earthly ruler. In the iconography of Western art, when Christ himself holds the globe, he is called Salvator Mundi, holding the world in ones hand, or more ominously, under ones foot, has been used as a symbol since antiquity. To citizens of the Roman Empire, the round globe held by Jupiter represented the world, or the universe. The orbis terrarum was central to the iconography of the Tetrarchy, constantine I claimed to have had a vision of a cross above the sun, with the words In this sign, you shall conquer, at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. His soldiers painted crosses upon their shields, and defeated their foe, with the growth of Christianity in the 5th century, the orb was topped with a cross, symbolising the Christian Gods dominion over the world. The emperor held the world in his hand, to show that he ruled it on Gods behalf, to non-Christians already familiar with the pagan globe, the surmounting of a cross sent a message about the triumph of Christianity.
Although the globe symbolized the entire Earth, its use spread among many Christian rulers who reigned over parts of the earth. The globus cruciger was associated with rulers and celestial beings alike. It first appeared on coins in the early 5th century and remained throughout the Middle Ages in coins, iconography. It may still be seen in the arms of the surviving European monarchies. Even in the era in England, the Sovereigns Orb symbolises both the state and Church of England under the protection and domain of the royal crown. The Ball and the Cross Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch Monde Earth symbol Leslie Brubaker, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol 5,564, ISBN 0-684-18161-4 Picture of the 10th century Orb and Crown insignia of the Holy Roman Empire
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Duchy of Schleswig
The region is called Sleswick in English. Roman sources place the homeland of the Jute tribe north of the river Eider and that of the Angles to its south, who in turn abutted the neighbouring Saxons. During the early Viking Age, Haithabu - Scandinavias biggest trading centre - was located in this region and its construction, and in particular its great expansion around 737, has been interpreted as an indication of the emergence of a unified Danish state. In May 1931 scientists of the National Museum of Denmark announced the finding of eighteen Viking graves with the remains of eighteen men in them, the discovery came during excavations in Schleswig. The skeletons indicated that the men were bigger proportioned than twentieth-century Danish men, each of the graves was laid out from east to west. Researchers surmised that the bodies were entombed in wooden coffins originally, towards the end of the Early Middle Ages, Schleswig formed part of the historical Lands of Denmark as Denmark unified out of a number of petty chiefdoms in the 8th to 10th centuries.
The southern boundary of Denmark in the region of the Eider River, the Treaty of Heiligen was signed in 811 between the Danish King Hemming and Charlemagne, by which the border was established at the Eider. During the 10th century there were wars between East Francia and Denmark. In 1027, Conrad II and Canute the Great again settled their mutual border at the Eider. In 1115, king Niels created his nephew Canute Lavard - a son of his predecessor Eric I - Earl of Schleswig, in the 1230s, Southern Jutland was allotted as an appanage to Abel Valdemarsen, Canutes great-grandson, a younger son of Valdemar II of Denmark. Feuds and marital alliances brought the Abel dynasty into a connection with the German Duchy of Holstein by the 15th century. The latter was a subordinate to the Holy Roman Empire. The title Duke of Schleswig was inherited in 1460 by the kings of Norway who were regularly elected kings of Denmark simultaneously. This was an anomaly – a king holding a ducal title, the title and anomaly survived presumably because it was already co-regally held by the kings sons.
Between 1544 and 1713/20 the ducal reign had become a condominium, with the royal House of Oldenburg, a third branch in the condominium, the short-lived House of Haderslev, was already extinct in 1580 by the time of John the Elder. On the west coast the Danish diocese of Ribe stopped about 5 km north of the present border and this line corresponds remarkably well with the present border. In the 17th century a series of wars between Denmark and Sweden—which Denmark lost—devastated the region economically, however the nobility responded with a new agricultural system that restored prosperity. In the period 1600 to 1800 the region experienced the growth of manorialism of the common in the rye-growing regions of eastern Germany
Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Ministers Office, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables. The palace is home to the three supreme powers, the executive power, the legislative power, and the judicial power. It is the building in the world that houses all three of a countrys branches of government. The name Christiansborg is thus used as a metonym for the Danish political system. The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. The palace today bears witness to three eras of Danish architecture, as the result of two serious fires, the first fire occurred in 1794 and the second in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-baroque style, the chapel dates to 1826 and is in a neoclassical style.
The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a baroque style, Christiansborg Palace is owned by the Danish state, and is run by the Palaces and Properties Agency. Several parts of the palace are open to the public, the first castle on the site was Absalons Castle. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde built a castle in 1167 on an island outside Copenhagen Harbour. The castle was made up by a wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings, such as the bishops palace. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle, a few decades later, however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, and for almost two centuries the ownership of the castle and city was contested between kings and bishops. Furthermore, the castle was frequently under attack, for example by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic cities, in 1369, following a conflict with king Valdemar IV of Denmark, the Hanseatic League sent 40 stonemasons to demolish the castle stone by stone.
The castle had long been a nuisance to the Hanseatic cities trade in the Sound. The castle had a wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large. The castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric VII usurped the rights to the castle in 1417, from on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king. In the middle of the 15th century, the became the principal residence of the Danish kings