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Christian pilgrimage

Christianity has a strong tradition of pilgrimages, both to sites relevant to the New Testament narrative and to sites associated with saints or miracles. Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life and resurrection of Jesus. Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Saint Jerome, established by Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great; the purpose of Christian pilgrimage was summarized by Pope Benedict XVI this way:To go on pilgrimage is not to visit a place to admire its treasures of nature, art or history. To go on pilgrimage means to step out of ourselves in order to encounter God where he has revealed himself, where his grace has shone with particular splendour and produced rich fruits of conversion and holiness among those who believe. Above all, Christians go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to the places associated with the Lord’s passion and resurrection.

They go to Rome, the city of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul, to Compostela, associated with the memory of Saint James, has welcomed pilgrims from throughout the world who desire to strengthen their spirit with the Apostle’s witness of faith and love. Pilgrimages are made to Rome and other sites associated with the apostles and Christian martyrs, as well as to places where there have been apparitions of the Virgin Mary. A popular pilgrimage journey is along the Way of St. James to the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, in Galicia, where the shrine of the apostle James is located. A combined pilgrimage is held every seven years in the three nearby towns of Maastricht and Kornelimünster where many important relics could be seen; the motivations which draw today's visitors to Christian sacred sites can be mixed: faith-based, spiritual in a general way, with cultural interests, etc. This diversity has become an important factor in the management and pastoral care of Christian pilgrimage, as recent research on international sanctuaries and much-visited churches has shown.

Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to a large number of sites, both within the Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs: these are, according to the Christian tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem, which Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his way to trial; the stairs were, brought to Rome by St. Helena in the 4th Century. For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus. Several catacombs built in the Roman age are the object of pilgrimage, where Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches, or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Church of the Gesù and Sant'Ignazio. Traditionally, pilgrims in Rome visit the seven pilgrim churches in 24 hours; this custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip Neri.

The seven churches are the four major Basilicas, while the other three are San Lorenzo fuori le mura, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and San Sebastiano fuori le mura. Rabbinic literature has some descriptions of several early visits by Jews to Rome; the Talmud and Midrash recount rabbinic embassies that journey to Rome to connect with and vouch for the rights of the Jewish community. Jewish people traveled to Rome to visit locations that highlighted Jewish culture, such as the arch of Titus depicting the spoils of Jerusalem, the Temple of Peace, which housed the looted Jewish temple cult objects, it is surmised that some Jewish visitors those of religious prestige, would have traveled to Rome to view the displayed cult objects as a form of neo-pilgrimage, as pilgrimage to the Jewish temple itself was no longer possible. It is unknown what happened to the Jewish temple objects after a fire destroyed the Temple of Peace in 192 CE, but it is possible that they were saved or had replicas produced of them to use in Christian propaganda, put on display for Christian followers.

After the murder of the Archbishop Thomas Becket at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine. This pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century collection of stories, The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury Castle was captured by the French Prince Louis during his 1215 invasion of England, before the death of John caused his English supporters to desert his cause and support the young Henry III. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the city's priory and three friaries were closed. St Augustine's Abbey, the 14th richest in England at the time, was surrendered to the Crown, its church and cloister were levelled; the rest of the abbey was dismantled over the next 15 years, although part of the site was converted to a palace. Thomas Becket's shrine in the Cathedral was demolished and all the gold and jewels were removed to the Tower of London, Becket's images, name


Zerezindo was a Visigothic dux of Baetica, where he was buried. His funerary inscription was found in the house once belonging to Juan Álvarez de Bohorques in Villamartín in Écija, it reads: The first line of the inscription, a symbol of Jesus Christ, shows the Greek letters alpha and omega on either side of a cross. The rest of the inscription reads "Zerezindo, duke, FD, lived forty-four years and died on the 3 kalends of August of the Era 616." The interpretation of "FD" has eluded scholars. Rodrigo Caro and Fray Christoval de San Antonio read it as filius ducis, "son of the duke", implying that Zerezindo's father was a duke. Juan Francisco Masdeu reads it as Famulus Dei, "servant of God", cites the inscription of a certain Exuperantius from the same year near Frexenal, it has been interpreted as an abbreviation for fidelis, "faithful one, loyal one ". The most interesting fact about Zerezindo is his Germanic name and the implication of his headstone that he was a Catholic at a time when most Visigoths were Arian Christians.

This is noteworthy considering his high rank. Etymologically, Zerezindo's interesting name attests to his probable Gothic identity, his name has been normalised as Seresind. The Germanic root of its first component may be swērs; the latter component comes from swinþs/ô

Arnold Brecht

Arnold Brecht was a German jurist and one of the leading government officials in the Weimar Republic. He was one of the few democratically minded high-placed officials that opposed the Machtergreifung in 1933. An alumnus of the University of Göttingen, Brecht served as a government official from 1918 to 1933, he was dismissed from his post shortly after the Nazi seizure of power, emigrated to the United States. He became a lecturer at The New School, a foreign policy adviser to the United States government. After World War II he returned to Germany and helped drafting the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1959 he received the Federal Cross of Merit. Brecht made contributions to political science. Brecht's law is the academic basis for one of the components of the equalization payments between the states of Germany. ———, Prelude to silence: The end of the German republic, New York: Oxford University Press ———, Political Theory: The Foundations of Twentieth-Century Political Thought, Princeton: Princeton University Press ———, The political education of Arnold Brecht: An autobiography, 1884-1970, Princeton: Princeton University Press ———, Federalism and regionalism in Germany: The division of Prussia, New York: Russell & Russell Forkosch, Morris D. ed.

The political philosophy of Arnold Brecht: Essays, New York: New School for Social Research Treaster, Joseph B. "Arnold Brecht Dies.

Cortes Gerais

The Cortes Gerais were the legislature of the Kingdom of Portugal during the Constitutional Monarchy period. The Cortes were established by provision of the 1822 Portuguese Constitution as a unicameral parliament. However, the Constitutional Charter of 1826 reformed the Cortes as a bicameral legislature, with the Chamber of Most Worthy Peers of the Kingdom as its upper house and the Chamber of Gentlemen Deputies of the Portuguese Nation as its lower house; the name of the legislature originates from the traditional Portuguese Cortes, the parliament convening the three estates during the absolute monarchy

William Paine Lord

William Paine Lord, was a Republican politician who served as the ninth Governor of Oregon from 1895 to 1899. The Delaware native served as the 27th associate justice of the Oregon Supreme Court, including three times as the Chief Justice of that court. After serving as governor he was appointed as an ambassador to Argentina in South America and helped to codify Oregon's laws. Born to Edward and Elizabeth Lord on July 20, 1838 in Dover, Lord was deaf, had limited speaking ability, he received his primary education through private tutoring. He subsequently studied law at Fairfield College, graduating in 1860. Before he could continue further into his studies, Lord volunteered for military service in the American Civil War, advancing to the rank of Major in the 1st Delaware Cavalry in the Union Army of the Potomac. Once the war ended, Lord continued in law school at Albany College in New York, graduating there in 1866, he returned to the military for a second time, re-enlisting at the rank of lieutenant.

His duties would include postings at Alcatraz in San Francisco and Fort Steilacoom near Tacoma, Washington. When the United States took formal possession of Alaska in 1867, Lt. Lord was sent to Sitka. In 1868, Lord resigned from the army in order to set up a law practice in Oregon. William Paine Lord soon became involved in politics, as he became Salem's City Attorney in 1870; this launched him into his first elected office: a state Senate seat in 1878. He resigned his Senate seat for a successful run as the Republican nominee for Justice of the Oregon Supreme Court. Lord served on the court from 1880 until 1894, he was a popular justice and had a reputation of being the most competent Jurist in state history, serving out his last term as Chief Justice. He accepted the Republican nomination for the 1894 Governor's Election, stepping down from the court after his gubernatorial election victory. Governor Lord's popularity swept him into the Governor's Office, he set out to support higher education, eliminate corruption from land speculators, fueled support for the direct election of United States Senators, when the Senate refused to seat Henry W. Corbett, Lord's appointee.

In 1895, the University of Oregon conferred an honorary doctorate of laws degree on the governor. He promoted ending the corrupt land speculation practices of the time by creating the State Land Board, headed by an official State Land Agent; the present land-use system protecting Oregon's wildlife and fisheries would evolve from this early agency. The 1897 House failed to organize, caught up on a dispute over the reelection of U. S. Senator John H. Mitchell. Lord called for a constitutional amendment to the Oregon Constitution allowing the Governor a line item veto. While nothing came of this during his term of office governors would support Lord's proposal; the line item veto was approved in 1916. Lord lost his bid for a second term, in the fought 1898 primary election campaign against fellow Republican Theodore T. Geer. Shortly after leaving the Governor's Office, Lord was appointed the U. S. Minister to Argentina by the McKinley Administration, he served in that capacity until 1902. In 1902, William Paine Lord was appointed as Code Commissioner by the Supreme Court of Oregon.

In this position, which he held until 1910, he examined and annotated all existing Oregon Statute Laws, compiling them into three volumex, Lord's Oregon Laws – the Oregon Statute Code of 1909. In 1910 Lord retired to San Francisco, where he would die on February 17, 1911, his body was returned to Oregon. Oregon State Library Oregon State Archive bio Klooster, Karl. Round the Roses II: More Past Portland Perspectives, pg. 111, 1992 ISBN 0-9619847-1-6 Oregon Governor William Lord from Oregon Magazine Findagrave memorial Oregon State Archives: Lord Administration-Photo, bio and some public speeches of Governor Lord

United Mine Workers of America Building

The United Mine Workers of America Building is an historic building at 900 Fifteenth St. NW in the Downtown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Built in 1912 as the home of the University Club, a private social club, it was from 1936 to 1999 as the international headquarters of the United Mine Workers. Under the leadership of John L. Lewis, the union played a major role in improving working conditions and pay for a large number of mine workers, with Lewis founding the Congress of Industrial Organizations to improve conditions for other types of laborers; the building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2005. The upper floors of the building have been converted to residences; the former United Mine Workers of America Building is located in downtown Washington, at the northwest corner of "I" and 15th Streets NW. One facade faces east toward McPherson Square across the other toward I Street, it is a six-story masonry structure, with a frame of steel and terra cotta blocks and an exterior facing of brick and bluestone.

It is Renaissance Revival in style, with tall rounded-arch windows on the second level, which serves as a piano nobile. The first two levels are finished in limestone, the ground floor with a rusticated finish, while the upper floors are clad in buff brick; the building was constructed in 1912 as a five-story building to a design by George Totten, for the University Club, a private social club whose membership included many of the leading men in the city. At that time the second level was a large social space, the upper floors housed private rooms for the membership. In 1936, the club sold the building to the UMW, it restyled the interior of the building, converting the second floor into a series of meeting spaces and the office of the union president, while the upper levels were used for offices. It added the sixth floor, removing an elaborate cornice in the process; the UMW vacated the building in 1999, it has since been adapted for use as a residential space, in part by connecting it to adjoining buildings.

The building's historic significance comes from its role as the UMW headquarters. The union was a major in lobbying for labor-friendly legislation during the New Deal years, its president, John L. Lewis, was influential in broader labor organizing, founding the CIO in 1935 when the American Federation of Labor refused to support the organization of semi-skilled laborers. Lewis served as the UMW president from 1920 until 1960. List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D. C. National Register of Historic Places listings in central Washington, D. C