Christian rock is a form of rock music that features lyrics focusing on matters of Christian faith with an emphasis on Jesus performed by self-proclaimed Christian individuals. The extent to which their lyrics are explicitly Christian varies between bands. Many bands who perform Christian rock have ties to the contemporary Christian music labels, media outlets, festivals, while other bands are independent. Most traditional and fundamentalist Christians did not view rock music favorably when it became popular with young people from the 1950s though country and gospel music influenced early rock music. In 1952 Archibald Davison, a Harvard professor, summed up the sound of traditional Christian music and why its supporters might not like rock music when he wrote of "... a rhythm that avoids strong pulses. In the light of Archibald Davison's characterisation it is easy to see how different these two genres of music are. Christians in many regions of the United States did not want their children exposed to music with unruly, impassioned vocals, loud guitar-riffs and jarring, hypnotic rhythms.
Rock and roll differed from the norm, thus it was seen as a threat. The music was overtly sexual in nature, as in the case of Elvis Presley, who became controversial and massively popular for his suggestive stage antics and dancing. However, "Elvis" was a religious person who released a gospel album: Peace in the Valley in 1957. Individual Christians may have listened to or performed rock music in many cases, but conservative church establishments - in the American South - regarded it as anathema, he Touched Me, a 1972 gospel-music album by Elvis Presley, sold over 1 million copies in the US alone and earned Presley his second of three Grammy Awards. Not counting compilations, it was his third and final album devoted to gospel music; the song "He Touched Me" was written in 1963 by Bill Gaither, an American singer and songwriter of southern gospel and Contemporary Christian music. In the 1960s rock music developed artistically, attained worldwide popularity and became associated with the radical counterculture alienating many Christians.
In 1966 The Beatles, regarded as one of the most popular and influential rock-bands of their era, ran into trouble with many of their American fans when John Lennon jokingly offered his opinion that Christianity was dying and that the Beatles were "more popular than Jesus now". The romantic, melodic rock songs of the band's early career had been viewed as inoffensive, but after the remark, churches nationwide organized Beatles-record burnings and Lennon was forced to apologize. Subsequently, the Beatles and most rock musicians experimented with a more complex, psychedelic style of music that used anti-establishment, drug-related, or sexual lyrics, while The Rolling Stones sang "Sympathy for the Devil", a song written from the point of view of Satan. Allegations of Satanic intent arose from the Beatles and others of the controversial backmasking recording-technique; this further increased Christian opposition to rock music. In the 1960s the escalating Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement, the Paris student riots of 1968 and other events served as catalysts for youth activism and political withdrawal or protest, which became associated with rock bands, whether or not they were political.
Moreover, many saw the music as promoting a lifestyle of promiscuous "sex and rock and roll" reflected in the behavior of many rock stars. However, there was growing ideological potential of rock. Countless new bands sprang up in the mid-to-late 1960s, as rock displaced older, smoother pop styles to become the dominant form of pop music, a position it would enjoy continuously until the end of the 20th century, when hip-hop eclipsed it in sales. Among the first bands that played Christian rock was The Crusaders, a Southern Californian garage rock band, whose November 1966 Tower Records album Make a Joyful Noise with Drums and Guitars is considered one of the first gospel rock releases, or "the first record of Christian rock", Mind Garage, "arguably the first band of its kind", whose 1967 Electric Liturgy was recorded in 1969 at RCA's "Nashville Sound" studio. Both of these recordings were preceded by the rockabilly praise LP I Like God's Style and performed by one 16-year-old Isabel Baker and released on the private Wichita, Kansas Romco label in 1965, which slipped into obscurity before being rediscovered around 2007.
Larry Norman described as the "father of Christian rock music", in his years "the Grandfather of Christian rock", who, in 1969 recorded and released Upon This Rock, "the first commercially released Jesus rock album", challenged a view held by some conservative Christians that rock music was anti-Christian. One of his songs, "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?" Summarized his attitude and his quest to pioneer Christian rock music. A cover version of Larry Norman's Rapture-themed "I Wish We'd All Been Ready" appears in the Evangelical Christian feature film A Thief in the Night and appeared on Cliff Richard's Christian album Small Corners along with "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". Another Christian rock pioneer, Randy Stonehill, released his first album in 1971, the Larry Norman-produced Born Twice. In the most c
Ferndale High School is a public high school in Ferndale in Greater Detroit, in the US state of Michigan. It is under the jurisdiction of the Ferndale Public Schools, it was Lincoln High School when built in 1921 on the corner of 9 Mile and Livernois Roads. The current Ferndale High School was built in two phases: "Old Main" was built in 1936 as an addition to Lincoln High School, with the "Alexander" wing built in 1957, the year the high school was renamed; as of the 2013-2014 school year, the demographic breakdown of the 805 students enrolled was: Male - 407 Female - 398 Native American - 2 Asian/Pacific islander - 19 Black - 461 Hispanic - 15 White - 265 Multiracial - 43 The Ferndale Eagles are a member of the Oakland Activities Association. The school colors are brown and gold; the following MHSAA sanctioned sports are offered: James Blanchard, governor of Michigan 1983–1991 Anne Harris and science fiction author Frank Joranko and baseball player and coach.
In metrology, a standard is an object, system, or experiment that bears a defined relationship to a unit of measurement of a physical quantity. Standards are the fundamental reference for a system of weights and measures, against which all other measuring devices are compared. Historical standards for length and mass were defined by many different authorities, which resulted in confusion and inaccuracy of measurements. Modern measurements are defined in relationship to internationally standardized reference objects, which are used under controlled laboratory conditions to define the units of length, electrical potential, other physical quantities. There is a three-level hierarchy of physical measurement standards. At the top of the tree are the master standards – these are known as primary standards. Primary standards are made to the highest metrological quality and are the definitive definition or realization of their unit of measure. Units of measure were defined with reference to unique artifacts which were the legal basis of units of measure.
A continuing trend in metrology is to eliminate as many as possible of the artifact standards and instead define practical units of measure in terms of fundamental physical constants, as demonstrated by standardized technique. One advantage of elimination of artifact standards is that inter-comparison of artifacts is no longer required. Another advantage would be that the loss or damage of the artifact standards would not disrupt the system of measures; the next quality standard in the hierarchy is known as a secondary standard. Secondary standards are calibrated with reference to a primary standard; the third level of standard, a standard, periodically calibrated against a secondary standard, is known as a working standard. Working standards are used for the calibration of industrial measurement equipment. An example of a primary standard was the international prototype kilogram, the master kilogram and the primary mass standard for the International System of Units; the IPK is a one kilogram mass of a platinum-iridium alloy maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres, France.
Another example is the unit of the volt. It was defined in terms of standard cell electrochemical batteries, which limited the stability and precision of the definition; the volt is defined in terms of the output of a Josephson junction, which bears a direct relationship to fundamental physical constants. In contrast, the reference standard for the metre is no longer defined by a physical object. In 1983, the standard metre was redefined as the distance light travels in a vacuum during 1/299 792 458 of a second. Secondary reference standards are close approximations of primary reference standards. For example, major national measuring laboratories such as the US's National Institute of Standards and Technology will hold several "national standard" kilograms, which are periodically calibrated against the IPK and each other. A machine shop will have physical working standards that are used for checking its measuring instruments. Working standards and certified reference materials used in commerce and industry have a traceable relationship to the secondary and primary standards.
Working standards are expected to deteriorate, are no longer considered traceable to a national standard after a time period or use count expires. National organizations provide calibration and private industrial laboratories with items, processes and/or certification so they can provide certified traceability to national standards; these laboratory standards are kept in controlled conditions to maintain their precision, used as a reference for calibration and creating working standards. Sometimes they are called "secondary standards" because of their high quality and reference suitability. History of measurement International System of Units Measurement Measurement uncertainty Measuring instrument Metre Technical standard Units of measurement Kibble balance 2019 redefinition of the SI base units
David Barry Cohen is an American politician who served as a Massachusetts state Representative and as the mayor of Newton, Massachusetts. Cohen was a member of the Newton Board of Aldermen from 1972–1979 and a state representative from 1979–1998. In 1997, Cohen defeated incumbent Mayor Thomas Concannon, Jr. to win his first of three terms as mayor. Based on statistics reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Newton under Mayor Cohen's leadership was the nation's safest city during 2003, 2004 and 2005, the fourth-safest city in the nation in 2006; the designation is based on crime statistics in six categories: murder, robbery, aggravated assault and auto theft. Cohen did not run for re-election in 2009. Cohen left office on Jan.. 1, 2010, replaced by political newcomer Setti Warren, who won a close race against State Representative Ruth Balser. Cohen's final term ended with controversy over the city's new Newton North High School. With a price tag of nearly $200 million, the school is the most expensive in Massachusetts.
He said he chose not to run for a fourth term because he did not want to harm efforts to override Proposition 2½
Oquaga Creek State Park is a 1,385-acre state park in Broome and Chenango counties, New York. The park is in the Town of Masonville and in the Town of Sanford. Broome County Road 241 passes through the park. Oquaga Creek State Park has 90 campsites, one full-service cottage, several "rustic" cabins. A limited number of seasonal campsites are available. There are six miles of hiking trails which offer views of wildlife such as deer and various birds, in addition to wild plants such as wild blueberries and wild grapes. Many of the campsites are lined with wild strawberries. Arctic Lake, with a surface area of 55 acres, is available for fishing, its beach is open to swimmers. In the winter, the lake is used for ice skating; the park was closed for camping during the 2010 season due to New York State's budget shortfalls, however the park's campground re-opened in summer 2011. The park includes a nine-hole disc golf course, built in 1979. List of New York state parks New York State Parks: Oquaga Creek State Park
She Keeps Bees is a rock and roll band from Brooklyn, New York, formed in 2006 and consisting of Jessica Larrabee on vocals and guitar and Andy LaPlant on drums. They have been compared to Patti Smith, the White Stripes, The Kills, PJ Harvey, Cat Power. Larrabee was recording an album as a solo artist under the name She Keeps Bees and met LaPlant when she was his bartender, he began attending her shows, until she suggested he play with her. They formed their band in 2006, they record their music in their home in Brooklyn. Larrabee has been a guest vocalist on Groove Armada's Grammy-nominated album Black Light, they have supported The Joy Formidable, played at SXSW in 2010. They signed to Domino Publishing in July 2010, their third album Dig On, recorded during November 2010 in a log home in the Catskill Mountains, was released in July 2011. Jessica Larrabee is a singer-songwriter and guitarist, in other bands, she taught her partner Andy LaPlant to play drums. Larrabee says of their playing that "I sing until my stomach hurts while Andy beats the shit out the drums." and has acknowledged comparisons to Cat Power.
The Guardian said that "they're like the White Stripes in reverse." Drowned in Sound said of Larrabee that "she has amazing control over her vocals, able to be fiery and reserved and vaguely crude", fellow Brooklyn musician Sharon Van Etten said "she has one of the best voices I have heard and she has more soul in one finger than most female singers have in our scene." The New York Times's ArtsBeat compared her to PJ Harvey, but added that "far from Ms. Harvey’s theatrical poise, Ms. Larrabee is loose and unchoreographed, jittering around the stage." The Quietus said of Nests that "the album does its duty, forms a songbook for the pissed off, the heavy-lidded and the sultry." The Observer said it was "sparse and defiantly retro." Contact Music argued that "in some parts the album isn’t an easy listen but once you’re in to it, it’s rewarding." Minisink Hotel, self-released, 2006 Shhhh EP, self-released, 2007 Nests, self-released, 2008 Revival EP, UK, 2009 Dig On, self-released, 2011 Eight Houses, Future Gods and BB*Island, 2014 Kinship, Ba Da Bing and BB*Island "SKB-005", 7" single, 2010 "SKB-007" 7" single, 2012 "Our Bodies" 7" single, 2017 Official website Music on Bandcamp.com Lemaire, Clara.
"She keeps Bees". Discordance. Retrieved 3 February 2011. Podcast/interview