SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Christianization

Christianization is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and throughout the Middle Ages; the conversion of the ruler was followed by the compulsory baptism of his subjects. Some were evangelization by monks or priests, organic growth within an partly Christianized society, or by campaigns against paganism such as the conversion of pagan temples into Christian churches or the condemnation of pagan gods and practices. A strategy for Christianization was Interpretatio Christiana – the practice of converting native pagan practices and culture, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar to Christian uses, due to the Christian efforts at proselytism based on the Great Commission. Reformatting native religious and cultural activities and beliefs into a Christianized form was sanctioned. In essence, it was intended that the traditions and practices still existed, but that the reasoning behind them was altered.

The existence of syncretism in Christian tradition has long been recognized by scholars. Since the 16th century and till modern days, significant scholarship was devoted to deconstruction of interpretatio christiana, i.e. tracing the roots of some Christian practices and traditions to paganism. Early works of this type have tended to be downplayed and dismissed as a form of Protestant apologetics aimed at "purification" of Christianity; the Council of Jerusalem, according to Acts 15, agreed that lack of circumcision could not be a basis for excluding Gentile believers from membership in the Jesus community. Rather, they instructed new believers to avoid "pollution of idols, things strangled, blood", expecting them to hear Moses read on the Sabbath days; these clarifications were put into writing, distributed by messengers present at the Council, were received as an encouragement to the growth of these gentiles' trust in the God of Israel as revealed in the Gospel. The Apostolic Decree thus helped to establish nascent Christianity as a unique alternative among the forms of Judaism for prospective Proselytes.

The Twelve Apostles and the Apostolic Fathers initiated the process of transforming the Jewish sect into a diaspora of communities composed of both Jews and gentiles, united by their trust in Jesus. The Armenian and Ethiopian churches are the only instances of imposition of Christianity by sovereign rulers predating the council of Nicaea; the initial conversion of the Roman Empire occurred in urban areas of Europe, where the first conversions were sometimes among members of the Jewish population. Conversions happened among other populations over centuries initially among its urban population, with rural conversions taking place some time later; the term "pagan" is from Latin and means "villager, civilian." It is derived from this historical transition. The root of that word is present in today's word "paisan" or "paisano"; the Christianization of the Roman Empire is divided into two phases and after the year 312, which marked the momentous conversion of Constantine. By this date, Christianity had converted a significant but unknown proportion of at least the urban population of the empire including a small number of the elite classes.

Constantine ended the intermittent persecution of Christianity with the Edict of Milan, in fact a quote from a letter of the emperor Licinius by Eusebius, which granted tolerance to all religions, but mentions Christianity. Under Constantine's successors, Christianization of Roman society proceeded by fits and starts, as John Curran documented in detail. Constantine's sons did not close the temples. Although all state temples in all cities were ordered shut in 356, there is evidence that traditional sacrifices continued. Under Julian, the temples were state religious sacrifices performed once more; when Gratian, emperor 376-383, declined the office and title of Pontifex Maximus, his act brought an end to the state religion due to the position's authority and ties within the Imperial administration. Again, this process ended state official practices but not private religious devotion; as Christianity spread, many of the ancient pagan temples were defiled, destroyed, or converted into Christian sites by such figures as Martin of Tours, in the East by militant monks.

However, many temples remained open until Theodosius I's edict of Thessalonica in 381 banned haruspices and other pagan religious practices. From 389 to 393 he issued a series of decrees which led to the banning of pagan religious rites, the confiscation of their property and endowments; the Olympic Games were banned in 392 because of their association with the old religion. Further laws were passed against remaining pagan practices over the course of the following years; the effectiveness of these laws empire-wide is debatable. Christianization of the central Balkans is documented at the end of the 4th century, where Nicetas the Bishop of Remesiana brought the gospel to "those mountain wolves", the Bessi. Report

Loch Morlich

Loch Morlich is a freshwater loch in the Badenoch and Strathspey area of Highland, Scotland near Aviemore. The loch is home to a watersports centre with kayaking and windsurfing among the activities available. There is a yacht club and cycling routes around the loch; the loch is just a few miles from Aviemore. As seen on Game of Thrones Season 5. Long stretches of its shoreline are formed of sandy beaches. In 2009 these beaches received a Seaside Award by the Keep Scotland Beautiful campaign, the first time that this had been given to a fresh water loch. At 300 metres above sea level it became the highest beach to be given this award; when examined the sand of these beaches contains large amounts of broken glass. However, this glass does not come from careless tourists discarding bottles irresponsibly, but is in fact left over from the Second World War when the area around Loch Morlich was used as a commando school. In particular it was used as a training area for the Kompani Linge because of the close resemblance of the area, both in landscape and climate, to Norway.

A memorial to the Kompani Linge can be found outside the Glenmore Forest Park visitor centre. Media related to Loch Morlich at Wikimedia Commons Loch Morlich beach - Forestry Commission Scotland Keep Scotland Beautiful - Awards Loch Morlich Watersports

Larne F.C.

Larne Football Club is a professional Northern Irish football club based in Larne, County Antrim that play in the NIFL Premiership. The club plays its home matches at Inver Park; the clubs colours are red and white, the club's greatest rivals are Ballyclare Comrades and Carrick Rangers. From 1972 until 2008, the club had senior status, but reverted to intermediate status when it failed to gain a place in the new IFA Premiership; the club regained senior status in 2016, when the NIFL Championship became the second tier of senior football for the 2016–17 season. They have notably been runners-up of the Irish Cup on five occasions without winning - a record in the competition for the most final appearances without winning the Cup, they have been runners-up of the League Cup twice without winning - a joint-record in the competition for the most final appearances without winning the Cup. After being taken over by Purplebricks co-founder Kenny Bruce in October 2018, the club lifted the 2018–19 NIFL Championship title.

This was the club's first senior tier league title, their first league title since an intermediate title win in 1972, the first senior honour since lifting the Ulster Cup in 1988. This secured a return to the top flight for the first time since suffering relegation to the second tier in the 2007–08 season after failing to meet the criteria for the new IFA Premiership, they field a women's team, whose colours are red & white and purple & black. Formed by a small committee of parents and friends of the Larne Colts in November 2004, they made history by being the first ladies' team to play at Windsor Park as part of the half-time entertainment during the Irish Cup final in May 2005; the ladies have a junior team for ages 8–14. The Senior Ladies' team has been reincorporated back into the club. In their inaugural season, they finished the season as the unbeaten North 2 League Champions, as beaten finalists in the North 2 League Cup. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. NIFL Championship: 1 2018–19 Ulster Cup: 2 1949–50, 1987–88 Irish League B Division: 10 1954–55, 1956–57, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1968–69, 1969–70, 1970–71, 1971–72 Irish Intermediate League: 1 1952–53 Irish Intermediate Cup: 3 1942–43†, 1958–59, 1969–70 George Wilson Cup: 6 1958–59, 1959–60, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1977–78†, 1978–79† Steel & Sons Cup: 11 1909–10, 1941–42†, 1942–43†, 1956–57, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1964–65, 1968–69, 1969–70, 1970–71, 1971–72 Louis Moore Cup: 2 1956–57, 1958–59 McElroy Cup: 1 1948–49† Won by Larne Olympic Irish Junior Cup: 1 1900–01 Larne FC Website