Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third son of King Władysław I and Duchess Jadwiga of Kalisz, the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty. Kazimierz inherited a kingdom made it prosperous and wealthy, he doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian". Kazimierz founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish university, he confirmed privileges and protections granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers. Kazimierz left no lawful male heir to his throne; when Kazimierz died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary. When Kazimierz attained the throne in 1333, his position was in danger, as his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków"; the kingdom was depopulated and exhausted by war, the economy was ruined.
In 1335, in the Treaty of Trentschin, Casimir was forced to relinquish his claims to Silesia "in perpetuity". Kazimierz rebuilt and his kingdom became prosperous and wealthy, with great prospects for the future, he waged many victorious wars and doubled the size of the kingdom through addition of lands in modern-day Ukraine. Kazimierz built extensively during his reign, ordering the construction of over 40 castles, including many castles along the Trail of the Eagle's Nests, he reformed the Polish army. At the Sejm in Wiślica, on 11 March 1347, Kazimierz introduced reforms to the Polish judicial system and sanctioned civil and criminal codes for Great and Lesser Poland, earning the title "the Polish Justinian", he founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish University, he organized a meeting of kings in Kraków in 1364 at which he exhibited the wealth of the Polish kingdom. Kazimierz is the only king in Polish history to both receive and retain the title of "Great". In 1355, in Buda, Kazimierz designated his nephew Louis I of Hungary as his successor should he produce no male heir, as his father had with Charles I of Hungary to gain his help against Bohemia.
In exchange Kazimierz gained a favourable Hungarian attitude, needed in disputes with the hostile Teutonic Order and Kingdom of Bohemia. Kazimierz at the time was still in his early years and having a son did not seem to be a problem. Kazimierz left no legal son, begetting five daughters instead, he tried to adopt Casimir IV, Duke of Pomerania, in his last will. The child had been born to his second daughter, Duchess of Pomerania, in 1351; this part of the testament was invalidated by Louis I of Hungary, who had traveled to Kraków after Kazimierz died and bribed the nobles with future privileges. Kazimierz III had a son-in-law, Louis VI of Bavaria and Prince-elector of Brandenburg, considered a possible successor, but he was deemed ineligible as his wife, Kazimierz's daughter Cunigunde, had died in 1357 without issue, thus King Louis I of Hungary became successor in Poland. Louis was proclaimed king upon Kazimierz's death in 1370, though Kazimierz's sister Elisabeth held much of the real power until her death in 1380.
Casimir was facetiously named "the Peasants' King". He introduced the codes of law of Greater and Lesser Poland as an attempt to end the overwhelming superiority of the nobility. During his reign all three major classes — the nobility and bourgeoisie — were more or less counterbalanced, allowing Casimir to strengthen his monarchic position, he was known for siding with the weak. He even supported a peasant whose house had been demolished by his own mistress, after she had ordered it to be pulled down because it disturbed her enjoyment of the beautiful landscape. On 9 October 1334, he confirmed. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism, he inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. While Jews had lived in Poland since before his reign, Casimir allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as people of the king. Casimir III was born in Kowal, he married four times. Casimir first married the daughter of Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania.
The marriage produced two daughters, married to Louis VI the Roman, the son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Elisabeth, married to Duke Bogislaus V of Pomerania. Aldona died in 1339, Casimir married Adelaide of Hesse, he divorced Adelaide in 1356, married Christina, divorced her, while Adelaide and Christina were still alive, he married Hedwig of Głogów and Sagan. He had three daughters by his fourth wife, they were still young when he died, regarded as of dubious legitimacy because of Casimir's bigamy. On 30 April or 16 October 1325, Casimir married Aldona of Lithuania, she was a daughter of Gediminas of Jewna. They had two children: Elisabeth of Poland. Casimir remained a widower for two years. On 29 September 1341, Casimir married Adelaide of Hesse, she was a daughter of Henry II, Lan
Volhynia, is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe, situated between south-eastern Poland, south-western Belarus, western Ukraine. While the borders of the region are not defined, the territory that still carries the name is Volyn Oblast, located in western Ukraine. Volhynia has changed hands numerous times throughout history and been divided among competing powers. At one time all of Volhynia was part of the Pale of Settlement designated by Imperial Russia on its southwestern-most border. Important cities include Lutsk, Volodymyr-Volynskyi and Novohrad-Volynskyi. After the annexation of Volhynia by the Russian Empire as part of the Partitions of Poland, it included the cities of Zhytomyr, Korosten; the city of Zviahel was renamed Novohrad-Volynsky, Volodymyr became Volodymyr-Volynskyi. Volynia Ukrainian: Волинь, translit. Volýn), Russian: Волы́нь, translit. Volyn. Volin) The alternative name for the region is Lodomeria after the city of Volodymyr-Volynsky, once a political capital of the medieval Volhynian Principality.
According to some historians, the region is named after a semi-legendary city of Volin or Velin, said to have been located on the Southern Bug River, whose name may come from the Proto-Slavic root *vol/vel-'wet'. In other versions, the city was located over 20 km to the west of Volodymyr-Volynskyi near the mouth of the Huczwa River, a tributary of the Western Bug. Geographically it is located in the Volhynian-Podolian Upland and Polesian Lowland along the Prypyat valley as part of the vast East European Plain, between the Western Bug in the west and the Ovruch Ridge and Dnieper Upland in the east. Before the partitions of Poland, the eastern edge stretched a little west along the right-banks of the Sluch River or just east of it. Within the territory of Volhynia is located Little Polisie, a lowland that divides the Volhynian-Podolian Upland into separate Volhynian Upland and northern outskirts of Podolian Upland, the so-called Kremenets Hills. Volhynia is located in the basins of the Western Bug and Prypyat, therefore most of its rivers flow either in a northern or a western direction.
Relative to other historical regions, it is northeast of Galicia, east of Lesser Poland and northwest of Podolia. The borders of the region are not defined, it is considered to overlap a number of other regions, among which are Polesia and Podlasie; the territories of historical Volhynia are now part of the Volyn and parts of the Zhytomyr and Khmelnytskyi Oblasts of Ukraine, as well as parts of Poland. Major cities include Lutsk, Kovel, Volodymyr-Volynskyi and Starokostiantyniv. Before World War II, many Jewish shtetls, such as Trochenbrod and Lozisht, were an integral part of the region. At one time all of Volhynia was part of the Pale of Settlement designated by Imperial Russia on its southwesternmost border; the land was mentioned in the works of Arabian scholar Al-Masudi, who denoted the local tribe as "people of Valin". In his work of 947-948, Al-Masudi mentions the Valinians as an intertribal union ruled by their leader Madjak. Volhynia may have been included in the Grand Duchy of Kiev as early as the 10th century.
At that time Princess Olga sent a punitive raid against the Drevlians to avenge the death of her husband Grand Prince Igor. In the opinion of the Ukrainian historian Yuriy Dyba, the chronicle phrase «и оустави по мьстѣ. Погосты и дань. И по лузѣ погосты и дань и ѡброкы» (and established in place pogosts and tribute along Luha, the path of pogosts and tribute reflects the actual route of Olga's raid against the Drevlians further to the west, up to the Western Bug's right tributary Luha River. As early as 983, Vladimir the Great appointed his son Vsevolod as the ruler of the Volhynian Principality. In 988 he established the city of Volodymer; the first records can be traced to the Ruthenian chronicles, such as the Primary Chronicle, which mentions tribes of the Dulebe and Volhynian peoples in the year of 1077. Volhynia's early history coincides with that of the duchies or principalities of Halych and Volhynia; these two successor states of the Kievan Rus formed Halych-Volhynia between the 12th and the 14th centuries.
After the disintegration of the Grand Duchy of Halych-Volhynia circa 1340, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania divided the region between them, Poland taking Western Volhynia and Lithuania taking Eastern Volhynia. After 1569 Volhynia was organized as a province of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. During this period many Poles and Jews settled in the area; the Roman and Greek Catholic churches became established in the province. In 1375 a Roman Catholic Diocese of Lodomeria was established, but it was suppressed in 1425. Many Orthodox churches joined the latter organization in order to benefit from a more attractive legal status. Records of the first agricultural colonies of Mennonites, Protestants from Germany, date from 1783. After the Third partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Volhynia was annexed as the Volhynian Governorate of the Russian Empire, it covered an area of 71,852.7 square kilometres. Following this annexation, the Russian government changed the religious make-up of the area
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as Pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years; this absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all French, all under the influence of the French Crown. In 1376, Gregory XI moved his court to Rome, but after Gregory's death in 1378, deteriorating relations between his successor Urban VI and a faction of cardinals gave rise to the Western Schism. This started a second line of Avignon popes.
The last Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France. The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance, after two popes had reigned in opposition to the papacy in Rome. Among the popes who resided in Avignon, subsequent Catholic historiography grants legitimacy to these: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 The two Avignon-based antipopes were: Clement VII: 1378–1394 Benedict XIII: 1394–1423 Benedict XIII was succeeded by three antipopes, who had little or no public following, were not resident at Avignon: Clement VIII: 1423–1429 Benedict XIV: 1424–1429 or 1430 Benedict XIV: 1430?–1437The period from 1378 to 1417, when there were rival claimants to the title of pope, is referred to as the "Western Schism" or "the great controversy of the antipopes" by some Roman Catholic scholars and "the second great schism" by many secular and Protestant historians.
Parties within the Roman Church were divided in their allegiance among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance resolved the controversy in 1417 when the election of Pope Martin V was accepted by all. Avignon and the small enclave to the east remained part of the Papal States until 1791, under pressure from French revolutionaries, they were absorbed by the short-lived revolutionary Kingdom of France, which, in turn, was abolished in favor of the French First Republic the following year; the papacy in the Late Middle Ages played a major temporal role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor was fundamentally a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its importance had peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries; the success of the early Crusades added to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of Christendom, with monarchs like those of England and the Holy Roman Emperor acting as marshals for the popes and leading "their" armies.
One exception was Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, twice excommunicated by the Pope during a Crusade. Frederick II was moderately successful in the Holy Land; this state of affairs culminated in the unbridled declaration of papal supremacy, Unam sanctam, in November 1302. In that papal bull, Pope Boniface VIII decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff." This was directed to King Phillip IV of France who responded by saying, "Your venerable conceitedness may know that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters." In 1303 AD, Pope Boniface VIII followed up with a bull that would excommunicate the king of France and put the interdict over France, depose the entire clergy of France. Before this was finalized, Italian allies of the King of France broke into the papal residence and beat Pope Boniface VIII, he died shortly thereafter. Nicholas Boccasini was elected as his successor and took the name Pope Benedict XI, he absolved King Phillip IV and his subjects of their actions against Pope Boniface VIII.
However, Benedict XI died within eight months of being elected to the papacy. After eleven months, Bertrand de Got, a French man and a personal friend of King Phillip IV, was elected as pope and took the name Pope Clement V. Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the Avignon papacy were French. However, this makes. Southern France at that time had a culture quite independent from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France were based; the Kingdom of Arles was still independent at that time, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. The literature produced by the troubadours in the Languedoc is unique and distinct from that of Royal circles in the north. In terms of religion, the South produced its own variety of Christianity, declared heretical; the movement was fueled in no small part by the strong sense of independence in the
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Yotvingians, or Sudovians, were a Baltic people with close cultural ties in the 13th century to the Lithuanians and Prussians. The Yotvingian language was a Western Baltic language, nearest to Old Prussian but with small variations, they were referred to in regional historical records into the 19th century. The Yotvingian lived in southwest from the upper Neman. Today this area corresponds to the Podlaskie Voivodeship of Poland, portions of Lithuania and a part of Hrodna Province of Belarus; the territory was between the Marijampolė and Merkinė. Vytautas the Great wrote about "terra Sudorum", in a letter to King Sigismund of March 11, 1420; the name Sūduva, according to Vytautas Mažiulis, derives from a local hydronym *Sūdvā, in turn derived from a Baltic verbal root *sū-: to flow, pour. A. S. Kibin proposed Yotvingian, or the "Slavic Jatviagi as the group name goes back to O. N. patronymic derivative játvingar meaning « the descendants of Játvígr », or « the people of Játvígr »" - "the name Játvígr mentioned by Knytlinga saga".
J. Pashka, acknowledging Kibin's proposal, has interpreted the ethnonym as derived from the Old Norse Játvígr, with a genitive Játvígs liðsmenn label of Játvígr's Viking expedition and his Norse Rus' settlers by the Nemunas river. Pashka asserts the nasal infixation in the original Old Norse Játvíg name of the 944-945 Kiev Treaty was an insignificant scribal error or misinterpretation, that has survived to the present. According to The Histories of Herodotus, the Neuri Νευροί were a tribe living beyond the Scythian cultivators, one of the nations along the course of the river Hypanis, west of the Borysthenes; this was the area of modern Belarus and Eastern Poland by the Narew river, coinciding with the Yotvingian linguistic territory of toponyms and hydronyms. In 944, during the treaty between the Kievan Rus' prince Igor and the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, the Yotvingians were hired by the Kievan ruler to serve as mercenaries. Vladimir I of Kiev, in 983, hired the Yotvingians to add to his army.
Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD called the people Galindai kai Soudinoi. Peter von Dusburg called them Suduwite. In the Hypatian Codex the spellings are changing: Jatviagy, Jatviažin, zemlia Jatveskaja, na zemliu Jatviažs´kuju and more. Polish sources used Russian spellings: Jazviagi, Jazvizite, Yazvizite. In the treaty with the Teutonic Knights in 1260, the region is called "terre Getuizintarum"; this name was taken by the papal administration: terra Jatwesouie, Gzestuesie, Getuesia und Getvesia. The Knights called Sudowia, in qua Sudowit. In the sentence of Breslau of the emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg to the Order of Livland from 1325, this area is called Suderlandt alias Jetuen. In two dotations of Mindaugas I, a new name was recorded: Dainava, Dainowe, Denowe; the forests were named Deinova Jatvež. Yotvingians had a strong warrior culture and were well known as great warriors and hunters, were feared by neighbouring Baltic tribes for their skill in warfare. Skalmantas, leader of the Yotvingians was responsible for single-handedly raiding Pinsk in the Principality of Turov.
A census by the clergy of the Belarus Grodno area in 1860 had as many as 30,929 inhabitants identifying as Yatviags. Skalmantas, leader of Sudovians, took part in the Prussian uprisings. Sudovian language Yotvingia Marija Gimbutas, The Balts. London: Thames and Hudson, Ancient peoples and places 33, 1963. Totoraitis, J. Sūduvos Suvalkijos istorija. Marijampolė: Piko valanda. ISBN 978-9986-875-87-1. Witczak, K. T. Traces of Dual Forms in Old Prussian and Jatvingian in Woljciech Smoczynski and Axel Holvoet, Colloquium Pruthenicum primum, 1992, pp 93–98 Gerullis, G. Zur Sprache der Sudauer-Jadwinger, in Festschrift A. Bezzenberger, Göttingen 1927 Toporov,V. ИНДОЕВРОПЕЙСКЕ ЯЗЫКИ Лингвистический энциклопеический словарь. Moskva, 1990, pp 186 -- V. Baltic languages. Britannica Online Encyclopedia Henning, E. De rebus Jazygum sive Jazuin-gorum, Regiomonti, 1812 Sjoegren, A. Ueber die Wohnsitz Verhaeltnisse und der Jatwaeger, St. Petersburg, 1859 Sembrzycki, J. Die Nord-und Westgebiete the Jadwinger und deren Grenzen, Altpreussischeme Monatschrift, XXVIII, 1891, pp. 76–89 W. R. Schmalstieg, Studies in Old Prussian, University Park and London, 1976.
V. Toporov, Prusskij jazyk: Slovar', A - L, Moskva, 1975-1990. V. Mažiulis, Prūsų kalbos etimologijos žodynas, Vilnius, t. I-IV, 1988-1997. Archäologie der UDSSR: Die Finno-Ugrier und die Balten im Mittelalter, Teil II, Balten, S. 411-419, Moskau 1987 Lepa, Gerhard: Die Sudauer, in Tolkemita-Texte Nr. 55, Dieburg 1998 Lepa, Gerhard: Gedanken über die Prußen und ihre Lieder, in Tolkemita-Texte „25 Lieder der Sudauer“ Nr. 56, Dieburg 1999 Litauische Enzyklopädie, Bd. XXVX, Boston, USA, 1963 Salemke, Gerhard: Lagepläne der Wallburganlagen von der ehemaligen Provinz Ostpreußen, Gütersloh, 2005, Karten 19/ 7 - 19/ 13 Žilevičius, Juozas: Grundzüge der kleinlitauischen Volksmusik, in Tolkemita-Texte „25 Lieder der Sudauer“ Nr. 56, Dieburg 1999 Gimbutas, The Balts, London: Thames and Hudson, pp 97–102. Mažiuli