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Christie's

Christie's is a British auction house, founded in 1766 by James Christie. Its main premises are at St James's, central London, in New York City at the Rockefeller Center. Christie's is owned by the holding company of François-Henri Pinault. Sales in 2015 totalled £4.8 billion. In 2017, the Salvator Mundi was sold for $450.3 million at Christie's in New York, at the time the highest price paid for a single painting at an auction. The official company literature states that founder James Christie conducted the first sale in London, England, on 5 December 1766, the earliest auction catalogue the company retains is from December 1766. However, other sources note that James Christie rented auction rooms from 1762, newspaper advertisements for Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been traced. After his death, Christie's son, James Christie the Younger took over the business. Christie's was a public company, listed on the London Stock Exchange, from 1973 to 1999. In 1974, Jo Floyd was appointed chairman of Christie's.

He served as chairman of Christie's International plc from 1976 to 1988, until handing over to Lord Carrington, was a non-executive director until 1992. Christie's International Inc. held its first sale in the United States in 1977. Christie's growth was steady since 1989, when it had 42 % of the auction market. In 1990, the company reversed a long-standing policy and guaranteed a minimum price for a collection of artworks in its May auctions. In 1996, sales exceeded those of Sotheby's for the first time since 1954. However, profits did not grow at the same pace. In 1993, Christie's paid $12.7 million for the London gallery Spink & Son, which specialised in Oriental art and British paintings. The company bought Leger Gallery for $3.3 million in 1996, merged it with Spink to become Spink-Leger. Spink-Leger closed in 2002. To make itself competitive with Sotheby's in the property market, Christie's bought Great Estates in 1995 the largest network of independent estate agents in North America, changing its name to Christie's Great Estates Inc.

In December 1997, under the chairmanship of Lord Hindlip, Christie's put itself on the auction block, but after two months of negotiations with the consortium-led investment firm SBC Warburg Dillon Read it did not attract a bid high enough to accept. In May 1998, François Pinault's holding company, Groupe Artémis S. A. first bought 29.1 percent of the company for $243.2 million, subsequently purchased the rest of it in a deal that valued the entire company at $1.2 billion. The company has since not been reporting profits, its policy, in line with UK accounting standards, is to convert non-UK results using an average exchange rate weighted daily by sales throughout the year. In 2002, Christie's France held its first auction in Paris. Like Sotheby's, Christie's became involved in high-profile private transactions. In 2006, Christie's offered a reported $21 million guarantee to the Donald Judd Foundation and displayed the artist's works for five weeks in an exhibition that won an AICA award for "Best Installation in an Alternative Space".

In 2007 it brokered a $68 million deal that transferred Thomas Eakins's The Gross Clinic from the Jefferson Medical College at the Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia to joint ownership by the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In the same year, the Haunch of Venison gallery became a subsidiary of the company. On 28 December 2008, The Sunday Times reported that Pinault's debts left him "considering" the sale of Christie's and that a number of "private equity groups" were thought to be interested in its acquisition. In January 2009, the company employed 2,100 people worldwide, though an unspecified number of staff and consultants were soon to be cut due to a worldwide downturn in the art market. With sales for premier Impressionist and contemporary artworks tallying only US$248.8 million in comparison to US$739 million just a year before, a second round of job cuts began after May 2009. Guy Bennett resigned just before to the beginning of the summer 2009 sales season.

Although the economic downturn has encouraged some collectors to sell art, others are unwilling to sell in a market which may yield only bargain prices. On 1 January 2017, Guillaume Cerutti was appointed chief executive officer. Patricia Barbizet was appointed chief executive officer of Christie's in 2014, the first female CEO of the company, she replaced Steven Murphy, hired in 2010 to develop their online presence and launch in new markets, such as China. In 2012, Impressionist works, which dominated the market during the 1980s boom, were replaced by contemporary art as Christie's top category. Asian art was the third most-lucrative area. With income from classic auctioneering falling, treaty sales made £413.4 million in the first half of 2012, an increase of 53% on the same period last year. The company has promoted curated events, centred on a theme rather than an art classification or time period; as part of a companywide review in 2017, Christie's announced the layoffs of 250 employees, or 12 percent of the total work force, based in Britain and Europe.

From 2008 until 2013, Christie's charged 25 percent for the first $50,000. From 2013, it charged 25 percent for the first $75,000.

List of units of the British Army Territorial Force 1908

The following is a list of units transferred to the Territorial Force on 1 April 1908, or raised in that year under the terms of the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907, the associations by which they were administered. The County Association of Rutland did not have charge of any units, but did provide facilities for sub-units of the Leicestershire Yeomanry and the 5th Battalion Leicestershire Regiment. A number of units those attached to the Royal Garrison Artillery and Royal Engineers, had their titles altered again in 1910. Yeomanry regiments formed the cavalry arm of the TF, were grouped into mounted brigades of three regiments each. Royal Horse Artillery units formed artillery support to the mounted brigades. Most of the batteries were newly raised in 1908. †The HAC had its property and privileges protected by the Honourable Artillery Company Act 1908.††On 18 March 1908, Wiltshire RHA was proposed to be raised as a new unit. However, poor recruiting led to a change in plans and the Hampshire RHA was raised in 1909 instead.

Royal Field Artillery brigades formed parts of each territorial division, were mobile and equipped with medium calibre ordnance. Royal Garrison Artillery units of the TF were "defended ports" units guarding coastal facilities, with the exception of the 4th Highland Brigade, equipped as mountain artillery; each division of the TF was supported by two field companies and a telegraph company of the Royal Engineers. In addition there were a number of fortress units consisting of works and electric lights companies, providing coastal defence. † Formed from part of the former 1st VB. When the battalion was converted to artillery in 1908, a number of officers had refused to transfer, were placed on the unattached list, they became the basis for the 6th Battalion in 1912. Each infantry division had an attached Divisional Transport and Supply Column of the ASC. A column consisted of four companies: a headquarters company and one attached to each of the three infantry brigades that made up the division.

A smaller transport and supply column, consisting of a single company, was attached to each mounted brigade. While some of the ASC companies were formed by the conversion of existing infantry or artillery units of the volunteer force, most were newly raised in 1908. Norman E. H. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988, Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0. Norman Litchfield & Ray Westlake, The Volunteer Artillery 1859–1908, Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1982, ISBN 9780950820507. Cliff Lord & Graham Watson, Royal Corps of Signals: Unit Histories of the Corps and its Antecedents, Solihull: Helion, 2003, ISBN 1-874622-92-2. Westlake, Ray. British Territorial Units 1914–18. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-168-7. R. A. Westlake, Royal Engineers 1859–1908, Wembley: R. A. Westlake, 1983, ISBN 0-9508530-0-3

Ludwig von Graff

Ludwig Graff de Pancsova, more known as Ludwig von Graff, was an Austrian zoologist born in Pancsova. In 1871 he received his medical degree in Vienna, afterwards studying zoology at the University of Graz. In 1872 he was an assistant at the zoological institute in Strasbourg, where he worked with Eduard Oscar Schmidt. In 1873 he relocated to Munich as an assistant to Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold, gaining his habilitation during the following year. In 1876 he became a professor at the Academy of Forestry in Aschaffenburg, from 1884 was a professor of zoology at the University of Graz. Here he expanded the institute of its library. In 1896-97 he was rector of the university. Graff was a leading expert on Turbellaria remembered for research of its morphology and biological systematics, he gathered material for his studies on numerous expeditions, which included journeys to Ceylon and Java, the Arctic Ocean and North America. With Victor von Ebner and others, he founded the Gesellschaft für Morphologie und Physiologie.

He was a co-founder of the Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft. The 1910 International Congress of Zoologists at Graz elected him an honorary president Monographie der Turbellarien. Deutsche Biographie Works by or about Ludwig von Graff at Internet Archive