Christina, Queen of Sweden

Christina became Queen of Sweden at the age of six. As a member of the House of Vasa, she succeeded her father Gustavus Adolphus upon his death at the Battle of Lützen, but began ruling the Swedish Empire when she reached the age of 18. Christina is remembered as one of the most learned women of the 17th century, she was fond of books, manuscripts and sculptures. With her interest in religion, philosophy and alchemy, she attracted many scientists to Stockholm, wanting the city to become the "Athens of the North", she caused a scandal when she decided not to marry, in 1654 when she abdicated her throne and converted to Roman Catholicism. Christina's financial extravagance brought the state to the verge of bankruptcy, the financial difficulties caused public unrest after ten years of ruling. At the age of 28, the "Minerva of the North" relinquished the throne to her cousin and moved to Rome; the Pope described Christina as "a queen without a realm, a Christian without faith, a woman without shame."

Notwithstanding, she played a leading part in the theatrical and musical community and protected many Baroque artists and musicians. Being the guest of five consecutive popes, a symbol of the Counter Reformation, she is one of the few women buried in the Vatican grotto, her unconventional lifestyle and masculine dressing have been featured in countless novels, plays and film. In all the biographies about Christina, her gender and cultural identity play an important role. Christina was born in the royal castle Tre Kronor on 18 December 1626, her parents were his German wife, Maria Eleonora. They had had two daughters—a stillborn princess in 1620, the first Princess Christina, born in 1623 and died the following year. Excited expectation surrounded Maria Eleonora's third pregnancy in 1626; when the baby was born, it was first thought to be a boy as it was "hairy" and screamed "with a strong, hoarse voice." She wrote in her autobiography that, "Deep embarrassment spread among the women when they discovered their mistake."

The king, was happy, stating, "She'll be clever, she has made fools of us all!" From most accounts, Gustav Adolf appears to have been attached to his daughter, she appears to have admired him greatly. The Crown of Sweden was hereditary in the House of Vasa, but from King Charles IX's time onward, it excluded Vasa princes descended from a deposed brother and a deposed nephew. Gustav Adolf's legitimate younger brothers had died years earlier; the one legitimate female left, his half-sister Catharine, came to be excluded in 1615 when she married a non-Lutheran. So Christina became the undisputed heir presumptive. From Christina's birth, King Gustav Adolph recognized her eligibility as a female heir, although called "queen", the official title she held as of her coronation by the Riksdag in February 1633 was king. Before Gustav Adolf left for Germany to defend Protestantism in the Thirty Years' War, he secured his daughter's right to inherit the throne, in case he never returned, gave orders to Axel Gustafsson Banér, his marshal, that Christina should receive an education of the type only afforded to boys.

Her mother, of the House of Hohenzollern, was a woman of volatile temperament. It is possible. After the king died on 6 November 1632 on the battlefield, his corpse was brought home in a coffin, with his heart in a separate box. Maria Eleonora ordered, she demanded that the coffin be kept open, went to see it patting it and taking no notice of the putrefaction. The embarrassed chancellor, Axel Oxenstierna, saw no other solution than to have a guard posted at the room to prevent further episodes; as a result, he was not buried until 22 June 1634, more than eighteen months later. In 1634, the Instrument of Government, a new constitution, was introduced by Oxenstierna; the constitution stipulated that the "King" must have a Privy Council, headed by Oxenstierna himself. Maria Eleanora had been indifferent to her daughter but now, Christina became the center of her mother's attention. Gustav Adolf had decided that in the event of his death, his daughter should be cared for by his half-sister, Catherine of Sweden and half-brother Carl Gyllenhielm as regent.

This solution did not suit Maria Eleonora. In 1636, Chancellor Oxenstierna saw no other solution than to exile the widow to Gripsholm castle, while the governing regency council would decide when she was allowed to meet her nine-year-old daughter. For the subsequent three years, Christina thrived in the company of her aunt Catherine and her family. In 1638, after the death of her aunt and foster mother Catherine of Sweden, the Royal Regency Council under Axel Oxenstierna saw a need to appoint a new foster mother to the underage monarch, which resulted in a reorganization of the queen's household. In order to avoid the young queen from being dependent upon a single individual and favorite mother figure, the Royal Council decided to split the office of head lady-in-waiting and the office royal governess in four, with two women appointed to share each office. Accordingly, Ebba Leijonhufvud and Christina Natt och Dag were appointed to share the position of royal governess and foster mother with the title Upptuktelse-Förestånderska, while Beata Oxenstierna and Ebba Ryning were appointed to share the position of head lady-in-waiting

I-Frame Delay

I-Frame Delay is a scheduling technique for adaptive streaming of MPEG video. The idea behind it is that streaming scheduler drops video frames when the transmission buffer is full because of insufficient bandwidth, to reduce the transmitted bit-rate; the characteristics of the algorithm.: number of frames in the buffer is indicating buffer fullness, less important frames from the buffer are dropped before the more important frames, the transmission of I-frames is delayed when conditions are bad if they are out-of-date w.r.t. The display time; the IFD mechanism is divided on two parts: as the stream is parsed and packetized into network packets, it is analyzed and the packets are tagged with a priority number reflecting the frame type. Non-video packets are given a highest priority number, which causes that audio will never be dropped. During transmission, packets are dropped by the IFD scheduler; the size of the IFD buffer should be big enough to hold a number of frames but minimum required is two frames, one to hold the frame being sent, one waiting to be sent.

Increasing the IFD buffer size could permit a more elaborate prioritization, however it can cause increased latency and memory usage. The figure below depicts an example of the buffer filling; the numbers represent the priority a packet. Here the video frames priority numbers are 10 and higher; the packets with priority number 12 belong to the frame scheduled for sending, the packets with number 11 belong to the waiting frame. On the figure a packet which belongs to the next frame is about to enter the buffer; as can be seen, it is possible to interleave video packets with non-video packets. When a packet belonging to next frame is about to be written to the IFD buffer and the buffer is full, the IFD scheduler will drop a frame based on the priority assigned earlier; when the network bandwidth is so low that P-frames need to be dropped the GOP is set to be "disturbed" and the rest of the GOP is dropped. If only B-frames are dropped there should be no distortions in the frame image because there are no subsequent frames depending on them.

The dropping of frames by IFD causes the effect of the video playback being temporarily frozen, the duration of which depends on the number of frames dropped after which the playback resumes from the next frame which got through. For an IFD implementation with a buffer of the size of two frames the algorithm is shown in figure below. Procedure Enqueue if DisturbedGOP == True if NextFrame is type I # New GOP is encountered DisturbedGOP = False # Reset disturbed GOP flag end end if DisturbedGOP == True Drop NextFrame # Discard rest of disturbed GOP return end if WaitingFrame is empty WaitingFrame = NextFrame else if NextFrame is type I WaitingFrame = NextFrame else if NextFrame is type B Drop NextFrame else if WaitingFrame is type I or P Drop NextFrame if NextFrame is type P # Discarded frame is P-frame DisturbedGOP = True # Set disturbed GOP flag end else WaitingFrame = NextFrame end end end end end

Pang Ho-cheung

Pang Ho-cheung is a Hong Kong novelist, playwright and filmmaker. Pang was born in Hong Kong in 1973. At the age of 15, he started using a video camera to direct short films with his elder brother. After graduating from high school, he studied abroad in Taiwan for half a year, before returning to Hong Kong where he worked for Hong Kong Asian Television Limited as a gag show writer, he wrote his first novel, served as a columnist for various newspapers and magazines. In 1997, at the age of 24, Pang began 18 months of research for his first novel, "Fulltime Killer"; the novel went on to become popular, selling more than 100,000 copies in Hong Kong. It was reworked as a radio program and adapted into a feature film in 2001. While Pang was still a television and radio host, he decided to fulfil his dream of being a film director. Pang directed the horror film, which featured in the Tribeca Film Festival 2010. Muse Magazine film critic Perry Lam has praised Pang for'often demonstrat a Kafkaesque talent for seeing the absurd in the mundane realities of everyday life.'His feature film Love in the Buff opened the 36th Hong Kong International Film Festival, in March 2012.

The film is a sequel to the successful romance Love in a Puff. Both star Miriam Yeung Chin-wah and Shawn Yue Man-lok. You Shoot, I Shoot Isabella Exodus Trivial Matters 指甲刀人魔 假戏真做 谎言大作战 爱在微博蔓延时 Fulltime Killer You Shoot, I Shoot Men Suddenly in Black Beyond Our Ken A. V. Isabella Exodus Trivial Matters Love in a Puff Dream Home Love in the Buff Vulgaria Aberdeen Women Who Flirt Love Off the Cuff Missbehavior, starring Isabel Chan Mysterious Story I: Please Come Back The Faterangers You Shoot, I Shoot Leaving in Sorrow Men Suddenly in Black Undercover Blues Killer The Cheaters You Shoot, I Shoot Men Suddenly in Black Beyond Our Ken A. V. Isabella Exodus Trivial Matters Love in a Puff Dream Home Love in the Buff Vulgaria Official Website An Interview with Edmond Pang Ho Cheung Edmond Pang Ho-Cheung at the Hong Kong Movie Database Hong Kong Movie World Pang Ho-cheung on IMDb