Christina Nilsson (shipwreck)
Christina Nilsson was a schooner that sank in Lake Michigan off Baileys Harbor, Wisconsin, on October 23, 1884. In 2003, the shipwreck site was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the ship was built in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, at a cost of $23,000 and was named after Christina Nilsson. On October 23, 1884, Christina Nilsson cleared Escanaba, bound for Chicago, with a cargo of pig iron; when a blizzard hit the area that day, her captain attempted to make port at Baileys Harbor, while still trying to navigate through the storm, Christina Nilsson struck a reef off Baileys Harbor and foundered. All crew members survived; the ship's cargo attempts to salvage Christina Nilsson herself were unsuccessful. The wreck site has been investigated by the Wisconsin Historical Society and the Wisconsin Underwater Archaeology Association since 1997
Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Malmö. It had 168,096 inhabitants in 2017. Located 71 km north of the capital Stockholm it is the seat of Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden. Uppsala is home to Scandinavia's largest cathedral – Uppsala Cathedral. Founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia. Among many achievements, the Celsius scale for temperature was invented there. Uppsala was located a few kilometres north of its current location at a place now known as Gamla Uppsala. Today's Uppsala was called Östra Aros. Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Norse gods; the Fyrisvellir plains along the river south of Old Uppsala, in the area where the modern city is situated today, was the site of the Battle of Fyrisvellir in the 980s.
The present-day Uppsala was a port town of Gamla Uppsala. In 1160, King Eric Jedvardsson was attacked and killed outside the church of Östra Aros, became venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. In 1274, Östra Aros overtook Gamla Uppsala as the main regional centre, when the cathedral of Gamla Uppsala burnt down, the archbishopric and the relics of Saint Eric were moved to Östra Aros, where the present-day Uppsala Cathedral was erected; the cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres. The city is the site of the oldest university in Scandinavia, founded in 1477, is where Carl Linnaeus, one of the renowned scholars of Uppsala University, lived for many years. Uppsala is the site of the 16th-century Uppsala Castle; the city was damaged by a fire in 1702. Historical and cultural treasures were lost, as in many Swedish cities, from demolitions during the 1960s and 1970s, but many historic buildings remain in the western part of the city.
The arms bearing the lion can be traced to 1737 and have been modernised several times, most in 1986. The meaning of the lion is uncertain, but is connected to the royal lion depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden. Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the river runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation around 30 m, the site of Uppsala's castle, from which large parts of the town can be seen; the central park Stadsskogen stretches from the south far into town, with opportunities for recreation for many residential areas within walking distance. Only some 70 km or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm; the train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city accessible by air. The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact; the city has a distinct town and gown divide with clergy and academia residing in the Fjärdingen neighbourhood on the river's western shore, somewhat separated from the rest of the city, the ensemble of cathedral and university buildings has remained undisturbed until today.
While some historic buildings remain on the periphery of the central core, retail commercial activity is geographically focused on a small number of blocks around the pedestrianized streets and main square on the eastern side of the river, an area, subject to a large-scale metamorphosis during the economically booming years in the 1960s in particular. During recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the built-up areas have expanded and some suburbanization has taken place. Uppsala lies south of the 60th parallel north and has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Due to its northerly location, Uppsala experiences over 18 hours of visible sunshine during the summer solstice, under 6 hours of sunshine during the winter solstice. Despite Uppsala's northerly location, the winter is not as cold as other cities at similar latitudes due to the Gulf Stream. For example, in January Uppsala has a daily mean of −2.7 °C.
In Canada, at the same latitude, Fort Smith experiences a daily mean of −22.4 °C. With respect to record temperatures, the difference between the highest and lowest is large. Uppsala’s highest recorded temperature was 37.4 °C, recorded in July 1933. On the same day Ultuna, which lies a few kilometres south of the centre of Uppsala, recorded a temperature of 38 °C; this is the highest temperature recorded in the Scandinavian Peninsula, although the same temperature was recorded in Målilla, Sweden, 14 years later. Uppsala’s lowest temperature was recorded in January 1875, when the temperature dropped to −39.5 °C. The second-lowest temperature recorded is −33.1 °C, which makes the record one of the hardest to beat, due to the fact that temperatures in Uppsala nowadays goes below −30 °C. The difference between the two records is 76.9 °C. The warmest month recorded is July 1914, with a daily mean of 21.4 °C. Since 2002 Uppsala has experienced 5 months where the d
Alexandre Cabanel was a French painter. He painted historical and religious subjects in the academic style, he was well known as a portrait painter. According to Diccionario Enciclopedico Salvat, Cabanel is the best representative of the L'art pompier and Napoleon III's preferred painter. Cabanel entered the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris at the age of seventeen, studied with François-Édouard Picot, he exhibited at the Paris Salon for the first time in 1844, won the Prix de Rome scholarship in 1845 at the age of 22. Cabanel was elected a member of the Institute in 1863, he taught there until his death. He was connected to the Paris Salon: "He was elected to the Salon jury and his pupils could be counted by the hundred at the Salons. Through them, Cabanel did more than any other artist of his generation to form the character of belle époque French painting", his refusal together with William-Adolphe Bouguereau to allow the impressionist painter Édouard Manet and many other painters to exhibit their work in the Salon of 1863 led to the establishment of the Salon des Refusés by the French government.
Cabanel won the Grande Médaille d'Honneur at the Salons of 1865, 1867, 1878. A successful academic painter, his 1863 painting The Birth of Venus is one of the best known examples of 19th-century academic painting; the picture was bought by the emperor Napoleon III. It was given to them by Wolf in 1893, his pupils included: Rodolfo Amoedo Joseph Aubert Henry Bacon George Randolph Barse Alexandre Jean-Baptiste Brun Jean-Eugène Buland Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant Vlaho Bukovac Gaston Bussière Louis Capdevielle Eugène Carrière Fernand Cormon Pierre Auguste Cot Kenyon Cox Édouard Debat-Ponsan Émile Friant François Guiguet Jules Bastien-Lepage François Flameng Charles Fouqueray Frank Fowler Henri Gervex Charles Lucien Léandre Max Leenhardt Henri Le Sidaner Aristide Maillol Édouard-Antoine Marsal João Marques de Oliveira Jan Monchablon Georges Moreau de Tours Henri-Georges Morisset Henri Pinta Henri Regnault Iakovos Rizos Louis Royer Jean-Jacques Scherrer António Silva Porto Joseph-Noël Sylvestre Solomon Joseph Solomon Paul Tavernier José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior Étienne Terrus Adolphe Willette Algae and Boniface, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio USA The Death of Moses, Dahesh Museum, New York City.
New York, USA Nymph and Satyr, Private collection The Birth of Venus, Musée d'Orsay, Paris The Death of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta, Musée d'Orsay, Paris La Comtesse de Keller, Musée d'Orsay, Paris The Fallen Angel, Musée Fabre Phèdre, Musée Fabre, Montpellier Ophelia, Private collection Ruth glanant dans les champs de Booz, Musée Garinet, Châlons-en-Champagne Lady Curzon, Kedleston Hall, Preparatory study of Cleopatra for Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Béziers Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners, Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp Eve After the Fall, Private Collection The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Paradise, Private Collection Napoleon III Thamar Alexandre Cabanel at Artcyclopedia Paintings of Alexandre Cabanel on Insecula Alexandre Cabanel at the Art Renewal Center Alexandre Cabanel at The Art in Pixels Alexandre Cabanel at alexandrecabanel.com
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Växjö is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden. It had 66,275 inhabitants out of a municipal population of 90,721, it is the administrative and industrial centre of Kronoberg County and the episcopal see of the Diocese of Växjö. The town is home to Linnaeus University; the city's name is believed to be constructed from the words "väg" and "sjö", meaning the road over the frozen Växjö Lake that farmers used in the winter to get to the marketplace which became the city. In contrast to what was believed a century ago, there is no evidence of a special pre-Christian significance of the site; the pagan cultic center of Värend may have been located at a nearby village. An episcopal see since the 12th century, the city did not get its city charter until 1342, when it was issued by Magnus Eriksson; the cathedral of St Sigfrid dates from about 1300, has been subsequently restored. Otherwise, during the Middle Ages, Växjö did not have many pious institutions. A Franciscan monastery was established in 1485.
A hospital of the Holy Ghost was first mentioned in 1318. In the 14th century Växjö got its first school. In 1643 it received gymnasium status. At the beginning of Gustav Eriksson's war of liberation, the peasantry joined forces, under the guidance of the union-hostile bishop Ingemar Pedersson, with the mountain men and peasantry of Dalarna, Hälsingland, Gästrikland, who urged fidelity to their leader Gustav Eriksson. During the Dacke War, a peasant uprising, the city was under the authority of Nils Dacke and his supporters from the summer of 1542 until after New Year 1543. Several times during the Northern Wars and the Scanian Wars, thereafter, the city was affected by fire. After the last fire in 1843, when 1,140 citizens were rendered homeless, Växjö received its current street plan; the Barbarella nightclub was prominent in southeastern Sweden in the 1970s, attracting several major international bands. Växjö is the city in which the "Kvinnan med handväskan" photograph was taken in 1985 by Hans Runesson.
In its December 2015 report, Police in Sweden placed the Växjö district Araby in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates. In 2015, there were a series of three arson incidents tied together via the location in which they occurred. On February 24, 2015, a fire broke out in a barber shop at Dalbo, Växjö. A 17-year-old girl was apprehended. On June 18, 2015, the suspect was sentenced to institutional juvenile detention brought upon by charges of first-degree arson; the motive of the crime is thought to be revenge. The target features an 11-time attempted attack on an ice cream van located near Kampa Pelare, Växjö; the van's interior was left burned out while its exteriors remained intact. No suspects have been identified. In May 2015, two boys were found guilty of second-degree arson. One of the boys was given an institutional juvenile detention while the other one's whereabouts remains unknown. Teleborg: 12,834 Hovshaga: 9,541 Hov: 8,020 Araby: 6,520 Norr: 4,518 Väster: 4,829 Öster: 4,489 Söder: 3,694 Sandsbro: 3,090 Högstorp: 2,710 Öjaby: 2,213 Centrum: 2,086 Räppe: 1,260 Kronoberg/Evedal: 279 Regementstaden: 88 Västra mark: 69 Norremark: 29 The Coast to Coast track cuts through the municipality from north-west to south-east.
SJ´s long-distance trains travel between Gothenburg and Kalmar, with stop in Växjö. Öresundståg´s long-distance trains travel the Kalmar – Alvesta – Malmö route. Regional trains Krösatågen travel the Växjö – Jönköping route. Trunk roads 23, 25, 27, 29, 30 and 37 meet in the municipality. In 1996 the city adopted a policy for the elimination of the use of fossil fuels by 2030; this decision was taken in reaction to pollution and eutrophication in the lakes that surround the town. Greenhouse gas emissions were cut by 41% from 1993 to 2011, were reduced by 55% by 2015; the city's economy has grown during this time. By 2014, Växjö's CO2 emissions had dropped to 2.4 tonnes per capita, well below the EU average of 7.3 tonnes. Växjö has called itself "The Greenest City in Europe" since 2007, it has its foundation in a long history of commitment to environmental issues, ambitious goals for a green future. It is a vision shared with the local companies. In 2017 Växjö was awarded the European Green Leaf Award 2018 by the European Commission.
The prize is awarded to cities with less than 100 000 inhabitants that show good results and ambitions in terms of environment and committed to generate green growth. The city has three municipality-run secondary schools: Teknikum, Katedralskolan, Växjö, Kungsmadskolan. Linnaeus University had a student body of 42,000 students as of 2012. Industries include GE Power and Aerotech Telub, as well as Volvo Articulated Haulers, located in Braås 29 kilometres, north of Växjö. One of the best-known service providers is Visma. Växjö houses Sweden's National Glass Museum and claims to be the capital of the "Kingdom of Crystal" as well as of the "Kingdom of Furniture"; the Swedish Emigrant Institute was established in 1965 and is housed in the House of Emigrants near Växjö Lake in the heart of the city. It contains archives, a library, a museum, a research center relating to the emigration period between 1846 and 1930, when 1.3 million of the Swedish population emigrated to the United States. Archives dating to the 17th century contain birth and death records, as well as household records, that are available on microfiche.
North of Växjö is Kronoberg Castle, a ruined fortress constructed in the 15th cen
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Bel canto —with several similar constructions —is a term with several meanings that relate to Italian singing. The phrase was not associated with a "school" of singing until the middle of the 19th century, when writers in the early 1860s used it nostalgically to describe a manner of singing that had begun to wane around 1830. Nonetheless, "neither musical nor general dictionaries saw fit to attempt definition until after 1900"; the term remains vague and ambiguous in the 21st century and is used to evoke a lost singing tradition. As understood today, the term bel canto refers to the Italian-originated vocal style that prevailed throughout most of Europe during the 18th century and early 19th centuries. Late 19th- and 20th-century sources "would lead us to believe that bel canto was restricted to beauty and evenness of tone, legato phrasing, skill in executing florid passages, but contemporary documents describe a multifaceted manner of performance far beyond these confines." The main features of the bel canto style were: prosodic singing matching register and tonal quality of the voice to the emotional content of the words a articulated manner of phrasing based on the insertion of grammatical and rhetorical pauses a delivery varied by several types of legato and staccato a liberal application of more than one type of portamento messa di voce as the principal source of expression frequent alteration of tempo through rhythmic rubato and the quickening and slowing of the overall time the introduction of a wide variety of graces and divisions into both arias and recitatives gesture as a powerful tool for enhancing the effect of the vocal delivery vibrato reserved for heightening the expression of certain words and for gracing longer notes.
The Harvard Dictionary of Music by Willi Apel says that bel canto denotes "the Italian vocal technique of the 18th century, with its emphasis on beauty of sound and brilliancy of performance rather than dramatic expression or romantic emotion. In spite of the repeated reactions against bel canto and the frequent exaggeration of its virtuoso element, it must be considered as a artistic technique and the only proper one for Italian opera and for Mozart, its early development is bound up with that of the Italian opera seria." Since the bel canto style flourished in the 18th and early 19th centuries, the music of Handel and his contemporaries, as well as that of Mozart and Rossini, benefits from an application of bel canto principles. Operas received the most dramatic use of the techniques, but the bel canto style applies to oratorio, though in a somewhat less flamboyant way; the da capo arias these works contained provided challenges for singers, as the repeat of the opening section prevented the story line from progressing.
Nonetheless, singers needed to keep the emotional drama moving forward, so they used the principles of bel canto to help them render the repeated material in a new emotional guise. They incorporated embellishments of all sorts, but not every singer was equipped to do this, some writers, notably Domenico Corri himself, suggesting that singing without ornamentation was an acceptable practice. Singers embellished both arias and recitatives, but did so by tailoring their embellishments to the prevailing sentiments of the piece. Two famous 18th-century teachers of the style were Antonio Bernacchi and Nicola Porpora, but many others existed. A number of these teachers were castrati. Singer/author John Potter declares in his book Tenor: History of a Voice that: For much of the 18th century castrati defined the art of singing. In another application, the term bel canto is sometimes attached to Italian operas written by Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti; these composers wrote bravura works for the stage during what musicologists sometimes call the "bel canto era".
But the style of singing had started to change around 1830, Michael Balfe writing of the new method of teaching, required for the music of Bellini and Donizetti, so the operas of Bellini and Donizetti were the vehicles for a new era of singing. The last important opera role for a castrato was written in 1824 by Giacomo Meyerbeer; the phrase "bel canto" was not used until the latter part of the 19th century, when it was set in opposition to the development of a weightier, more powerful style of speech-inflected singing associated with German opera and, above all, Richard Wagner's revolutionary music dramas. Wagner decried the Italian singing model, alleging that it was concerned with "whether that G or A will come out roundly", he advocated a new, Germanic school of singing that would draw "the spiritually energetic and profoundly passionate into the orbit of its matchless Expression."French musicians and composers never embraced the more florid extremes of the 18th-century Italian bel canto style.
They disliked the castrato v