Christine de Pizan or Pisan, born Cristina da Pizzano, was a poet and author at the court of King Charles VI of France. She is best remembered for defending women in The Book of the City of Ladies and The Treasure of the City of Ladies. Venetian by birth, Christine was a prominent moralist and political thinker in medieval France. Christine's patrons included dukes Louis I of Orleans, Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, her books of advice to princesses and knights remained in print until the 16th century. In recent decades, Christine's work has been returned to prominence by the efforts of scholars such as Charity Cannon Willard, Earl Jeffrey Richards, Suzanne Solente, Mathilde Laigle and Marie-Josephe Pinet Christine de Pizan was born 1364 in Venice, Italy, she was the daughter of Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano. Her father became known as Thomas de Pizan, named for the family's origins in the town of Pizzano, southeast of Bologna, her father worked as court astrologer and Councillor of the Republic of Venice.
Thomas de Pizan accepted an appointment to the court of Charles V of France as the king's astrologer and in 1368 Christine moved to Paris. In 1379 Christine de Pizan married royal secretary Etienne du Castel, she had three children. Her daughter became a nun at the Dominican Abbey in Poissy in 1397 as a companion to the King's daughter Marie. Christine's husband died of the plague in 1389, her father had died the year before. Christine was left to support her children; when she tried to collect money from her husband's estate, she faced complicated lawsuits regarding the recovery of salary due her husband. On 4 June 1389, in a judgment concerning a lawsuit filed against her by the archbishop of Sens and François Chanteprime, councillors of the King, Christine was styled "damoiselle" and widow of "Estienne du Castel". In order to support herself and her family, Christine turned to writing. By 1393, she was writing love ballads, which caught the attention of wealthy patrons within the court. Christine became a prolific writer.
Her involvement in the production of her books and her skillful use of patronage in turbulent political times has earned her the title of the first professional woman of letters in Europe. Although Italian by birth, Christine expressed a fervent nationalism for France. Affectively and financially she became attached to the French royal family, donating or dedicating her early ballads to its members, including Isabeau of Bavaria, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, Marie of Berry. Of Queen Isabeau she wrote in 1402 "High, excellent crowned Queen of France redoubtable princess, powerful lady, born at a lucky hour". France was ruled by Charles VI who experienced a series of mental breakdowns, causing a crisis of leadership for the French monarchy, he was absent from court and could only make decisions with the approval of a royal council. Queen Isabeau was nominally in charge of governance when her husband was absent from court, but could not extinguish the quarrel between members of the royal family. In the past, Blanche of Castile had played a central role in the stability of the royal court and had acted as regent of France.
Christine published a series of works on the virtues of women, referencing Queen Blanche and dedicating them to Queen Isabeau. Christine believed that France had been founded by the descendants of the Trojans and that its governance by the royal family adhered to the Aristotelian ideal. In 1400 Christine published L'Épistre de Othéa a Hector; when first published, the book was dedicated to Louis of Orléans, the brother of Charles VI, at court seen as potential regent of France. In L'Épistre de Othéa a Hector Hector of Troy is tutored in statecraft and the political virtues by the goddess of wisdom Othéa. Christine produced richly illustrated luxury editions of L'Épistre de Othéa a Hector in 1400. Between 1408 and 1415 Christine produced further editions of the book. Throughout her career she produced rededicated editions of the book with customised prologues for patrons, including an edition for Philip the Bold in 1403, editions for Jean of Berry and Henry IV of England in 1404. Patronage changed in the late Middle Ages.
Texts were still produced and circulated as continuous roll manuscripts, but were replaced by the bound codex. Members of royal family became patrons of writers by commissioning books; as materials became cheaper a book trade developed, so writers and bookmakers produced books for the French nobility, who could afford to establish their own libraries. Christine thus had no single patron who supported her financially and became associated with the royal court and the different fractions of the royal family – the Burgundy and Berry – each having their own respective courts. Throughout her career Christine undertook concurrent paid projects for individual patrons and subsequently published these works for dissemination among the nobility of France. In 1402 Christine became involved in a renowned literary controversy, the "Querelle du Roman de la Rose". Christine instigated this debate by questioning the literary merits of Jean de Meun's popular Romance of the Rose. Romance of the Rose satirizes the conventions of courtly love while critically depicting women as nothing more than seducers.
In the midst of the Hundred Years' War between French and English kings, Christine published the dream allegory Le Chemin de long estude in 1403. In the first person narrative she and Cumaean Sibyl travel together and witness a debate on the state of the world between the four allegories – Wealth, Nobility and Wisdom. Christine suggests that justice could be brought to earth by a single monarch who had the necessary
Lillian "Lilly" Alice Hiatt is an American, Tennessee-based singer-songwriter. She is the daughter of singer-songwriter John Hiatt. Hiatt was born in California, her father is singer-songwriter John Hiatt and her mother was film sound editor Isabella Wood. Wood was Hiatt's second wife. Wood, at that time separated from John Hiatt, died from suicide when her daughter was one year old. Hiatt grew up in Nashville, Tennessee, on a farm with her father, his third wife Nancy Stanley Hiatt, older brother Rob, their little sister, Georgia Rae. Hiatt has played music since she was 12, when her father gave her her first guitar, a 1953 parlor-size Martin. In 2006, Hiatt graduated from the University of Denver with a degree in psychology. In 2005, Hiatt formed a band, Shake Go Home, in Denver with fellow students from University of Denver. After graduation, the band recorded several EPs. Band members included Hiatt, Eric Knutson on guitar, Jeff Montoya on bass, John Arrotti on drums. Hiatt relocated to Austin, but returned to Nashville in 2013.
In 2012, Hiatt released her debut album. The record was produced by Doug Lancio. In 2015, Hiatt released her second album, Royal Blue, on the Normaltown label, an imprint of New West; the record was produced by Nashville producer Adam Landry, was recorded using analog recording technology. Hiatt employed synthesizer as well as pedal steel, broadened the scope of her style to reflect her musical influences. Hiatt's band that she recorded her first two records with was called Lilly Hiatt and the Dropped Ponies, included guitarist Beth Finney, drummer Jon Radford, bass player Jake Bradley, Luke Schneider on pedal steel. In 2016, at a mansion in East Nashville, the Luck Reunion organization gathered pairs of musicians to collaborate on songs for a series of 45 rpm singles recorded using analog equipment provided by Third Man Records. Hiatt together with Aaron Lee Tasjan recorded two songs: Guy Clark's "Dublin Blues" and John Prine's "Angel from Montgomery" In August 2017, Hiatt released her third album, Trinity Lane.
The record was produced by Michael Trent of Shovels & Rope and was recorded on Johns Island in South Carolina. Cary Ann Hearst of Shovels & Rope appears on vocals on the track "Everything I Had." The record's title comes from a main street in East Nashville in Tennessee. Hiatt said that although the songs have a dark subject matter, the record is a rock and roller. Hiatt used a new band on Trinity Lane; the band members are John Condit on guitar, Robert Hudson on bass, Allen Jones on drums. Hiatt has toured with Aaron Lee Tasjan, John Moreland, Drive-by Truckers, Margo Price, John Prine, as well as many others. Hiatt lives in Tennessee. Hiatt has been open about discussing becoming sober in her late 20s. 2012: Let Down 2015: Royal Blue 2017: Trinity Lane 2020: Walking Proof 2017: Luck Mansion Sessions with Aaron Lee Tasjan – songs: "Dublin Blues" and "Angel from Montgomery" 2008: John Hiatt – Same Old Man 2011: Across Tundras – Sage 2012: Ronnie Fauss – I Am the Man You Know I'm Not LillyHiatt.com Lilly Hiatt on Twitter Lilly Hiatt at AllMusic Lilly Hiatt discography at Discogs
Karakalpakstan the Republic of Karakalpakstan, is an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan. It occupies the whole northwestern end of Uzbekistan; the capital is Nukus. The Republic of Karakalpakstan has an area of 160,000 square kilometres, its territory covers the classical land of Khwarezm, though in classical Persian literature the area was known as Kāt. From about 500 BC to 500 AD, the region of what is now Karakalpakstan was a thriving agricultural area supported by extensive irrigation; the Karakalpak people, who used to be nomadic herders and fishers, were first recorded in the 16th century. Karakalpakstan was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Khanate of Khiva in 1873. Under Soviet rule, it was an autonomous area within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic before becoming part of Uzbekistan in 1936; the region was at its most prosperous in the 1960s and 1970s, when irrigation from the Amu Darya was being expanded. Today, the drainage of the Aral Sea has rendered Karakalpakstan one of Uzbekistan's poorest regions.
The region is suffering from extensive drought due to weather patterns, but largely because the Amu and Syr Darya rivers are exploited in the eastern part of the country. Crop failures have deprived about 48,000 people of their main source of income and shortages of potable water have created a surge of infectious diseases. Karakalpakstan is now desert and is located in western Uzbekistan near the Aral Sea, in the lowest part of the Amu Darya basin, it is surrounded by desert. The Kyzyl Kum desert is located to the east and the Karakum Desert is located to the south. A rocky plateau extends west to the Caspian Sea; the Republic of Karakalpakstan is formally sovereign and shares veto power over decisions concerning it with Uzbekistan. According to the constitution, relations between Karakalpakstan and Uzbekistan are "regulated by treaties and agreements" and any disputes are "settled by way of reconciliation", its right to secede is limited by the veto power of Uzbekistan's legislature over any decision to secede.
Article 74, chapter XVII, Constitution of Uzbekistan, provides that: "The Republic of Karakalpakstan shall have the right to secede from the Republic of Uzbekistan on the basis of a nationwide referendum held by the people of Karakalpakstan." The population of Karakalpakstan is estimated to be around 1.7 million, in 2007 it was estimated that about 400,000 of the population are of the Karakalpak ethnic group, 400,000 are Uzbeks, 300,000 are Kazakhs. Their name means "Black Hat", but Karakalpak culture was so lost through Sovietization that the original meaning of the black hat is now unknown; the Karakalpak language is considered closer to Kazakh than to Uzbek. The language was written in a modified Cyrillic in Soviet times and has been written in the Latin alphabet since 1996; the population grew to 1.8 million in 2017. The crude birth rate is 2.19%: 39,400 children were born in 2017. Nearly 8,400 people died in the same period; the crude death rate is 0.47%. The natural growth rate is 31,000, or 1.72%.
The median age was 27.7 years old in 2017, younger than the rest of Uzbekistan. Men are 27.1 years old. Other than the capital Nukus, large cities include Xojeli, Shimbai and Moynaq, a former Aral Sea port now dried up according to NASA; the economy of the region used to be dependent on fisheries in the Aral Sea. It is now supported by cotton and melons. Hydroelectric power from a large Soviet-built station on the Amu Darya is important; the Amu Darya delta was once populated, supported extensive irrigation based agriculture for thousands of years. Under the Khorezm, the area attained considerable prosperity. However, the gradual climate change over the centuries, accelerated by human induced evaporation of the Aral Sea in the late 20th century has created a desolate scene in the region; the ancient oases of rivers, reed marshes and farms are drying up and being poisoned by wind-borne salt, by fertilizer and pesticide residues from the dried bed of the Aral Sea. Summer temperatures have risen 10 °C and winter temperatures have decreased by 10 °C.
The rate of anemia, respiratory diseases, other health problems has risen dramatically. *Kegeyli district was created in 2004 by the merger of former Bozatau district and former Kegeyli district. This merger was effected by Resolution 598-II of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Resolution 225 of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which abolished Bozatau district and created the enlarged Kegeyli district. Prior to that date, there were 15 districts in Karakalpakstan. See Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and Karakalpakstan on gov.uz. In 2009, the first radio station of Karakalpakstan was opened; the station is called Nukus FM. Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast, a short-lived Soviet entity Delta Blues Human rights in Uzbekistan Official website of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Karakalpakstan Karakalpakstan Tourism Site Photos of Nukus city Tours to Karakalpkstan http://karakalpak.homestead.com Karakalpak music