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Christmas in Poland

Christmas in Poland is a major annual celebration, as in most countries of the Christian world. The observance of Christmas developed over the centuries, beginning in ancient times. Influences include mutual permeating of local traditions and various folk cultures, it is one of the most important religious holidays for Poles, who follow a somewhat strict traditional custom. Christmas trees lit in family rooms on the day of Christmas Eve. Other trees are placed in outside churches. Christmas in Poland is called "Boże Narodzenie", which translates to'God's Birth'; the Day of Saint Nicholas on 6 December is the unofficial beginning of the festive season in Poland. Well-behaved children receive small gifts on the day, whereas naughty children receive a lump of coal or a twig, called "rózga"; the highlight of the holiday is Christmas Eve on the 24 December. Polish Wigilia begins with the appearance of the first star, which corresponds to the Star of Bethlehem. During preparation, hay is spread beneath the tablecloth as a reminder that Jesus Christ was born in a manger.

According to tradition, an empty place setting is symbolically left at the table for the Lord or, for a lost wanderer who may be in need of food or shelter. The supper begins with the breaking of the Christmas wafer known as "opłatek", a custom only observed in Poland and some parts of Lithuania; the meals must be meatless as a sign of fasting and twelve different dishes are made, thus symbolizing the Twelve Apostles. The celebration ends with a midnight mass in churches. Other aspects of Polish Christmas include nativity plays called "Jasełka" or "Herody", outdoor nativity scenes, the singing of carols, most notably "God Is Born", Kulig, a sleigh ride with Saint Nicholas; the tradition of crafting and hand-making Christmas szopkas in Kraków was declared UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Among the special tasks carried out in private homes during Advent is the baking of the Christmas piernik, the making of Christmas decorations. Pierniks are made in a variety of shapes, including hearts, St. Nicholas figures.

St. Nicholas does not play a major role on Christmas Day, but is celebrated on his Saint feast day of December 6, he leaves presents for them. Traditionally, the Christmas trees are decorated with glass baubles and many homemade ornaments including painted eggshells, shiny red apples, wrapped chocolate shapes, etc, they are lit on Christmas Eve before Wigilia. At the top of each tree there is a glittering tree topper. In many homes, sparklers are hung on the branches of the trees for wintery ambiance. Sometimes the trees are left standing until February 2, the feast day of St. Mary of the Candle of Lighting. During Advent and all the way until Epiphany, or the baptism of Jesus, the "gwiazdory", or the star carriers walk through the villages; some of them sing carols. The last two customs are inspired by the traditional manger scenes or "Jasełka". One tradition unique to Poland is the sharing of the "opłatek", a thin wafer into which a holy picture is pressed. In the old days people carried these wafers from house to house wishing their neighbors a Merry Christmas.

Nowadays, opłatek is shared with members of the family and immediate neighbors before the Christmas Eve supper. As each person shares pieces of the wafer with another, they are supposed to forgive each other any hurts that have occurred over the past year and wish them happiness in the coming year. In Poland, Christmas Eve is a day first of fasting of feasting; the Wigilia feast begins at the appearance of the first star. There is no red meat served but fish carp; the supper, which includes many traditional dishes and desserts can sometimes last for over two hours. It is followed by the exchange of gifts; the next day, the Christmas Day, is spent visiting friends. In Polish tradition, people combine family closeness at Christmas. Although gift-giving plays a major role in the rituals, emphasis is placed more on the making of special foods and decorations. On the night of Christmas Eve, so important is the appearance of the first star in remembrance of the Star of Bethlehem, that it has been given an affectionate name of "the little star" or Gwiazdka.

On that evening, children watch the sky anxiously hoping to be the first to cry out, "The star has come!" Only after it appears, the family members sit down to a dinner table. According to tradition, bits of hay are spread beneath the tablecloth as a reminder that Christ was born in a manger. Others partake in the practice of placing money under the table cloth for each guest, in order to wish for prosperity in the coming year; some practice the superstition that an number of people must be seated around the table. In many homes an empty place setting is symbolically left at the table for the Baby Jesus or, for a lonely wanderer who may be in need of food, or if a deceased relative should come and would like to share in the meal; the supper begins with the breaking of the opłatek. Everyone at the table eats it as a symbol of their unity with Christ, they share a piece with each family member. A tradition exists among some families to serve twelve different dishes at Wigilia symbolizing the Twelve Apostles, or an odd number of dishes for good luck (usually five, se

Prasophyllum diversiflorum

Prasophyllum brevilabre known as the Gorae leek orchid, is a species of orchid endemic to south-western Victoria. It has a single green leaf and up to forty greenish-brown flowers with reddish markings, it is a rare orchid, now only known from two small, scattered populations. It is no longer found there. Prasophyllum diversiflorum is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and a single tapering, tube-shaped leaf up to 450 mm long and 4–10 mm wide at the base. Between ten and forty scented flowers are crowded along a flowering spike 80–150 mm long; the flowers are up to 10 mm greenish-brown with reddish markings. As with others in the genus, the flowers are inverted so that the labellum is above the column rather than below it; the dorsal sepal is egg-shaped, up to 7 mm long with a pointed tip. The lateral sepals are lance-shaped, 6–10 mm long and free from each other; the petals are narrow linear in 6 -- 9 mm long. The labellum is white to pinkish, dished and 6 -- 9 mm long, it is turns upward near its middle and its edges are wavy.

Flowering occurs from December to January. Prasophyllum diversiflorum was first formally described in 1942 by William Henry Nicholls and published the description in The Victorian Naturalist from a specimen collected from Gorae West. Nicholls noted "is the most variable, in regard to the floral characters, on record...". The Gorae leek orchid occurs in south-western Victoria, growing in grassland and sedgeland, flooded in winter, it is only known from two small populations 90 km apart. Prasophyllum diversiflorum is classified as Threatened under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 and as Endangered under the Commonwealth Government Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Act; the main threats to the species are weed invasion and trampling, vehicle movement and roadside maintenance. Data related to Prasophyllum diversiflorum at Wikispecies

Lima bean

Phaseolus lunatus known as the lima bean,canary bean, butter bean, sieva bean, Double Bean or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans. Phaseolus lunatus is found in Meso- and South America. Two gene pools of cultivated lima beans point to independent domestication events; the Mesoamerican lima bean is distributed in neotropical lowlands while the other is found in the western Andes. They were discovered in Peru; the Andes domestication took place around 2000 BC, produced a large-seeded variety, while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around 800 AD, produced a small-seeded variety. By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World; the small-seeded type is found dispersed from Mexico to Argentina below 1,600 m above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form is found dispersed in the north of Peru, from 320 to 2,030 m above sea level. The Moche Culture cultivated lima beans and depicted them in their art.

During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima, Peru", the beans got named as such. When referring to the bean, the word "lima" is pronounced "leema" as an international name, Although in Peru they are known as the canary bean for the similarity shape and color, of a canary bird; the term "butter bean" is used in North and South Carolina for a large and yellow/white variety of lima bean In the United States Sieva-type beans are traditionally called butter beans otherwise known as the Dixie or Henderson type. In that area, Lima beans and butter beans are seen as two distinct types of beans, although scientifically they are the same. In Spain, it is called garrofón, constitutes one of the main ingredients of the famous Valencian paella. In the United Kingdom and the United States, "butter beans" refers to either dried beans which can be purchased to rehydrate, or the canned variety which are ready to use.

In culinary use there, lima beans and butter beans are distinct, the latter being large and yellow, the former small and green. In areas where both are considered to be lima beans, the green variety may be labelled as "baby" limas. In India, it is called Double Beans and dried beans are soaked overnight and pressure-cooked as ingredients in curries Lima bean is a domesticated species of economic and cultural importance worldwide in Mexico; the species has two varieties. The wild variety is silvester and the domesticated one is lunatus. In the U. S, it is a warm season crop, grown in Delaware and mid-Atlantic region for processing and in Midwest and California for dry beans. Baby lima beans are harvested about 10 -- 12 weeks later. In western New York State, baby lima bean production increased exponentially from 2011 to 2015; the cultivation on this bean varies from country to country. In Oaxaca, the main rainy season lasts from June to August and most of the above-ground parts die during dry season.

Germination or budding occurs in July. The first inflorescence is in November; the production of flowers and fruits ends between February and April. Both bush and pole cultivars exist, the latter range from 1 to 5 metres in height; the bush cultivars mature earlier than the pole cultivars. The pods are up to 15 cm long; the mature seeds are oval to kidney-shaped. In most cultivars the seeds are quite flat, but in the "potato" cultivars, the shape approaches spherical. White seeds are common, but black, red and variously mottled seeds are known; the immature seeds are uniformly green. Lima beans yield 2,900 to 5,000 kg of seed and 3,000 to 8,000 kg of biomass per hectare; the seeds of the cultivars listed below are white. Related or synonymous names are listed on the same line.'Henderson' /'Thorogreen', 65 days'Eastland', 68 days'Jackson Wonder', 68 days'Dixie Butterpea', 75 days'Fordhook 242', 75 days, 1945 AAS winner'Carolina' /'Sieva', 75 days'Christmas' /'Chestnut' /'Giant Speckled' /'Speckled Calico', 78 days'Big 6' /'Big Mama', 80 days'Willow Leaf', 80 days'Mezcla', 82 days'King of the Garden', 85 days Phytophthora phaseoli is one example of a pathogen of the lima bean.

It is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes downy mildew of lima bean during cool and humid weather conditions. To combat this pathogen, developing lima bean cultivars with resistance is a cost-efficient method, environmentally safe as compared to using pesticides. Didymella is a foliar disease found in baby lima beans first reported in New York State. Symptoms include small necrotic tan spots with red to reddish brown irregular margins that come together to cover the entire leaf. Lesions occur after around 3–4 weeks of planting and increase till there is considerable defoliation. Lesions are observed on the stems. Two pynidial fungi were found on leaves included Didymella sp, and Boeremia exigua var. exigua, pathogenic on baby lima bean and plays a role in the foliar disease complex. Other fungal diseases on lima beans with similar symptoms are B. exigua var. exigua, pod blight caused by Diapo

Greg Janicki

Gregory Janicki is an American soccer player who last played for Detroit City FC in the NPSL. Born in Rochester, Janicki attended Anchor Bay High School, where he recorded a school soccer record of 74 goals and 32 assists in three seasons; as a senior, he placed third in the voting for Michigan's Mr. Soccer Award. Janicki played college soccer for Michigan State University. During his senior year, Janicki played in eighteen games, tallying two goals and an assist, was named as a second-team member of the NSCAA/adidas All-Great Lakes Region team, to the All-Big Ten First Team. During his college years, Janicki played in the USL Premier Development League for both Michigan Bucks and West Michigan Edge. Janicki signed his first professional contract in 2008, playing in the USL Second Division for Pittsburgh Riverhounds. Janicki appeared in 14 games for the Hounds. Following the conclusion of the 2008 USL-2 season, Janicki was loaned to D. C. United of Major League Soccer for the remainder of the year and signed to a developmental contract with D.

C. United, he made his debut for the team on October 1, 2008, in a group stage match of the CONCACAF Champions League 2008–09 game against Mexican side Cruz Azul. He appeared in three league games and five Champions League matches in 2008, after which he was signed to a senior contract. Janicki was waived by D. C. United at the end of the 2009 MLS season. On December 23, 2009, Janicki signed a one-year contract with Vancouver Whitecaps of the USSF Division 2 Professional League. On December 10, 2010, it was announced that Janicki would remain with Vancouver Whitecaps FC as the club made the jump to MLS, he stayed with Vancouver for the 2011 MLS season but the club declined his contract option for 2012. Janicki became a free agent after he was not selected. On December 14, 2011, it was announced that Janicki signed with the expansion San Antonio Scorpions of the North American Soccer League for the 2012 season. On January 9, 2015, Janicki signed with NASL club Indy Eleven. On December 9, 2016, Janicki announced his retirement from soccer.

Greg Janicki at Major League Soccer

Faith Church

FaithChurch.com is a nondenominational, word of faith multi-site megachurch with 7,800 in average weekly attendance led by Pastor David Crank and wife Nicole Crank. Faith Church has three campuses in the St Louis, MO area: Sunset Hills, Earth City, Weldon Spring and one campus in West Palm Beach, Florida. In 2015, NewsMax named Faith Church as the 10th most influential church in America and in 2017 named David and Nicole crank as the 49th most influential evangelicals. In 2015, Outreach Magazine named Faith Church as one of the fastest growing churches in the United StatesIn 2017 Faith Church Pastor David Crank announced plans to construct a sixth campus in the Ferguson-Florissant region of St. Louis

Candidate move

In abstract strategy board games, candidate moves are moves which, upon initial observation of the position, seem to warrant further analysis. Although in theory the idea of candidate moves can be applied to games such as checkers, go, xiangqi, it is most used in the context of chess; the idea of candidate moves was first put forth by Grandmaster Alexander Kotov in his book Think Like a Grandmaster. In it, Kotov recommended looking for several moves that seemed feasible – the so-called candidate moves – and analyzing those moves one at a time. Although this idea had been practiced by expert chess players for some time, it had never been explicitly articulated, was unknown to players at the amateur level; the idea caught on, is now considered standard practice among chess players at all levels. Many beginning players are taught about candidate moves as soon as they learn to play the game, there are numerous references to the idea in other chess books. Finding the correct candidate moves is one of the most difficult aspects of becoming a better chess player.

Kotov, as well as other teachers, recommend using a system of pattern recognition, looking at the elements of the current position to determine what might be a feasible move. For example, if a player notices that his opponent's king is on the g8 square, that his knight is on f3 a candidate move might be Ng5, a common beginning to a sacrifice. Once a player has found a good number of candidate moves, a player may begin to systematically analyze these moves; the idea behind candidate moves is to help structure one's analysis and prevent it from becoming jumbled. The ability of humans to find candidate moves remains one of the main differences between them and computers. Although early chess programmers made admirable efforts to make computers able to select candidate moves, they never played well, were soon supplanted by computers using brute-force algorithms; the addition of Alphabeta algorithms made the latter type more feasible. Many acknowledged that computers were not capable of performing the complex pattern recognition, required to find appropriate candidate moves, that it was easier to have computers perform simple exhaustive searches.

Today, most chess programs still rely on brute-force searches, but as search algorithms have improved, today's chess engines seem more and more to be using candidate moves in their analysis. Hydra, for example, is considered to be a "Type B" computer