The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band formed in Leyton, East London, in 1975 by bassist and primary songwriter Steve Harris. The band's discography has grown to thirty-eight albums, including sixteen studio albums, twelve live albums, four EPs, seven compilations. Pioneers of the new wave of British heavy metal, Iron Maiden achieved initial success during the early 1980s. After several line-up changes, the band went on to release a series of UK and US platinum and gold albums, including 1982's The Number of the Beast, 1983's Piece of Mind, 1984's Powerslave, 1985's live release Live After Death, 1986's Somewhere in Time and 1988's Seventh Son of a Seventh Son. Since the return of lead vocalist Bruce Dickinson and guitarist Adrian Smith in 1999, the band have undergone a resurgence in popularity, with their 2010 studio offering, The Final Frontier, peaking at No. 1 in 28 countries and receiving widespread critical acclaim. Their sixteenth studio album, The Book of Souls, was released on 4 September 2015 to similar success.
Despite little radio or television support, Iron Maiden are considered one of the most successful heavy metal bands in history, with The Sunday Times reporting in 2017 that the band have sold over 100 million copies of their albums worldwide. The band won the Ivor Novello Award for international achievement in 2002; as of October 2013, the band have played over 2000 live shows throughout their career. For over 35 years the band have been supported by their famous mascot, "Eddie", who has appeared on all of their album and single covers, as well as in their live shows. Iron Maiden were formed on Christmas Day, 25 December 1975 by bassist Steve Harris shortly after he left his previous group, Smiler. Harris attributed the band's name to a film adaptation of The Man in the Iron Mask from the novel by Alexandre Dumas, the title of which reminded him of the iron maiden torture device. After months of rehearsal, Iron Maiden made their debut at St. Nicks Hall in Poplar on 1 May 1976, before taking up a semi-residency at the Cart and Horses Pub in Maryland, Stratford.
The original line-up was short-lived, with vocalist Paul Day being the first casualty as, according to Harris, he lacked "energy or charisma on stage". He was replaced by Dennis Wilcock, a Kiss fan who used make-up and fake blood during live performances. Wilcock's friend, Dave Murray, was invited to join, much to the dismay of the band's guitarists Dave Sullivan and Terry Rance, their frustration led Harris to temporarily disband Iron Maiden in 1976, though the group reformed soon after with Murray as the sole guitarist. Harris and Murray remain the band's longest-standing members and have performed on all of their releases. Iron Maiden recruited yet another guitarist in 1977, Bob Sawyer, sacked for embarrassing the band on stage by pretending to play guitar with his teeth. Tension ensued again, causing a rift between Murray and Wilcock, who convinced Harris to fire Murray, as well as original drummer Ron Matthews. A new line-up was put together, including future Cutting Crew member Tony Moore on keyboards, Terry Wapram on guitar, drummer Barry Purkis.
A poor performance at the Bridgehouse, a pub located in Canning Town, in November 1977 was the line-up's first and only concert. Afterwards, Iron Maiden replaced him with Doug Sampson. At the same time, Moore was asked to leave as Harris decided that keyboards did not suit the band's sound. A few months Dennis Wilcock decided to leave Iron Maiden to form his own band, V1, Dave Murray was reinstated; as he preferred to be the band's sole guitarist, Wapram disapproved of Murray's return, was dismissed. Harris and Sampson spent the summer and autumn of 1978 rehearsing while they searched for a singer to complete the band's new line-up. A chance meeting at the Red Lion pub in Leytonstone in November 1978 evolved into a successful audition for vocalist Paul Di'Anno. Steve Harris stated, "There's sort of a quality in Paul's voice, a raspiness in his voice, or whatever you want to call it, that just gave it this great edge." At this time, Murray would act as their sole guitarist, with Harris commenting, "Davey was so good he could do a lot of it on his own.
The plan was always to get a second guitarist in, but finding one that could match Davey was difficult." On New Year's Eve 1978, Iron Maiden recorded a demo, consisting of four songs, at Spaceward Studios in Cambridge. Hoping that the recording would help them secure more gigs, the band presented a copy to Neal Kay managing a heavy metal club called "Bandwagon Heavy Metal Soundhouse", located in Kingsbury Circle, northwest London. Upon hearing the tape, Kay began playing the demo at the Bandwagon, one of the songs, "Prowler" went to No. 1 in the Soundhouse charts, which were published weekly in Sounds magazine. A copy was acquired by Rod Smallwood, who soon became the band's manager, and, as Iron Maiden's popularity increased, they released the demo on their own record label as The Soundhouse Tapes, named after the club. Featuring only three tracks all five thousand copies were sold out within weeks. In December 1979, the band secured a major record deal with EMI, asked Dave Murray's childhood friend, Adrian Smith of Urchin, to join the group as their second guitarist.
Due to his commitment to Urchin, Smith declined and Dennis Stratton was hired instead. Shortly afterwards, Doug Sampson left due to health issues, was replaced by ex-Samson drummer Clive Burr at Stratton's suggestion on 26 December 1979. Iron Maiden's first appearance on an album was on the Metal for Muthas compilation with two early versions of "Sanctuar
Symphony Masses: Ho Drakon Ho Megas
Symphony Masses: Ho Drakon Ho Megas is the third studio album released in April 1993 by Swedish band Therion. The album was remastered and re-released by Nuclear Blast in 2000 as part of The Early Chapters of Revelation box-set. In Ancient Greek Ho Drakon Ho Megas means "The Great Dragon". Uttering Ho Drakon Ho Megas is used at the end of ceremonies and rituals when conjuring Draconian force in a magical order Dragon Rouge, in which head of the band Christofer Johnsson is a member. Active Records, Therion's music label, decided to scale down their operations and the band was switched to the new owners, Megarock Records; the band was recording the album from December 1992 to January 1993 in The Montezuma Studio in Stockholm, with the aid of engineer Rex Gisslén. Symphony Masses: Ho Drakon Ho Megas was released under changed line-up. During the playing Beyond Sanctorum tour, band ran into a few personnel problems. Oskar Forss decided to leave the band, Peter Hansson quit the band after health problems.
Piotr Wawrzeniuk, from the band Carbonized in which Johnsson played, took up drumming duties. The guitar was taken up by Magnus Barthelsson, an old school friend of Johnsson's, while Andreas Wahl took up the bass; the album marks the band's departure from typical death metal in favor of experimentation with traditional doom metal, goth rock, progressive rock, symphonic classical, Persian traditional music, Arabic music, 1980s heavy metal inspired by Iron Maiden and Judas Priest. The focus of lyrical themes changed from social and environmental issues and Lovecraftian fantasy to occult topics, including qliphoth, the mythological demon Lilith, the Abyss; the Japanese version released by Toy's Factory label includes three bonus tracks—"Enter the Voids" and 1991 demo versions of "Beyond Sanctorum" and "Symphony of the Dead", both from Beyond Sanctorum. A 2006 Therion's box-set Celebrators of Becoming includes the following songs from the album—"Baal Reginon", "Dark Princess Naamah", "A Black Rose", "Dawn of Perishness".
The song "A Black Rose" has been included in a Nuclear Blast DVD compilation Death... Is Just the Beginning Classics released on March 25, 2002. Song lyrics has been published for four songs only—"Baal Reginon", "Dark Princess Naamah", "Powerdance" and "Procreation of Eternity". Symphony Masses: Ho Drakon Ho Megas gained positive reviews, it has received 4 of 5 rating by Allmusic with songs "Dark Princess Naamah", "Dawn of Perishness" and "Ho Drakon Ho Megas: The Dragon Throne/Fire and Ecstacy" picked by its staff, 3.47 of 5 by Rate Your Music community being number 473 in its 1993 ranking. All songs were written by Christofer Johnsson. "Baal Reginon" – 2:11 "Dark Princess Naamah" – 4:18 "A Black Rose" – 4:01 "Symphoni Drakonis Inferni" – 2:33 "Dawn of Perishness" – 5:51 "The Eye of Eclipse" – 5:01 "The Ritual Dance of the Yezidis" – 2:08 "Powerdance" – 3:06 "Procreation of Eternity" – 4:05 "Ho Drakon Ho Megas" – 4:19 Act 1: "The Dragon Throne" – 1:26 Act 2: "Fire and Ecstasy" – 2:53 Granholm, Kennet.
Embracing the Dark. The Magic Order of Dragon Rouge—Its Practice in Dark Magic and Meaning Making. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press. ISBN 951-765-252-6. OCLC 62706461. Symphony Masses: Ho Drakon Ho Megas at the official website Symphony Masses: Ho Drakon Ho Megas at DiscogsAudio samplesSymphony Masses: Ho Drakon Ho Megas at Amazon.com
Anthrax (American band)
Anthrax is an American heavy metal band from New York City, formed in 1981 by rhythm guitarist Scott Ian and bassist Dan Lilker. The group is considered one of the leaders of the thrash metal scene from the 1980s and is one of the "Big Four" thrash metal bands with Metallica and Slayer; as of April 2017, the band has released 11 studio albums, several other albums, 26 singles, including collaborating on a single with American hip hop group Public Enemy. According to Nielsen SoundScan, Anthrax sold 2.5 million records in the United States from 1991 to 2004, with worldwide sales of 10 million. Noted for its live performances, Anthrax signed with the independent label Megaforce Records, which released the band's debut studio album in 1984. Lilker soon left the band to form Nuclear Assault, was replaced by roadie Frank Bello. Lead vocalist Neil Turbin was replaced after two years by Matt Fallon, subsequently replaced in 1984 by Joey Belladonna. With a new lineup, the band recorded Spreading the Disease in 1985.
Anthrax's third album, Among the Living, was released in 1987 to critical praise. The band experienced another lineup change in 1992, when John Bush from Armored Saint replaced Belladonna as lead vocalist. Sound of White Noise was released the following year, peaking at number seven on the Billboard 200. Studio recordings during the 1990s saw the band, influenced by other genres, experimenting with its sound. Anthrax's lineup has changed several times over their career; the band has had a number of vocalists including Neil Turbin, Joey Belladonna, Dan Nelson and John Bush. Founding member Scott Ian and early arrival Charlie Benante, who joined Anthrax in 1983, are the only band members to appear on every album. Bassist Frank Bello has played on every album, except for the band's debut Fistful of Metal, which featured Dan Lilker. After rejoining the band from 2005 to 2007, Belladonna returned to Anthrax once again in 2010, the band has since recorded two more studio albums with him: Worship Music and For All Kings.
Anthrax was formed in Queens, New York City, on July 18, 1981 by guitarists Scott Ian and Dan Lilker. The band was named after the disease of the same name which Ian saw in a biology textbook, chosen because it sounded "sufficiently evil". Anthrax's initial line-up was completed by singer John Connelly, drummer Dave Weiss and bassist Paul Kahn. Kahn was replaced by bassist Kenny Kushner before Lilker took over on bass and Greg Walls joined as lead guitarist. Weiss was replaced early on by Greg D'Angelo, recommended to the band by Greg Walls. Scott Ian's younger brother Jason Rosenfeld was a temporary vocalist until Ian's former schoolmate Neil Turbin joined the band in late August 1982; the band recorded its first demo tape during this time. The band's first performance with Neil Turbin was at Great Gildersleeves, a New York club, in September 1982; this line-up played in the New York-New Jersey area over the next several months. Anthrax were on the same bill as the up-and-coming Metallica for several shows in the spring of 1983.
Guitarist Greg Walls left Anthrax that summer and was replaced by Bob Berry, recommended to Turbin by Rhett Forrester of Riot. Berry was in turn soon replaced by Dan Spitz, a member of the New Jersey thrash band Overkill. A second demo was recorded soon after. Drummer Charlie Benante replaced D'Angelo in September 1983 after a several-month courtship by Ian. By this time and Lilker had befriended New Jersey record store owner Jon Zazula, to whom they had given their demo tapes to critique. Zazula's new record label Megaforce Records had released Metallica's debut album Kill'Em All to great success. In late 1983, Zazula agreed to sign Anthrax and the band recorded the "Soldiers of Metal" single, produced by Ross the Boss of Manowar; the B-side was the song "Howling Furies", taken from a previous demo with Greg D'Angelo on drums. Anthrax released their debut album Fistful of Metal in January 1984. However, tensions were building between Lilker and the rest of the band for various reasons leading to the band firing Lilker.
He would soon form the band Nuclear Assault with former Anthrax roadie John Connelly. Lilker was replaced by roadie Frank Bello; the band went on a successful US tour opening for Raven and others to support Fistful of Metal. In August 1984, Neil Turbin and Anthrax went their separate ways after long standing personal issues. In his book Eddie Trunk's Essential Hard Rock and Heavy Metal, music journalist Eddie Trunk admits pressuring Jon Zazula, Scott Ian and Anthrax into firing Turbin because of his personal taste in vocals. Singer Matt Fallon was hired in late 1984, but he and the band soon parted ways; the remaining members decided to play live shows as a four-piece billed as "The Diseased" with Scott Ian on vocals, performing hardcore punk covers until a permanent singer could be found. In 1985, Joey Belladonna was chosen as the new vocalist; the Armed and Dangerous EP marked Belladonna's recording debut though it featured two live tracks from 1984 and the two songs from the "Soldiers of Metal" single that all had Neil Turbin performing on them.
Anthrax's second album Spreading the Disease was released in October 1985. With left over studio time from the sessions for the album Ian and former bandmate Dan Lilker collaborated with vocalist Billy Milano and formed the side project Stormtroopers of Death and recorded the album Speak English or Die in three days, whic
Slayer is an American thrash metal band from Huntington Park, California. The band was formed in 1981 by vocalist and bassist Tom Araya and guitarists Kerry King and Jeff Hanneman. Slayer's fast and aggressive musical style made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Metallica and Anthrax. Slayer's current lineup comprises King, drummer Paul Bostaph and guitarist Gary Holt. Hanneman and drummers Dave Lombardo and Jon Dette are former members of the band. In the original line-up, King and Araya contributed to the band's lyrics, all of the band's music was written by King and Hanneman; the band's lyrics and album art, which cover topics such as murder, serial killers, torture, human experimentation, hate crimes, religion, antireligion and war, have generated album bans, delays and criticism from religious groups and factions of the general public. However, its music has been influential being cited by many bands as an influence musically and lyrically. Slayer has released twelve studio albums, two live albums, a box set, six music videos, two extended plays and a cover album.
Four of the band's studio albums have received gold certification in the United States. The band has received five Grammy Award nominations, winning one in 2007 for the song "Eyes of the Insane" and one in 2008 for the song "Final Six", both of which were from the album Christ Illusion. Between 1991 and 2013, the band sold five million albums in the United States. After 37 years of recording and performing, Slayer announced in January 2018 that they would embark on their final world tour, which began that May and is estimated to wrap up in 2019 or 2020. Slayer was formed in 1981 by Kerry King, Jeff Hanneman, Dave Lombardo, Tom Araya; the group started out playing covers of songs by bands such as Iron Maiden and Judas Priest at parties and clubs in Southern California. The band's early image relied on Satanic themes that featured pentagrams, make-up, inverted crosses. Rumors that the band was known as Dragonslayer, after the 1981 movie of the same name, were denied by King, as he stated: "We never were.
The band was spotted by Brian Slagel, a former music journalist who had founded Metal Blade Records. Impressed with Slayer, he met with the band backstage and asked them to record an original song for his upcoming Metal Massacre III compilation album; the band agreed and their song "Aggressive Perfector" created an underground buzz upon its release in mid 1983, which led to Slagel offering the band a recording contract with Metal Blade. Without any recording budget, the band had to self-finance its debut album. Combining the savings of Araya, employed as a respiratory therapist, money borrowed from King's father, the band entered the studio in November 1983; the album was rushed into stocking shelves three weeks after tracks were completed. Show No Mercy, released in December 1983 by Metal Blade Records, generated by underground popularity for the band; the group began a club tour of California to promote the album. The tour gave the band additional popularity and sales of Show No Mercy reached more than 20,000 in the US and another 20,000 worldwide.
In February 1984, King joined Dave Mustaine's new band Megadeth. Hanneman was worried about King's decision, stating in an interview, "I guess we're gonna get a new guitar player." While Mustaine wanted King to stay on a permanent basis, King left after five shows, stating Mustaine's band was "taking too much of my time." The split caused a rift between King and Mustaine, which evolved into a long running feud between the two bands. In June 1984, Slayer released; the EP featured a darker, more thrash-oriented style than Show No Mercy, laid the groundwork for the future direction of the band. The opening track, "Chemical Warfare", has become a live staple, played at nearly every show since 1984. Slayer began their first national club tour that year traveling in Tom Araya's Camaro towing a U-Haul trailer; the band recorded the live album Live Undead in November 1984 while in New York City. In March 1985, Slayer began a national tour with Venom and Exodus, resulting in their first live home video dubbed Combat Tour: The Ultimate Revenge.
The video featured live footage filmed at the Studio 54 club. The band made its live European debut at the Heavy Sound Festival in Belgium opening for UFO,By 1985, Show No Mercy had sold over 40,000 copies, which led to the band returning to the studio to record their second full-length album. Metal Blade financed a recording budget. Released in September 1985, Slayer's second full-length album, Hell Awaits, expanded on the darkness of Haunting the Chapel, with hell and Satan as common song subjects; the album was the band's most progressive offering, featuring longer and more complex song structures. The intro of the title track is a backwards recording of a demonic-sounding voice repeating "Join us", ending with "Welcome back" before the track begins; the album was a hit, with fans choosing Slayer for best band, best live band, Hell Awaits, as 1985's best album, Dave Lombardo as best drummer in the British magazine Metal Forces' 1985 Readers Poll. Following the success of Hell Awaits, Slayer was offered a recording contract with Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin's newly founded Def Jam Records, a larg
Celtic Frost were a Swiss extreme metal band from Zürich. They are known for their strong influence on the development of extreme metal. Formed in 1981 as Hellhammer, the band became Celtic Frost in 1984 and was active until 1993, it re-formed in 2001 and disbanded following frontman Tom Gabriel Fischer's departure in 2008. The band was inspired by metal bands such as Black Sabbath, Judas Priest and Venom as well as gothic rock groups like Bauhaus and the Banshees and Christian Death and by the hardcore punk of Discharge, their music included elements of various extreme metal styles. Their earlier music was classified as thrash metal and death metal and their work was classified as doom metal; the level of experimentation on albums such as Into the Pandemonium led certain journalists to describe the band's direction as avant-garde metal. Celtic Frost's frontman and singer Tom Gabriel Fischer, adopted the alias Tom Warrior. With Steve Warrior on bass, he formed one of the earliest extreme metal bands, Hellhammer, in 1981.
Steve Warrior was replaced by Martin Eric Ain – a pseudonym. The band attracted a small international fan-base, got signed to Noise Records in Germany and recorded their debut EP Apocalyptic Raids in March 1984, now a rare find on eBay or second-hand record stores around the world. Metal publications were skeptical of Hellhammer's musical endeavor. Metal Forces loathed the group. Rock Power was not fond of Hellhammer either – they considered it "the most terrible and atrocious thing ‘musicians’ were allowed to record". In fact, they were "receiving miserable reviews everywhere", Warrior concluded. Regarding the controversial status of his former band, Thomas said: Way back in 1984 and 85, when Martin Eric Ain and I recorded Celtic Frost's first two albums Morbid Tales and To Mega Therion, Hellhammer lasted on us like a curse. Though Hellhammer was the reason we had thought over our goals and conceived the Frost, HH's left-overs kept being mighty rocks in our way. Many voices saw Frost as the same band with just a name-change.
The lack of musical quality in HH made it impossible for us to get an unbiased reaction for Frost. To make a long story short, it killed all our work and dreams. By May 1984, Hellhammer had disbanded. Fischer and Ain, along with session drummer Stephen Priestly, regrouped as Celtic Frost, their 1984 debut mini-LP, Morbid Tales was a hit in the underground metal scene, the band set out on its first tour, through Germany and Austria. This was followed with an EP Emperor's Return. Both early releases are now available on the one CD. One of their more influential recordings was 1985's To Mega Therion which did not feature Ain on bass, but stand-in Dominic Steiner; the cover artwork is a painting by H. R. Giger entitled Satan I; the album was a major influence on black metal genres. Ain did return. In 1987 followed Into the Pandemonium; the album is more varied than many of Celtic Frost's past LPs, with unlikely covers charged love songs, the album's recurring industrial-influenced rhythmic songs of demons and destruction, traditional Frost styled songs about dreams and fear, a dark, classical piece with female vocals.
The album is vastly different from the band's previous work and cemented its late 80s avant-garde metal term. However, it does have the recurring symphonic elements found on previous albums; the album has a more classic heavy metal style within the songs with elements of industrial and gothic rock, has an industrial/electronic body music -inspired rhythm in "One in Their Pride". It does have a few black metal elements remaining in Warrior's vocals and some thrash-influenced guitar riffs; these albums were some of the pivotal LPs for underground metal and introduced a new and more varied sound. Celtic Frost, along with Venom and Bathory were pioneers in the still underground black metal scene, although Celtic Frost were much more experimental with the addition of classical instruments, operatic female vocals and sampling. Celtic Frost was labeled by critics as avant-garde metal. After a subsequent North American tour, financial trouble, personal tension between the band members and an ill-fated relationship with their record label led to a dissolution of the band.
Six months Warrior reformed the band with Stephen Priestly back on drums, Oliver Amberg on guitars and Curt Victor Bryant on bass and recorded the fourth studio album Cold Lake, released on 1 September 1988 by Noise Records. Despite it being marketed to exploit the mass appeal of glam metal, the album has more of a traditional heavy metal sound. Bryant fired Amberg and former live show guitarist Ron Marks returned for the recording of Vanity/Nemesis in 1990; the most significant change, was the return of early bassist Martin Eric Ain, but Celtic Frost's reputation did not recover. The group's next album was a collection of rare recordings called Parched With Thirst Am I and Dying; the compilation's title was inspired by an old Roman prayer. It featured unreleased material, re-recorded versions of older songs and some studio session versions. A final proposed album titled "Under Apollyon's Sun" was never made under that title, although Fischer co-founded a new group called Apollyon Su
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o