Gerhard II, Count of Holstein-Plön
Gerhard II of Holstein-Plön, nicknamed the Blind, was Count of Holstein-Plön from 1290 to 1312. He was Count of Holstein-Itzehoe and Elisabeth of Mecklenburg. After his father's death in 1290, the county was divided among the surviving sons. Gerhard II received Holstein-Plön; the seal reads S*GERARDI*COMITIS*HOLTSACIE*ET*IN*SCHOWENBURCH "Seal of Count Gerhard of Hostein and Schauenburg" He married on 12 December 1275 the Swedish Princess Ingeborg, a daughter of King Valdemar of Sweden. They had four children: Catherine Gerhard IV, Count of Holstein-Plön Valdemar, Count of Holstein-Schauenburg, died after the Second Battle of Uetersen Elizabeth, married Otto I, Duke of PomeraniaIn 1293 Gerhard married Agnes of Brandenburg, the widow of King Eric V of Denmark. With her, he had a son: Count of Holstein in Kiel from 1312 until his death. Johann Friedrich Camerer: Vermischte historisch-politische Nachrichten, 1762
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Vordingborg is an old ferry town in Vordingborg Municipality in Denmark with around 18.000 inhabitants. Because of three large estates surrounding the town, a coherent urban development has not been possible, the reason why three satellite towns have emerged around the town. Within the ring of estates, the town has 12,000 inhabitants, 18.043 inhabitants when including the three satellite towns of Ørslev, Nyråd and Stensved, situated 1, 3 and 5 kilometres from the town of Vordingborg. Vordingborg Municipality has a population of 46,000. Long term head coach of the Danish national football team, Morten Olsen, was born in Vordingborg. On January 1, 2007 the old Vordingborg municipality was, as the result of Kommunalreformen, merged with Langebæk, Møn, Præstø municipalities to form an enlarged Vordingborg municipality. Vordingborg is situated 37 km from Nykøbing Falster 50 km from Gedser, 100 km from Copenhagen and Odense; the town is situated on the island of Zealand and is linked to the island of Falster with Farø Bridges and Storstrøm Bridge.
Vordingborg Municipality is home to 9,500 jobs. Companies headquartered in Vordingborg include a kitchen manufacturer. Udbetaling Danmark, a public institution under ARP, has one of its five regional centres in the town; the ruins of Vordingborg Castle, the old royal castle, built around 1364, is the town's most famous attraction. The only remaining part of the castle, the 26 meter tall Goose Tower, is the symbol of the city, it is the largest of King Valdemar Atterdag's nine main castle towers. The name comes from the golden goose perched on top of the tower's spire. Legend has it; the current goose was put there in 1871. It is not certain what was on top of the tower before 1871 and maybe it was just a weather vane made of gold; the tower was transferred into the national trust on December 24, 1808, is thus the first, protected historic monument in Denmark. A historic garden is located on the site of the ruin. Vordingborg is the home of the South Zealand Museum; the city holds Vordingborg Fest Week in July.
The Vordingborg Transmitter is one of the tallest towers in Denmark. The Danish Army operates a barracks facility on the edge of town, known as Vordingborg Kaserne. Margaret I of Denmark monarch Anne Lykke a Danish noblewoman and royal mistress of Christian, Prince Elect of Denmark Jacob Baden a Danish philologist, pedagogue and professor of rhetoric and the Latin language at University of Copenhagen Peter Andreas Heiberg a Danish author and philologist N. F. S. Grundtvig a Danish pastor, poet, philosopher and politician. Carl Christoffer Georg Andræ a Danish politician and mathematician Meïr Aron Goldschmidt a Danish publisher and novelist Julius Lange a Danish art historian and critic Astrid Stampe Feddersen a Danish women's rights activist Niels Nielsen a Danish mathematician, specialized in mathematical analysis Jacob Ellehammer a Danish watchmaker and contributor to powered flight Johannes Friis-Skotte a Danish politician and minister Jesper Juul a Danish family therapist and author of several books on parenting Cecilie Thomsen and model Trentemøller a Danish electronic music producer and multi-instrumentalist Vagn Ingerslev a Danish tennis player, competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics Morten Olsen footballer and coach of the Danish national football team from 2000 until 2015 Birger Pedersen a Danish former association footballer, played 14 matches for the Denmark national football team Steven Lustü a Danish former football player, played nine games for the Danish national team.
Thomas Raun a former Danish football midfielder with Silkeborg IF Vordingborg is twinned with: Słupsk, Poland - since 1994. Media related to Vordingborg at Wikimedia Commons Official site of Vordingborg
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Agnes of Brandenburg
Not to be confused with Agnes of Babenberg Agnes of Brandenburg was a Danish Queen consort by marriage to King Eric V of Denmark. As a widow, she served as the regent of Denmark for her son, King Eric VI, during his minority from 1286 until 1293, she was born to John I, Margrave of Brandenburg and Brigitte of Saxony, the daughter of Albert I, Duke of Saxony. She married King Eric V of Denmark at Schleswig on 11 November 1273; the marriage was agreed upon during King Eric's captivity in Brandenburg by Agnes' father from 1261 to 1264. Tradition claims that the King of Denmark was released from captivity on his promise to marry Agnes without a dowry. Denmark and Brandenburg, had a long tradition of dynastic marriages between them. In 1286, she became the Regent of Denmark during the minority of her son; the details of her regency are not known more and it is hard to determine which of the decisions were made by her, and, made by the council. Peder Nielsen Hoseøl was very influential in the regency, she is to have received support from her family.
In 1290, she financed a granted lime painting in the church St. Bendt's Church in Ringsted, which depicts her in a dominating way, her son was declared of legal majority in 1293. Married in 1293 to count Gerhard II of Holstein-Plön with whom she had the son John III, Count of Holstein-Plön, she visited Denmark after her second marriage, it continued to be a second home. She died on 29 September 1304, was buried in Denmark. Alf Henrikson: Dansk historia Sven Rosborn: När hände vad i Nordens historia Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is called; the monarch's consort may be crowned, either with the monarch or as a separate event. Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors. In the past, concepts of royalty and deity were inexorably linked.
In some ancient cultures, rulers were considered to be divine or divine: the Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be the son of Ra, the sun god, while in Japan, the emperor was believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu, the sun goddess. Rome promulgated the practice of emperor worship. Coronations were once a direct visual expression of these alleged connections, but recent centuries have seen the lessening of such beliefs. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom and several Asian and African countries. In Europe, most monarchs are required to take a simple oath in the presence of the country's legislature. Besides a coronation, a monarch's accession may be marked in many ways: some nations may retain a religious dimension to their accession rituals while others have adopted simpler inauguration ceremonies, or no ceremony at all; some cultures use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country.
Coronation in common parlance today may in a broader sense, refer to any formal ceremony in relation to the accession of a monarch, whether or not an actual crown is bestowed, such ceremonies may otherwise be referred to as investitures, inaugurations, or enthronements. The date of the act of ascension, however precedes the date of the ceremony of coronation. For example, the Coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 sixteen months after her accession to the throne on 6 February 1952 on the death of her father George VI; the coronation ceremonies in medieval Christendom, both Western and Eastern, are influenced by the practice of the Roman Emperors as it developed during Late Antiquity, indirectly influenced by Biblical accounts of kings being crowned and anointed. The European coronation ceremonies best known in the form they have taken in Great Britain, descend from rites created in Byzantium, Visigothic Spain, Carolingian France and the Holy Roman Empire and brought to their apogee during the Medieval era.
In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources related to the religious beliefs of that particular nation. Buddhism, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites; the ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, while Tonga's ritual combines ancient Polynesian influences with more modern Anglican ones. Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC. Judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11:12 and II Chronicles 23:11; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the Helios, the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by Roman emperors as part of the cult of Sol Invictus, part of the imperial cult as it developed during the 3rd century.
The origin of the crown is thus religious, comparable to the significance of a halo, marking the sacral nature of kingship, expressing that either the king is himself divine, or ruling by divine right. The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid rulers, was adopted by Constantine I, was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the supreme symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one evolved over the following century; the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers. Emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a similar manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperor's head. Historians debate when this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II, crowned by the Patriarch Acacius in 473.
This ritual in
Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg was the regent of the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg during the minority of her son from 1321 until 1330. She was by duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg and junior queen of Denmark. A member of the House of Schauenburg, Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry I, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, Heilwig of Bronckhorst, her first husband was Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, whom she married in c. 1315. Elizabeth gave birth to a son who succeeded her husband as Albert IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, but she ruled the duchy as regent due to his minority. In 1330, Duchess Elizabeth married Eric, junior king of Denmark, the son of her brother Gerhard's enemy, King Christopher II of Denmark; the couple had no children and the marriage was dissolved the next year. Her former husband died in war with Holstein in 1332. Elisabeth