Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 139,966, in 2016, the population was estimated to be 155,810. Located along the western bank of the Potomac River, Alexandria is 7 miles south of downtown Washington, D. C. Like the rest of Northern Virginia, as well as Central Maryland, modern Alexandria has been influenced by its proximity to the U. S. capital. It is populated by professionals working in the federal civil service, in the U. S. military, or for one of the many private companies which contract to provide services to the federal government. One of Alexandria's largest employers is the U. S. Department of Defense. Another is the Institute for Defense Analyses. In 2005, the United States Patent and Trademark Office moved to Alexandria, in 2017, so did the headquarters of the National Science Foundation; the historic center of Alexandria is known as Old Town. With its concentration of boutiques, antique shops and theaters, it is a major draw for all who live in Alexandria as well for visitors.
Like Old Town, many Alexandria neighborhoods are walkable. It is the 7th largest and highest-income independent city in Virginia. A large portion of adjacent Fairfax County south but west of the city, is named "Alexandria," but it is under the jurisdiction of Fairfax County and separate from the city. In 1920, Virginia's General Assembly voted to incorporate what had been Alexandria County as Arlington County to minimize confusion. On October 21, 1669 a patent granted 6,000 acres to Robert Howsing for transporting 120 people to the Colony of Virginia; that tract would become the City of Alexandria. Virginia's comprehensive Tobacco Inspection Law of 1730 mandated that all tobacco grown in the colony must be brought to locally designated public warehouses for inspection before sale. One of the sites designated for a warehouse on the upper Potomac River was at the mouth of Hunting Creek. However, the ground proved to be unsuitable, the warehouse was built half a mile up-river, where the water was deep near the shore.
Following the 1745 settlement of the Virginia's 10 year dispute with Lord Fairfax over the western boundary of the Northern Neck Proprietary, when the Privy Council in London found in favor of Lord Fairfax's expanded claim, some of the Fairfax County gentry formed the Ohio Company of Virginia. They intended to conduct trade into the interior of America, they required a trading center near the head of navigation on the Potomac; the best location was Hunting Creek tobacco warehouse, since the deep water could accommodate sailing ships. Many local tobacco planters, wanted a new town further up Hunting Creek, away from nonproductive fields along the river. Around 1746, Captain Philip Alexander II moved to what is south of present Duke Street in Alexandria, his estate, which consisted of 500 acres, was bounded by Hunting Creek, Hooff's Run, the Potomac River, the line which would become Cameron Street. At the opening of Virginia's 1748–49 legislative session, there was a petition submitted in the House of Burgesses on November 1, 1748, that the "inhabitants of Fairfax praying that a town may be established at Hunting Creek Warehouse on Potowmack River," as Hugh West was the owner of the warehouse.
The petition was introduced by Lawrence Washington, the representative for Fairfax County and, more the son-in-law of William Fairfax and a founding member of the Ohio Company. To support the company's push for a town on the river, Lawrence's younger brother George Washington, an aspiring surveyor, made a sketch of the shoreline touting the advantages of the tobacco warehouse site. Since the river site was amidst his estate, Philip opposed the idea and favored a site at the head of Hunting Creek, it has been said that in order to avoid a predicament the petitioners offered to name the new town Alexandria, in honor of Philip's family. As a result and his cousin Captain John Alexander gave land to assist in the development of Alexandria, are thus listed as the founders; this John was the son of Robert Alexander II. On May 2, 1749, the House of Burgesses approved the river location and ordered "Mr. Washington do go up with a Message to the Council and acquaint them that this House have agreed to the Amendments titled An Act for erecting a Town at Hunting Creek Warehouse, in the County of Fairfax."
A "Public Vendue" was advertised for July, the county surveyor laid out street lanes and town lots. The auction was conducted on July 13–14, 1749. Upon establishment, the town founders called the new town "Belhaven", believed to be in honor of a Scottish patriot, John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven and Stenton, the Northern Neck tobacco trade being dominated by Scots; the name Belhaven was used in official lotteries to raise money for a Church and Market House, but it was never approved by the legislature and fell out of favor in the mid-1750s. The town of Alexandria did not become incorporated until 1779. In 1755, General Edward Braddock organized his fatal expedition against Fort Duquesne at Carlyle House in Alexandria. In April 1755, the governors of Virginia, the provinces of Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York met to determine upon concerted action against the French in America. In March 1785, commissioners from Virginia and Maryland met in Alexandria to discuss the commercial relations of the two states, finishing their business at Mount Vernon.
The Mount Vernon Conference concluded o
12 Monkeys known as Twelve Monkeys, is a 1995 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam, inspired by Chris Marker's 1962 short film La Jetée, starring Bruce Willis, Madeleine Stowe, Brad Pitt, with Christopher Plummer and David Morse in supporting roles. After Universal Studios acquired the rights to remake La Jetée as a full-length film and Janet Peoples were hired to write the script. Under Gilliam's direction, Universal granted the filmmakers a $29.5 million budget, filming lasted from February to May 1995. The film was shot in Philadelphia and Baltimore, where the story was set; the film grossed $168 million worldwide. Pitt was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, won a Golden Globe Award for his performance; the film won and was nominated for various categories at the Saturn Awards. A deadly virus released in 1996 wipes out all of humanity, forcing survivors to live underground. A group known as the Army of the Twelve Monkeys is believed to have released the virus.
In 2035, James Cole is a prisoner living in a subterranean compound beneath the ruins of Philadelphia. Cole is selected to be trained and sent back in time to find the original virus in order to help scientists develop a cure. Meanwhile, Cole is troubled by recurring dreams shooting at an airport. Cole arrives in Baltimore in 1990, not 1996 as planned, he is arrested hospitalized in a mental hospital on the diagnosis of Dr. Kathryn Railly. There he encounters a mental patient with fanatical views. Cole is interviewed by a panel of doctors, he tries to explain that the virus outbreak has happened, nobody can change it. After an escape attempt, Cole is sedated and locked in a cell, but disappears moments and wakes up back in 2035, he is interrogated by the scientists, who play a distorted voicemail message that asserts the association of the Army of the Twelve Monkeys with the virus. He is shown photos of numerous people suspected of being involved, including Goines; the scientists offer Cole a second chance to send him back in time.
He arrives at a battlefield during World War I, is shot in the leg, is transported to 1996. In 1996, Railly gives a lecture about the Cassandra complex to a group of scientists. At the post-lecture book signing, Dr. Peters tells Railly that apocalypse alarmists represent the sane vision, while humanity's gradual destruction of the environment is the real lunacy. Cole arrives at the venue after seeing flyers publicizing it, when Railly departs, he kidnaps her and forces her to take him to Philadelphia, they learn that Goines is the founder of the Army of the Twelve Monkeys, set out in search of him. When they confront him, Goines denies any involvement with the group and says that in 1990 Cole originated the idea of wiping out humanity with a virus stolen from Goines's virologist father. About to be apprehended by police, Cole is transported back to 2035, where he reaffirms to the scientists his commitment to his mission, but when he finds Railly again in 1996, he tells her. Railly, has discovered evidence of his time travel, which she shows him.
They decide to depart for the Florida Keys before the onset of the plague. On their way to the airport, they learn that the Army of the Twelve Monkeys was not the source of the epidemic. At the airport, Cole leaves a last message telling the scientists that in following the Army of the Twelve Monkeys they are on the wrong track, that he will not return, he is soon confronted by Jose, an acquaintance from his own time, who gives Cole a handgun and ambiguously instructs him to follow orders. At the same time, Railly spots Dr. Peters, recognizes him from a newspaper photograph as an assistant at Goines's father's virology lab. Peters is about to embark on a tour of several cities that match the locations and sequence of the viral outbreaks. Cole forces his way through a security checkpoint in pursuit of Peters. After drawing the gun he was given, Cole is fatally shot by police; as Cole lies dying in Railly's arms, Railly makes eye contact with a small boy—the young James Cole witnessing the scene of his own death, which will replay in his dreams for years to come.
Peters, aboard the plane with the virus, sits down next to Jones, one of the scientists from the future. Bruce Willis as James Cole Joseph Melito as young James Cole Madeleine Stowe as Kathryn Railly Brad Pitt as Jeffrey Goines Christopher Plummer as Dr. Leland Goines David Morse as Dr. Peters Jon Seda as Jose Christopher Meloni as Lt. Halperin Frank Gorshin as Dr. Fletcher Vernon Campbell as Tiny Lisa Gay Hamilton as Teddy Bob Adrian as Geologist Simon Jones as Zoologist Carol Florence as Astrophysicist/Jones Bill Raymond as Microbiologist Annie Golden as Woman Cabbie Thomas Roy as a street preacher The genesis of 12 Monkeys came from executive producer Robert Kosberg, a fan of the French short film La Jetée. Kosberg persuaded the film's director, Chris Marker, to let him pitch the project to Universal Pictures, seeing it as a perfect basis for a full-length science fiction film. Universal reluctantly agreed to purchase the remake rights and hired David and Janet Peoples to write the screenplay.
Producer Charles Roven chose Terry Gilliam to direct, because he believed the filmmaker's style was perfect for 12 Monkeys' nonlinear storyline and time travel subplot. Gilliam had just abandoned a film adaptation of A Tale of Two Cities when he signed to direct 12 Monkeys; the film represents the second film for which Gilliam did not write or co-write the screenplay
The Sardinians, or the Sards, are the native people and ethnic group from which Sardinia, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name. The ethnic origin of the Sardinians is unclear: the ethnonym "Srd" belongs to the Pre-Indo-European linguistic substratum; the oldest written attestation of the ethnonym is on the Nora stone, where the word Šrdn bears witness to its original existence by the time the Phoenician merchants first arrived to the Sardinian shores. According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues and its people as well, the "Sardonioi" or "Sardianoi", might have been named after "Sardò", a legendary Lydian woman from Sardis, in the region of western Anatolia; some other authors, like Pausanias and Sallust, reported instead that Sardinians traced their descent back to a mythical ancestor, a Libyan son of Hercules or Makeris revered as Sardus Pater Babai, who gave the island its name. It has been claimed that the ancient Nuragic Sards were associated with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples.
The ethnonym was romanised, with regard for the singular masculine and feminine form, as sardus and sarda. Sardinia was first colonized in a stable manner during the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic by people from the Iberian and the Italian peninsula. During the Neolithic period and the Early Eneolithic, people from Italy and the Aegean area settled in Sardinia. In the Late Eneolithic-Early Bronze age the "Beaker folk" from Southern France, Northeastern Spain and from Central Europe settled on the island, bringing new metallurgical techniques and ceramic styles and some kind of Indo-European speech; the Nuragic civilization arose in the Middle Bronze Age, during the Late Bonnanaro culture, which showed connections with the previous Beaker culture and the Polada culture of northern Italy. At that time, the grand tribal identities of Nuragic Sardinia were said to be three: the Iolei/Ilienses, inhabiting the area from the southernmost plains to the mountainous zone of eastern Sardinia. Nuragic Sardinians have been connected by some scholars to the Sherden, a tribe of the so-called Sea Peoples, whose presence is registered several times in ancient Egyptian records.
The language spoken in Sardinia during the Bronze Age is unknown, since there are no written records of such period. According to Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, the Proto-Sardinian language was akin to Proto-Basque and the ancient Iberian, while others believe it was related to Etruscan. Other scholars theorize that there were various linguistic areas in Nuragic Sardinia Pre-Indoeuropeans and Indoeuropeans. In the 9th century BC, the Phoenicians founded cities and ports along the south-west coast, such as Karalis, Bithia and Tharros; the south and west part of Sardinia was annexed by the Carthaginians in the late 6th century BC and the whole island was conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, after the First Punic War. Sardinia and Corsica were made into a single province. Sardinia, with the exception of the innerlands and the central mountainous area called Barbagia, was Latinized during the Roman period, the modern Sardinian language is considered one of the most conservative Romance languages.
Besides, during the Roman rule there was a considerable immigration flow from the Italian peninsula into the island. Roman colonies were established in Porto Torres and Usellus. Strabo gave a brief summary about the Mountaineer tribes, living in what would be called civitates Barbariae, who refused assimilation during Roman rule, Geographica V ch.2:There are four nations of mountaineers, the Parati, Sossinati and the Aconites. These people dwell in caverns. Although they have some arable land, they neglect its cultivation, preferring rather to plunder what they find cultivated by others, whether on the island or on the continent, where they make descents upon the Pisatæ; the prefects sent sometimes resist them, but at other times leave them alone, since it would cost too dear to maintain an army always on foot in an unhealthy place. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Sardinia was ruled in rapid succession by the Vandals, the Byzantines, the Ostrogoths and again by the Byzantines. During the Middle Ages, the island was divided into four independent Kingdoms.
The Doria founded the cities of Alghero and Castelgenovese, while the Pisans founded Castel di Castro and Terranova. Following the Aragonese conquest of the Sardinian territories belong
NYPD Blue is an American police procedural drama television series set in New York City, exploring the struggles of the fictional 15th Precinct detective squad in Manhattan. Each episode intertwines several plots involving an ensemble cast; the show was created by Steven Bochco and David Milch, was inspired by Milch's relationship with Bill Clark, a former member of the New York City Police Department who became one of the show's producers. The series was broadcast on the ABC network, debuted on September 21, 1993‚ and aired its final episode on March 1, 2005, it was ABC's longest-running primetime one-hour drama series until Grey's Anatomy surpassed it in 2016. NYPD Blue was met with critical acclaim, praised for its grittiness and realistic portrayal of the cast's personal and professional lives, though the show garnered controversy for its depiction of nudity and alcoholism. In 1997, "True Confessions", written by Art Monterastelli and directed by Charles Haid, was ranked #36 on "TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time."
In 2009, "Hearts and Souls", Jimmy Smits' final episode as a main cast member, #30 on "TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time." Produced by 20th Century Fox and Steven Bochco Productions, film production took place in the greater Los Angeles area. The show did film in New York, but only for exterior shots. In the final season, the show was filmed only in Los Angeles to save money. Exterior shots of the 15th Precinct used the 9th Precinct building on East 5th Street in New York City used for Kojak; the show was a vehicle for David Caruso. John Kelly was the main character, the first season revolved around him and his professional and personal lives. Promotional shots for the show depicted Caruso in the foreground and other first-season characters set off behind him. Season two had the departure of John Kelly, the show was thereafter built around an ensemble cast. Dennis Franz, as Andy Sipowicz, a veteran New York City Police detective, evolved into the show's lead character, who assumed a mentorship role to other characters as the series progressed.
His co-stars included Jimmy Smits as Det. Bobby Simone, Rick Schroder as Det. Danny Sorenson, Mark-Paul Gosselaar as Det. John Clark, Jr.. John Kelly and Andy Sipowicz are detectives in the 15th squad. Sipowicz is the elder partner, but is an alcoholic who drinks on the job, as well as off duty, his behavior causes doubt that the partnership will last much longer. Kelly has a genuine affection for his partner, but becomes exasperated by Sipowicz's behavior. In addition to his alcoholism, Sipowicz is a negative, homophobic bigot. In the pilot, Sipowicz is shot by a suspect he had humiliated earlier; this leads to his decision to save his job. While Sipowicz is recuperating, the squad's lieutenant, Arthur Fancy, teams Kelly with a young cop from Anticrime, James Martinez. Kelly's personal life is as frenetic as his professional life, he is reluctantly going through a divorce from his wife, is embarking on an affair with a uniformed cop, Janice Licalsi. To complicate matters further, Licalsi's police-officer father is on the payroll of mob boss Angelo Marino.
Licalsi, in an attempt to protect her father, has been ordered to do a "hit" on Kelly. Instead, Licalsi murders Marino, the repercussions come back to haunt both Kelly and her. Sipowicz, sobers up and begins a relationship with ADA Sylvia Costas; the other detective in the squad, Greg Medavoy, a married man, embarks on an affair with the squad's new administrative aide, Donna Abandando. Licalsi is found guilty of the manslaughter of Marino and his driver, is given a two-year sentence; because of Kelly's involvement with Licalsi, the held belief that he withheld evidence that could have given her a longer sentence, he is transferred out of the 15th and chooses to leave the department altogether. He is replaced by Bobby Simone, a widower whose previous job was that of driver for the police commissioner; this does not sit well with Sipowicz, but after learning that Simone took the assignment to be present for his wife, suffering from cancer, Sipowicz learns to accept his new partner and builds a strong friendship with him.
When Sipowicz's relationship with Sylvia leads to marriage, he asks Simone to be his best man. After an affair with a journalist whom he suspects has used information that he disclosed to her after an intimate moment to boost her career, Simone begins a relationship with another new member of the squad, Diane Russell. Sipowicz, as a recovering alcoholic, recognizes from Russell's behavior that she has a drinking problem. After much prompting, she begins attending Alcoholics Anonymous. In another storyline, due to his low self-esteem and disbelief that a woman like Donna could love him, Medavoy's relationship with her breaks down, due in no small part to Donna's visiting sister. At the beginning of the season, Sylvia becomes pregnant with Andy's child. A baby boy, Theo, is born towards the end of the season; this is contrasted with the fate that awaits Sipowicz's older son, Andy Jr. who announces that he plans to join the police force in nearby Hackensack, New Jersey, after being discharged from the Air Force due to an injury.
Sipowicz is bonding with his long-estranged son when Andy Jr. is gunned down trying to help people in a bar holdup. This causes the elder Sipowicz to fall off the wagon. Simone kills Andy Jr.'s murderers in an act of self-defense while attempting to arrest them. Bobby and Diane, who had placed their relationship on hold while she attended AA, resume seeing each other. D
Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre
The Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre is a full-time professional conservatory for actors in New York City. It is known as the home of the Meisner technique; the Neighborhood Playhouse had been founded as an off-Broadway theatre by philanthropists Alice Lewisohn and Irene Lewisohn in 1915, but closed in 1927. The following year, it re-opened as The Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre with the addition of Rita Wallach Morgenthau. Sanford Meisner joined the faculty in 1935 from the Group Theatre. Meisner used his study of Russian theatre and acting innovator, Konstantin Stanislavski's System to develop his own technique, as an alternative to Lee Strasberg's Method acting. Playwright Horton Foote met actor Robert Duvall at Neighborhood Playhouse when Duvall starred in a 1957 production of Foote's play, The Midnight Caller. Foote recommended Duvall to play the part of Boo Radley in the 1962 film; the school offers a two-year certificate program, with admission to the second year dependent upon unanimous approval of the faculty.
There is a six-week summer intensive program. The Neighborhood Playhouse offers Playhouse Juniors, a popular Saturday training program for children in grades 1–12. Children attend a fixed curriculum of singing and dancing classes in a non-competitive environment. Official website
Runaway Bride (film)
Runaway Bride is a 1999 American romantic comedy film directed by Garry Marshall and starring Julia Roberts and Richard Gere. The screenplay was written by Sara Parriott. Maggie Carpenter is a spirited and attractive young woman who has had a number of unsuccessful relationships. Maggie, nervous of being married, has left a trail of fiancés. She's left three men waiting for her at the altar on their wedding day, receiving tabloid fame and the dubious nickname "The Runaway Bride". Meanwhile, in New York, columnist Homer Eisenhower Graham or "Ike", writes an article about her that contains several factual errors, supplied to him by a man he meets in a bar who Ike learns was one of Maggie's former fiancés. Ike is fired for not verifying his source, but is invited to write an in-depth article about Maggie in a bid to restore his reputation, he travels to Hale, where he finds Maggie living with her family and on her fourth attempt to become married. The fourth groom-to-be, Bob Kelly, is a local high school football coach who uses sports analogies to help Maggie with her concerns.
He makes references to Maggie "focusing" on the goal-line in reference to their pending nuptials. As Ike starts going around town to meet her friends and former fiancés, Maggie becomes frustrated and feels he is getting the story wrong again. Ike begins to cooperate with Maggie on the story, Maggie being interested in getting him to publish the truth, the two become closer to each other the more time they spend together. During his research for the story, Ike realizes that Maggie is adjusting her interests to mimic those of her fiancés in order to please them; this is signified most prominently by her choice of eggs, which changes with each fiancé. At a pre-wedding celebration for her and Bob, Ike defends Maggie from the public mockery she starts receiving from her family and guests, Maggie walks outside due to the embarrassment. Ike confronts Maggie outside about his realization regarding her relationships. During the wedding rehearsal, Bob tries to quell Maggie's wedding anxieties by walking her down the aisle.
Ike is standing in at the altar. After Bob gets her to the altar and Maggie share a passionate kiss and admit to each other their feelings. Bob is chagrined, becomes jealous and punches Ike in the face before he storms out of the church. In the aftermath, Ike proposes. At the altar, Maggie gets cold flees. Ike pursues her but she hitches a ride away on a FedEx truck. We see Ike living in New York and Maggie trying to discover herself, trying different types of eggs, putting her lighting designs up for sale in New York, she shows up unexpectedly at Ike's apartment one night where he finds her making friends with his cat, Italics. Maggie explains that she had been running because every other guy she was engaged to was only engaged to the idea she had created for them rather than the real her, but with Ike she ran because though he understood her, she didn't understand herself, she "turns in" her running shoes just before proposing to Ike. Ike hides his eyes; the two are married in a private ceremony outside, on a hill, avoiding the big ceremonies that Maggie notes she never liked.
In the end, they are shown riding away on horseback while everyone in Hale and New York celebrates the fact that Maggie got married. A post credit scene shows Maggie and Ike playing in the snow signifying that the relationship is going strong well after the wedding. Julia Roberts as Margaret "Maggie" Carpenter, a woman who has run away from three weddings but is hoping not to do so on her fourth wedding attempt Richard Gere as Homer "Ike" Eisenhower Graham, a New York City news reporter who writes an article about Maggie and falls in love with her. Joan Cusack as Peggy Flemming, Maggie's best friend and co-worker at beauty salon, she is married to the town's radio announcer. Héctor Elizondo as Fisher, Ike's boss who marries Ike's ex-wife Ellie. Rita Wilson as Ellie Graham, Ike's ex-wife and editor, she remarries Ike's boss Fisher. Paul Dooley as Walter Carpenter, Maggie's widowed father who owns a hardware store, he falls in love with and remarries Mrs. Pressman. Christopher Meloni as Bob Kelly, Maggie's fiancée who coaches High School football.
Lisa Roberts Gillan as Elaine from Manhattan. Donal Logue as Priest Brian Norris, one of the grooms who Maggie dumps at the altar, he became a priest. Reg Rogers as George "Bug Guy" Swilling, one of the grooms Maggie dumps at the altar. Yul Vazquez as Dead Head Gill Chavez, one of the grooms Maggie dumps at the altar, he is a car mechanic. Kathleen Marshall as Cousin Cindy, Maggie's cousin who isn't married. Jean Schertler as Grandma, Maggie's grandmother and mother of Walter, she is an avid runner. Sela Ward as pretty woman in bar. Garry Marshall as softball first baseman Laurie Metcalf as Betty Trout Larry Miller as NY bartender Kevin Emily Eby as reporter Linda Larkin as Gill's girlfriend The film was in development for over a decade. Actors attached at various times: Anjelica Huston, Mary Steenburgen, Lorraine Bracco, Geena Davis, Demi Moore, Sandra Bullock, Ellen DeGeneres, Téa Leoni. Director Michael Hoffman was attached. Writers Elaine May and Leslie Dixon did unused rewrites. Much of the film production took place in and around historic Berlin, ma
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a