There was little interest in the crusades in Islamic culture prior to the 20th century. Since the 1950s, the crusades have become an ideological staple in Jihadism. Western Europe held little interest for Islamic writers, who regarded their own culture as much more sophisticated and advanced; as a result, Muslims tended to have little interest in other faiths as they were viewed as incorrect by default. Muslims referred to Europeans as "Franks" and their perception of Europe and its inhabitants was formed from a mixture of travel accounts, oral accounts from prisoners of war, merchants, geographical works and popular stories, their understanding of Europe tended to be influenced by ethnocentrism. Muslim geographers divided the world into seven latitudinal zones and the position of given peoples in a particular zone predisposed them towards certain attributes or dispositions; the greatest harmony and balance was found in the third and fourth zones, which encompassed the central lands of the Arab World, North Africa and eastern China.
The Franks lived in the sixth zone and like these two other groups, the Franks were regarded as pursuing the arts of warfare and hunting, were possessed by a melancholic temperament and a general proneness to savagery. They were seen as filthy and treacherous; the Abbasid writer al-Mas'udi, writing in the 10th century, described the Franks as a "numerous, well-organised and well-disciplined people, with a vast and unified realm." Al-Mas'udi goes on to describe Western Europe: As regards the people of the northern quadrant, they are the ones for whom the sun is distant from the Zenith, those who penetrate to the North, such as the Slavs, the Franks, those nations that are their neighbours The power of the sun is weak among them because of their distance from it. The warm humour is lacking among them, their color is so excessively white. Their eyes are blue, matching the character of their coloring, their religious beliefs lack solidity, this is because of the nature of cold and the lack of warmth.
This view was common of Muslim writers, who regarded Western Europe as a harsh, frozen land and its inhabitants as large and strong but violent and unintelligent - one Persian writer believed that Franks lacked individuality and shed their hair annually like animals. The Franks were seen as sexually loose and having an improper pride towards their womenfolk - while Muslims regarded it important to keep the sexes as somewhat apart and women were to only unveil in the place of certain male relatives, Franks were seen as having the two consort and women as undressing before complete strangers, which Islamic writers saw as immoral and regarded Frankish men as lacking "proper" marital jealousy by allowing their wives to be seen undressed before other men. Due to the Islamic belief that climate would influence the character of a given peoples, there was a view that Franks who settled in the Arab world for extended periods would make them more civilised. However, these were seen as exceptions and furthermore, Franks were seen as incapable of imitating Muslim behaviour.
In general the Muslim view of the Franks was one of a people who did not follow civilised pursuits, were unhygienic and filthy, deficient in sexual morality but possessing martial prowess and were courageous and redoubtable in war. The crusaders of the 12th century fought the Turkish Seljuks, the Ayyubid dynasty, were thus indirectly allied with the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. For this reason, according to Hillenbrand, Arab historians tended to align with a western viewpoint, discussing the "Frankish wars" in the context of their own fight against the Turkic expansion. Phillips summarizes the general indifference by stating that "most Muslims" see the Crusades as "just another invasion among many in their history". Contemporary Islamic accounts did not recognise any religious or military motive for the Crusaders, who instead were viewed as arriving from nowhere before wreaking havoc upon Muslims; the veneration of Saladin as chivalrous opponent of the Crusaders finds no reflection in Islamic tradition before the visit of German Emperor Wilhelm II to Saladin's tomb in 1898.
The visit, coupled with anti-imperialist sentiments, led nationalist Arabs to reinvent the image of Saladin and portray him as a hero of the struggle against the West. The image of Saladin they used was the romantic one created by Walter Scott and other Europeans in the West at the time, it replaced Saladin's reputation as a figure, forgotten in the Muslim world, eclipsed by more successful figures such as Baybars of Egypt. Modern Arab states have sought to commemorate Saladin through various measures based on the image created of him in the 19th-century west. Renewed interest in the period is comparatively recent, arising in the context of modern Jihadist propaganda calling for war on the Western "crusaders"; the term ṣalībiyyūn "crusader", a 19th-century loan translation from Western historiography, is now in common use as a pejorative.
Ed Corney was an American professional bodybuilder. He won many prizes in his 30s, including Mr. Universe twice, Mr. America once, he resumed competitive bodybuilding in his 60s, when he won the 60+ division of the Masters Olympia twice. He appeared in the 1977 docudrama Pumping Iron, as well as the "Dead Lift" episode from The Streets of San Francisco broadcast that same year. Corney was born on November 1933 in Honolulu, Hawaii, he graduated from Saint Louis School in 1952, he served in the United States Coast Guard. He subsequently moved to San Jose, where he became "a full-time bar owner and bouncer." Corney took up bodybuilding at 27, he first competed at the age of 35. He won his first contest in 1967, the Mr. Fremont, held in Northern California, he wins the following year. He won: Mr. Heart of California, Mr. Northern California and Mr. Golden West, he continued to climb the bodybuilding ladder with wins at the 1970 Iron Man, the 1971 AAU Mr. California, the 1971 IFBB Mr. USA, the 1972 IFBB Mr. America.
He won the IFBB Mr. Universe twice: in New York City in 1971, in Baghdad, Iraq in 1972, he won the IFBB Mr. America in 1972, Mr. World in 1973, Mr. World in 1974. Corney appeared in the 1977 movie Pumping Iron, he was featured on the cover of its book version, Pumping Iron: The Art and Sport of Bodybuilding by Charles Gaines and George Butler. Corney continued to compete in the 1980s. At the time, he admitted to using steroids, but he explained that training should be the bedrock of bodybuilding, he added that he was "97 percent training and three percent steroids." In 1994, Corney won the 60+ division of the Masters Olympia. He won again in 1995, he was placed 11th overall in 1996, he took second in the 60+ division in 1997, he competed in 1998 in the only Masters event to be held at the Arnold Schwarzenegger Classic. Corney remained active in the sport up until his death, he was inducted into the IFBB Hall of Fame in 2004. Corney resided in California. In 1999, he suffered a heart attack while undergoing shoulder replacement surgery.
A blood thinning medication, given to him to treat the heart attack caused him to suffer two strokes. After a short period in a coma and some time using a wheelchair, Corney fought his way back to health. Corney had a brain aneurysm on December 25, 2018, died on January 1, 2019, at the age of 85 in Hughson, California. Shortly after his death, former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger tweeted, "Ed Corney was a jewel of a guy, he was one of the greatest posers bodybuilding has seen, he was a fantastic training partner. He inspired I'll miss him dearly. My thoughts are with his family." Height: 5' 7" Weight: 195 lbs 1968 Mr California - AAU, 5th Mr Northern California - AAU, Winner 1969 Mr Western America - AAU, Winner 1970 Mr America - AAU, 11th Mr California - AAU, Most Muscular, 2nd Mr California - AAU, Did not place Iron Man, Winner 1971 Mr America - AAU, 4th Mr America - IFBB, Short, 1st Mr California - AAU, Most Muscular, 1st Mr California - AAU, Winner Mr USA - IFBB, Short, 1st Mr USA - IFBB, Overall Winner Universe - IFBB, Medium, 3rd 1972 Mr America - IFBB, Short, 1st Mr America - IFBB, Overall Winner Mr International - IFBB, Short, 1st Universe - IFBB, Medium, 1st Universe - IFBB, Overall Winner 1973 Mr World - IFBB, Medium, 1st 1974 Mr International - IFBB, Short, 1st Mr World - IFBB, Short, 1st 1975 1975 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, LightWeight, 2nd Universe - Pro - IFBB, 2nd World Pro Championships - IFBB, LightWeight, 2nd 1976 1976 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, LightWeight, 3rd 1977 1977 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, LightWeight, 2nd1977 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, Overall, 3rd 1978 Night of Champions - IFBB, 4th1978 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, LightWeight, 4th1978 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, Overall, 7th 1979 Canada Pro Cup - IFBB, Did not place Florida Pro Invitational - IFBB, 7th Grand Prix Pennsylvania - IFBB, Did not place Night of Champions - IFBB, 8th1979 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, LightWeight, 9th Pittsburgh Pro Invitational - IFBB, 8th Universe - Pro - IFBB, 5th World Pro Championships - IFBB, 5th 1980 Grand Prix Miami - IFBB, 6th Grand Prix Pennsylvania - IFBB, 6th Night of Champions - IFBB, 4th1980 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, 11th Pittsburgh Pro Invitational - IFBB, 6th Universe - Pro - IFBB, Did not place World Pro Championships - IFBB, Did not place 1981 1981 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, 13th 1983 1983 Mr. Olympia - IFBB, 14th 1989 Super Bowl of Bodybuilding - PBA, 4th 1994 Olympia - Masters - IFBB, Masters 60+, 1st Olympia - Masters - IFBB, 10th 1995 Olympia - Masters - IFBB, Masters 60+, 1st Olympia - Masters - IFBB, 11th 1996 Olympia - Masters - IFBB, 11th 1997 Olympia - Masters - IFBB, Masters 60+, 2nd 1998 Arnold Classic - IFBB, Masters, 10th 2004 IFBB Hall Of Fame Kight, Pete..