Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
Justin was a Latin writer who lived under the Roman Empire. Nothing is known of Justin's personal history, his name appearing only in the title of his work, he must have lived after Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, whose work he excerpted, his references to the Romans and Parthians' having divided the world between themselves would have been anachronistic after the rise of the Sassanians in the third century. His Latin appears to be consistent with the style of the second century. Ronald Syme, argues for a date around AD 390 before the compilation of the Augustan History, dismisses anachronisms and the archaic style as unimportant, as he asserts readers would have understood Justin's phrasing to represent Trogus' time, not his own. Justin was the author of an epitome of Trogus' expansive Liber Historiarum Philippicarum, or Philippic Histories, a history of the kings of Macedonia, compiled in the time of Augustus. Due to its numerous digressions, this work was retitled by one of its editors, Historia Philippicae et Totius Mundi Origines et Terrae Situs, or Philippic History and Origins of the Entire World and All of its Lands.
Justin's preface explains that he aimed to collect the most important and interesting passages of that work, which has since been lost. Some of Trogus' original arguments are preserved in various other authors, such as Pliny the Elder. Trogus' main theme was the rise and history of the Macedonian Empire, like him, Justin permitted himself considerable freedom of digression, producing an idiosyncratic anthology rather than a strict epitome. Justin's history was much used in the Middle Ages, when its author was sometimes mistakenly conflated with Justin Martyr; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Justin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Syme, Ronald, "The Date of Justin and the Discovery of Trogus", Historia, No. 37, pp. 358–371. An early edition of the Epitome from the Bavarian State Library Justin's Epitome at The Latin Library, Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum, & Itinera Electronica Watson's 1853 translation at CSL, the Tertullian Project, & Attalus Arnaud-Lindet's 2003 translation at CSL Correa's 2003 partial translation at CSL Prologi of Pompeius Trogus's work at the Tertullian Project
Genesis creation narrative
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity. The narrative is made up of two stories equivalent to the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis. In the first, Elohim creates the heavens and the Earth in six days rests on, blesses and sanctifies the seventh. In the second story, now referred to by the personal name Yahweh, creates Adam, the first man, from dust and places him in the Garden of Eden, where he is given dominion over the animals. Eve, the first woman, is created as his companion. Borrowing themes from Mesopotamian mythology, but adapting them to the Israelite people's belief in one God, the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch was composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BCE and was expanded by other authors into a work like the one we have today; the two sources can be identified in the creation narrative: Jahwistic. The combined narrative is a critique of the Mesopotamian theology of creation: Genesis affirms monotheism and denies polytheism.
Robert Alter described the combined narrative as "compelling in its archetypal character, its adaptation of myth to monotheistic ends". Different interpretations of the genre of the Genesis creation narrative, meaning the intention of the author and the culture within which they wrote, exist; as scholar of Jewish studies, Jon D. Levenson, puts it: How much history lies behind the story of Genesis? Because the action of the primeval story is not represented as taking place on the plane of ordinary human history and has so many affinities with ancient mythology, it is far-fetched to speak of its narratives as historical at all." Although tradition attributes Genesis to Moses, biblical scholars hold that it, together with the following four books, is "a composite work, the product of many hands and periods." A common hypothesis among biblical scholars today is that the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch was composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BCE, that this was expanded by the addition of various narratives and laws into a work like the one existing today.
As for the historical background which led to the creation of the narrative itself, a theory which has gained considerable interest, although still controversial, is "Persian imperial authorisation". This proposes that the Persians, after their conquest of Babylon in 538 BCE, agreed to grant Jerusalem a large measure of local autonomy within the empire, but required the local authorities to produce a single law code accepted by the entire community, it further proposes that there were two powerful groups in the community – the priestly families who controlled the Temple, the landowning families who made up the "elders" – and that these two groups were in conflict over many issues, that each had its own "history of origins", but the Persian promise of increased local autonomy for all provided a powerful incentive to cooperate in producing a single text. The creation narrative is made up of two stories equivalent to the two first chapters of the Book of Genesis; the first account employs a repetitious structure of divine fiat and fulfillment the statement "And there was evening and there was morning, the day," for each of the six days of creation.
In each of the first three days there is an act of division: day one divides the darkness from light, day two the "waters above" from the "waters below", day three the sea from the land. In each of the next three days these divisions are populated: day four populates the darkness and light with Sun and stars. Consistency was evidently not seen as essential to storytelling in ancient Near Eastern literature; the overlapping stories of Genesis 1 and 2 are contradictory but complementary, with the first concerned with the creation of the entire cosmos while the second focuses on man as moral agent and cultivator of his environment. The regimented seven-day narrative of Genesis 1 features an omnipotent God who creates a god-like humanity, while the one-day creation of Genesis 2 uses a simple linear narrative, a God who can fail as well as succeed, a humanity, not god-like but is punished for acts which would lead to their becoming god-like; the order and method of creation differs. "Together, this combination of parallel character and contrasting profile point to the different origin of materials in Genesis 1 and Genesis 2, however elegantly they have now been combined."The primary accounts in each chapter are joined by a literary bridge at Genesis 2:4|, "These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created."
This echoes the first line of Genesis 1, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth", is reversed in the next phrase, "...in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens". This verse is one of ten "generations" phrases used throughout Genesis, which provide a literary structure to the book, they function as headings to what comes after, but the position of this, the first of the series, has been the subject of much debate. Comparative mythology provides historical and cross-cultura
Petrus Comestor known as Pierre le Mangeur – both names the Latin and French for "Peter the Devourer" – was a twelfth-century French theological writer and university administrator who died around 1178. Petrus Comestor was born in Troyes and was a member of the Church of Notre-Dame, referring to himself as "Presbyter Trecensis". In 1148, he became Dean of the Chapter and received a benefice. In 1160, he formed one of the Chapters of Notre-Dame at Paris, he replaced Eudes as ecclesiastical chancellor and took charge of the theological school. While in Paris, Petrus Comestor composed and finished his Historia Scholastica dedicated to the Bishop of Sens, Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. Pope Alexander III ordered the Cardinal Peter of St. Chrysogonus to allow Chancellor Peter to charge a small fee on conferring the license to teach; this authorization was personal. In conversation with Alexander III shortly thereafter, Cardinal Peter of St. Chrysogonus described Petrus as one of the three most cultured men in France.
Petrus's nickname "Comestor" demonstrated the esteem. He was a prolific author, although much of his work was not published; some of his unpublished work included commentaries on the Gospels, allegories on Holy Scripture, a moral commentary on St. Paul, his Historia Scholastica is a kind of sacred history composed for students. The author begins the sacred narrative at the Creation, continues it to the end of the incidents related in the Acts of the Apostles. All the books of the Bible are contained therein, except those whose nature is purely didactic – the Book of Wisdom, the Psalms, the Prophets, the Epistles, etc; the discourses are abbreviated. Petrus Comestor borrowed from profane authors Flavius Josephus for the beginning of the Gospels; the text is as though paraphrased in a commentary where all data, physical, theological, etc. are found. There are numerous fables; the work consists of twenty books, small "additions" supply geographical or etymological appendices at the end of the chapters.
This Biblical history met with great success, as witnessed by the large number of manuscripts, by the mention of his name in all the libraries of the Middle Ages, the lists of classical books for the universities and schools. The quotations and eulogies where the author was named and its numerous translations, the first written by the Flemish poet Jacob van Maerlant and finished on March 25, 1271: Scolastica in dietschen better known as Rijmbijbel, but most of all the Bible Historiale in French. In the fifteenth century, the work was still in great demand, as can be seen by the editions made before 1500 of the Latin text, or of the French translation. Migne reproduces the Madrid edition of 1699; the sermons of Peter Comestor have left us numerous manuscripts under different names. However, the complete and continued series has not yet been published. A series of fifty-one sermons was placed wrongly under the name of Peter of Blois and printed among his work; some believe the work of Hildebert de Mans was included.
The sermon in which the word "transubstantiation" occurs, the ninety third, is not Hildebert's but Peter Comestor's. Other collections, like that of the 114 sermons copied at St. Victor before 1185, are still unpublished. More than twelve manuscripts are in Paris libraries, all have not yet been unraveled; as a preacher, Peter was subtle and pedantic in his style in keeping with the taste of his time, of his audience of scholars and professors assembled around the pulpit of the chancellor. The sermons attributed to him during his stay at St. Victor are simple in style and natural in tone; some verses are attributed to Peter Comestor and a collection of maxims entitled Pancrisis that which still exists in a manuscript of Troyes. He referred his surname in his sermons and in his own epitaph, which he composed; the words included "Petrus eram... dictusque comestor, nunc comedor." Afterwards, he withdrew to St. Victor's Abbey and made a profession of canonical life. Petrus Comestor was buried at St. Victor's.
The necrology of the canons mentions him as "one of themselves". Petris Comestoris Scolastica Historia: Liber Genesis. Edited by Agneta Sylwan. Turnhout: Brepols, 2004, Pp. xc + 227.. ISBN 978-2503049113 Review: "Petris Comestoris Scolastica Historia: Liber Genesis. Edited by AGNETA SYLWAN. Pp. xc + 227. Turnhout: Brepols, 2004. ISBN 2-503-04911-7. €145". The Journal of Theological Studies. 57: 352–353. Doi:10.1093/jts/flj028. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Peter Comestor". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. M. J. Clark, The Making of the Historia scholastica, 1150–1200, Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 2016 Works by or about Petrus Comestor at Internet Archive
Chronica regia Coloniensis
The Chronica regia Coloniensis called the Annales Colonienses maximi, is an anonymous medieval Latin chronicle that covers the years 576 to 1202. The original chronicle only went up to 1197, but a continuator added the following few years' events. According to the historian Manfred Groten, the Chronica was first compiled about 1177 in Michaelsberg Abbey and continued in Cologne; the earliest manuscript only contains an account down to 1175. The chronicle is called "royal" because it is a history of the Roman emperors, Frankish kings, Byzantine emperors and German kings and emperors, it began with Augustus, but the beginning of the chronicle is lost. Up to 1106 the Chronica depends on the works of Frutolf von Michelsberg and Ekkehard of Aura, on until 1144 on the now lost Annales Patherbrunnenses. After that it is an independent source; the author of the Chronica sancti Pantaleonis made use of the royal chronicle to cover the years down to 1199, the historian Georg Waitz treated the former as a mere continuation of the latter and edited them together.
The author of the Chronica had access to a letter of Rainald of Dassel, archbishop of Cologne, which gave him important information on the emperor's Italian expedition of 1166. He knew details of the reconquest of Lisbon and the Second Crusade in 1147 because a contingent from the Rhineland took part, he includes a poem, "De expugnatione Salaciae carmen", by one Gosuinus, describing how the crusaders captured Alcácer do Sal, the ancient Salacia. Waitz, Georg "Chronica regia Coloniensis cum continuationibus in monasterio S. Pantaleonis scriptis aliisque Coloniensis monumentis partim ex monumentis Germaniae historicis recusa" MGH, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum, 18. Hanover: 1880. Wolf, Jürgen. "Chronica regia Coloniensis". Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle. Graeme Dunphy, ed. Brill Online, 2013. Groten, Manfred. "Klösterliche Geschichtsschreibung: Siegburg und die Kölner Königschronik". Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 61: 50–78
Ekkehard of Aura
Ekkehard of Aura was the Abbot of Aura from 1108. A Benedictine monk and chronicler, he made updates to the World Chronicle of Frutolf of Michelsberg adding important German history between 1098 and 1125 during the reign of Emperor Henry V, in which he sided with the papacy in the Investiture Controversy, he was a participant in the Crusade of 1101, provided important source material for the Rhineland massacres of Jews and for the First Crusade. Ekkehard of Aura from the Catholic Encyclopedia Albert of Aix and Ekkehard of Aura, "Emico and the Slaughter of the Rhineland Jews" from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook Ekkehard of Aura and World Chronicle from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook Robert E. Lerner, "Ekkerhard of Aura", Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol.4, pg.417-418, 1989 ISBN 0-684-17024-8 McCarthy, T. J. H. Chronicles of the Investiture Contest: Frutolf of Michelsberg and his continuators. Manchester: Manchester Medieval Sources. 2014. ISBN 9780719084706
Four kingdoms of Daniel
The four kingdoms of Daniel are four kingdoms which, according to the Book of Daniel, precede the "end-time" and the "Kingdom of God". Daniel was one of many Hebrew young men in particular taken captive by the Babylonians, he had been well educated in his native Israel, why he as well as others were chosen to be trained for service in the Babylonian king's household. This was a dark time for the people of Israel, the Babylonian Captivity was a judgment by God upon them for forsaking His Commandments and instructions. God had forewarned Israel many times prior to this. "Belteshazzar" was the Babylonian name given to Daniel, which undoubtedly referred to a Chaldean deity. Daniel's writings cover the Israeli Captivity under Babylon and the Mede-Persian Empires, he was always favored for his wisdom, which he attributed to God. In chapter 2, Nebuchadnezzar dreams of a statue made of four different materials, identified as four kingdoms: Head of gold. Explicitly identified as King Nebuchadnezzar. Chest and arms of silver.
Identified as an "inferior" kingdom to follow Nebuchadnezzar. Belly and thighs of bronze. A third kingdom which shall rule over all the earth. Legs of iron with feet of mingled iron and clay. Interpreted as a fourth kingdom, strong as iron, but the feet and toes of clay and of iron show it shall be a divided kingdom. In chapter 7, Daniel has a vision of four beasts coming up out of the sea, is told that they represent four kingdoms: A beast like a lion with eagle's wings. A beast like a bear, raised up on one side, with three ribs between its teeth. A beast like a leopard with four wings of fowl and four heads. A fourth beast, with large iron teeth and ten horns; this is explained as a fourth kingdom, different from all the other kingdoms. The ten horns are ten kings. A further horn appears and uproots three of the previous horns: this is explained as a future king. In chapter 8 Daniel sees a ram with two horns destroyed by a he-goat with a single horn. From the time of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, the "four monarchies" model became used by all for universal history, in parallel with eschatology, among Protestants.
Some continued to defend its use in universal history in the early 18th century. Christopher Cellarius, based on the distinctive nature of medieval Latin; the modern historicist interpretations and eschatological views of the Book of Daniel with the Book of Revelation resemble and continue earlier historical Protestant interpretations. There are references in classical literature and arts that predate the use of the succession of kingdoms in the Book of Daniel. One appears in an author quoted by Velleius Paterculus; this gives Assyria, Media and Macedonia as the imperial powers. The fifth empire became identified with the Romans. An interpretation that became orthodox after Swain sees the "four kingdoms" theory becoming the property of Greek and Roman writers at the beginning of the 1st century BCE, as an import from Asia Minor, they built on a three-kingdom sequence mentioned by Herodotus and by Ctesias. Mendels contests this dating and origin, placing it in the century. Jewish Reconstructionists and Full Preterists believe that Daniel is fulfilled, that the believers are now working to establish the Kingdom of God on earth.
Two main schools of thought on the four kingdoms of Daniel, are: the traditionalist view, supporting the conflation of Medo-Persia and identifying the last kingdom as the Roman Empire. The Maccabean thesis, a view that supports the separation of the Medes from the Persians and identifies the last kingdom as the Seleucid Empire; the following interpretation represents a traditional view of Jewish and Christian Historicists, Dispensationalists, Partial Preterists, other futuristic Jewish and Christian hybrids, as well as certain Messianic Jews, who identify the kingdoms in Daniel as: the Babylonian Empire the Medo-Persian Empire the Greek Empire the Roman Empire, with other implications to come laterJerome described this scheme in his Commentary on Daniel. Within this framework there are numerous variations. Christian interpreters read the Book of Daniel along with the New Testament's Book of Revelation; the Church Fathers interpreted the beast in Revelation 13 as the empire of Rome. The majority of modern scholarly commentators understand the "city on seven hills" in Revelation as a reference to Rome.
Full Preterists, certain Reconstructionists and other non-futurists typically believe in the same general sequence, but teach that Daniel's prophecies ended with the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem, have few to no implications beyond that. Jewish and Christian Futurists, Dispensationalists, and, to some degree, Partial Preterists believe that the prophecies of Daniel stopped with the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem; the traditional interpretation of the four kingdoms, shared among Jewish and Christian expositors for over two millennia, identifies the kingdoms as the empires of Babylon, Medo-Persia and Rome. This view conforms to the text of Daniel, which considers the Medo-Persian Empire as one, as wi