A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. Bactrian camels take their name from the historical Bactria region of Central Asia, the term camel is derived via Latin and Greek from Hebrew or Phoenician gāmāl. Most of the camels are dromedaries while Bactrian camels and wild Bactrian camels make up only 6% of the total camel population. Camel may be used broadly to describe any of the seven camel-like mammals in the family Camelidae. The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years, a full-grown adult camel stands 1.85 m at the shoulder and 2.15 m at the hump. Camels can run at up to 65 km/h in short bursts, Bactrian camels weigh 300 to 1,000 kg and dromedaries 300 to 600 kg. For instance, the speed for the one humped camel is about 40 km/hour while the two humped camel has around 27.2 km/hour. The male dromedary camel has in its throat an organ called a dulla and it resembles a long, pink tongue hanging out of the side of its mouth.
Camels mate by having both male and female sitting on the ground, with the male mounting from behind, the male usually ejaculates three or four times within a single mating session. Camelids are the ungulates to mate in a sitting position. Camels do not directly store water in their humps as was commonly believed. In hot and dry environments, within 8 to 10 days only the dromedary camels might consume water which during this period the third of their bodys weight may be reduced due to the dehydration. When this tissue is metabolized, it more than one gram of water for every gram of fat processed. This fat metabolization, while releasing energy, causes water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration, Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water. Unlike other mammals, their red cells are oval rather than circular in shape. Camels are able to withstand changes in temperature and water consumption that would kill most other animals.
Their temperature ranges from 34 °C at dawn and steadily increases to 40 °C by sunset, in general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1. Camels rarely sweat, even when ambient temperatures reach 49 °C, any sweat that does occur evaporates at the skin level rather than at the surface of their coat, the heat of vaporization therefore comes from body heat rather than ambient heat
Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animals body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy includes the branch of superficial anatomy, microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and in the study of cells. The history of anatomy is characterized by an understanding of the functions of the organs. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a pair of related disciplines. Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē dissection, anatomy is the study of the structure of organisms including their systems, organs.
It includes the appearance and position of the parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry, which deal respectively with the functions of those parts, the discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a scale, including histology. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs, angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels. The term anatomy is commonly taken to refer to human anatomy, substantially the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term includes the anatomy of other animals.
The term zootomy is used to specifically refer to animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature, the kingdom Animalia or metazoa, contains multicellular organisms that are heterotrophic and motile. Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are known as eumetazoans. They have a digestive chamber, with one or two openings, the gametes are produced in multicellular sex organs, and the zygotes include a blastula stage in their embryonic development. Metazoans do not include the sponges, which have undifferentiated cells, unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts
Hunor and Magor
Hunor and Magor were, according to a famous Hungarian legend, the ancestors of the Huns and the Magyars. The legend was first promoted in Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, the legends aim in providing a common ancestry for the Huns and the Magyars was to suggest historical continuum of the Kingdom of Hungary with the Hun Empire. Magyars led by prince Árpád had conquered the area in the 890s, the territory had previously been held by Attila the Hun in the 5th century. The legend thus tried to prove that the Magyars were simply reclaiming their ancient homeland as descendants of Attila, according to Simon of Kéza, Hunor and Magor were the sons of Ménrót, a mythical giant, who he partly identified with Nimrod of the Bible. The brothers Hunor and Magor were the forefathers of the Huns. Simon of Kézas Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, written in the 1280s, other Hungarian chronicles wrote, the brothers were the sons either of Ménrót or of Magog, king of the Scythians. Their mother was Ménróts wife, whose name was derived from the Hungarian word for hind, the Chronicon Pictum makes Hunor and Magor sons of Iaphet.
Hunor and Magor, hunters like their father, were on a trip when they saw their descendants multiplied and populated the nearby lands. From them descended Attila the Hun and High Prince Álmos, the father of Árpád, after the confusion of tongues the giant entered the land of Havilah, which is now called Persia, and there he begot two sons and Mogor, by his wife Eneth. It was from them that the Huns, or Hungarians, took their origins, however, it seems the giant Ménrót had other wives apart from Eneth, on whom he sired many sons and daughters besides Hunor and Magor. These sons and their posterity inhabit the land of Persia and resemble the Huns in stature and colour, merely differing a little in speech like the Saxons, but as Hunor and Mogor were Ménróts first born, they journeyed separately from their father in tents. Now it happened one day when they had gone out hunting in the Meotis marshes that they encountered a hind in the wilderness, as they went in pursuit of it, it fled before them.
Then it disappeared from their sight altogether, and they could not find it no matter how long they searched, but as they were wandering through these marshes, they saw that the land was well suited for grazing cattle. They returned to their father, and after obtaining his permission they took all their possessions, so they entered the Meotis marshes and remained there for five years without leaving. Two daughters of Dula, prince of the Alans, happened to be among the children who were seized, Hunor took one of them in marriage and Mogor the other, and to these women all the Huns owe their origin. According to Werbőczy, the Hungarians, as descendants of Hunor and Magor, were of Scythian origin, the Hungarians inherited their moral values and customs from the Scythians, who had once defeated even Darius and Alexander the Great. Their true vocation was war, which was the activity that was noble enough to suit them. Werbőczy thus used the Hunor and Magor myth to justify Hungarian serfdom, werbőczys ideas were eagerly adopted by the Hungarian nobility and became the charter of common law for three centuries
The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in Central Europe. It is a subsystem of the Alps-Himalaya system. Most of the consists of the Great Hungarian Plain and the Little Hungarian Plain. The Pannonian Basin lies in the part of Central Europe. It forms a discrete unit set in the European landscape, surrounded by imposing geographic boundaries - the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps, the Dinarides. The Rivers Danube and Tisza divide the basin roughly in half and it extends roughly between Vienna in the northwest, Zagreb in the southwest, Belgrade in the southeast and Satu Mare in the northeast. The name Pannonian comes from Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire, in English, the terms Pannonian Basin and Carpathian Basin are used synonymously. The name Pannonian is taken from that of Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire, the historical province overlapped but was not coterminous with the geographical plain or basin. Pannonia Inferior covered much of the half of the basin. Pannonia Superior included the western fringe of the basin as well as part of the Eastern Alps, the southern fringe of the basin was in Dalmatia and Moesia.
The eastern half of the basin was not conquered by the Romans, the parts north of the Danube were not in the empire, they were considered part of Germania, inhabited by the Quadi. The term Pannonian Plain refers to the parts of the Pannonian Basin as well as those of some adjoining regions like Lower Austria, Bosnia. The lands adjoining the plain proper are called peri-Pannonian. In Hungarian geographical literature various subdivisions of the Carpathian Mountains are considered parts of the Carpathian Basin on the basis of traditional geopolitical divisions, julius Pokorny derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, water, wet. For its early settlers, the plain offered few sources of metals or stone, thus when archaeologists come upon objects of obsidian or chert, copper or gold, they have almost unparalleled opportunities to interpret ancient pathways of trade. The Pannonian plain is divided into two parts along the Transdanubian Mountains, the northwestern part is called Western Pannonian plain and the southeastern part Eastern Pannonian plain.
The plain was named after the Pannon named Medes, various different peoples inhabited the plain during its history. In the first century BC, the parts of the plain belonged to the Dacian state
Charles V of France
Charles V, called the Wise, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death. In 1349, as a prince, Charles received from his grandfather King Philip VI the province of Dauphiné to rule. This allowed him to bear the title Dauphin until his coronation, after 1350, all heirs apparent of France bore the title of Dauphin until their coronation. Charles became regent of France when his father John II was captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. With the help of talented advisers known as the Marmousets, his management of the kingdom allowed him to replenish the royal treasury. He established the first permanent army paid with regular wages, which liberated the French populace from the companies of routiers who regularly plundered the country when not employed. Furthermore, the French Navy, led by Jean de Vienne and he was succeeded by his son Charles VI the Mad, whose disastrous reign allowed the English to regain control of large parts of France.
Charles was born at the Château de Vincennes outside of Paris, the future king was highly intelligent but physically weak, with pale skin and a thin, ill-proportioned body. This made a sharp contrast to his father, who was tall, strong, as neither the pope nor the emperor wanted to buy, the transaction was concluded with Philip VI. Under the Treaty of Romans, the Dauphiné of Viennois was to be held by a son of the future king John the Good, so it was Charles, the eldest son of the latter, who became the first Dauphin. At the age of twelve, he was confronted with the exercise of power while staying in Grenoble. A few days after his arrival, the people of Grenoble were invited to the Place Notre-Dame, young Charles took his place next to Bishop John of Chissé and received the oath of allegiance of the people. On April 8,1350 at Tain-lHermitage, the Dauphin married his cousin Joanna of Bourbon at the age of 12, the prior approval of the pope was obtained for this consanguineous marriage. The marriage was delayed by the death of his mother Bonne of Luxembourg and his grandmother Joan the Lame, the dauphin himself had been seriously ill from August to December 1349.
Gatherings were limited to slow the spread of the raging in Europe. Despite his young age, the applied to be recognized by his subjects. Charles was recalled to Paris at the death of his grandfather Philip VI, the legitimacy of John the Good, and that of the Valois in general, was not unanimous. His father, Philip VI, had lost all credibility with the disasters of Crecy, the ravages of the plague, the royal clan had to cope with opposition from all sides in the kingdom
Miniature (illuminated manuscript)
These include Persian miniatures, and their Mughal and other Indian offshoots. This article gives an art historical account of the miniature form, for the techniques involved in production, see illuminated manuscript. The earliest extant miniatures are a series of colored drawings or miniatures cut from the Ambrosian Iliad and they are similar in style and treatment with the pictorial art of the Roman classical period. Of even greater value from a point of view are the miniatures of the Vatican manuscript of Virgil, known as the Vergilius Vaticanus. They are in a perfect condition and on a larger scale than the Ambrosian fragments. The drawing is quite classical in style, and the idea is conveyed that the miniatures are copies from an older series. The colors are opaque, indeed, in all the miniatures of early manuscripts the employment of body color was universal. The method followed in placing the different scenes on the page is highly instructive of the practice followed, as we may presume, by the artists of the early centuries.
Again, for the purpose of securing something like perspective, an arrangement of zones was adopted. It was reserved for the Byzantine school to break away more decidedly from the natural presentment of things, but on comparing the miniatures of the Byzantine school generally with their classical predecessors, one has a sense of having passed from the open air into the cloister. Under the restraint of ecclesiastical domination Byzantine art became more and more stereotyped, the tendency grows to paint the flesh-tints in swarthy hues, to elongate and emaciate the limbs, and to stiffen the gait. Browns, blue-greys and neutral tints are in favor, in the miniatures of Byzantine manuscripts are first seen those backgrounds of bright gold which afterwards appear in such profusion in the productions of every western school of painting. The influence of Byzantine art on that of medieval Italy is obvious, the early mosaics in the churches of Italy, such as those at Ravenna and Venice, afford examples of the dominating Byzantine influence.
In the native schools of illumination of Western Europe, decoration only was the leading motive, the highest qualities of the miniatures of the 10th and 11th century of this school lie in fine outline drawing, which had a lasting influence on the English miniature of the centuries. But the southern Anglo-Saxon school rather stands apart from the line of development of the western medieval miniature. Under the Carolingian monarchs there developed a school of painting derived from classical models, in this school, which owed its origin to the encouragement of Charlemagne, it is seen that the miniature appears in two forms. Accompanied as it was with profuse decoration in border and initial, on the other hand, there is the miniature in which there is an attempt at illustration, as, for example, the depicting of scenes from the Bible. Here there is freedom, and we trace the classical style which copies Roman, as distinguished from Byzantine
Ladislaus I of Hungary
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091. He was the son of King Béla I of Hungary. Géza and Ladislaus cooperated with Solomon for the next decade, Ladislauss most popular legend, which narrates his fight with a Cuman who abducted a Hungarian girl, is connected to this period. Gézas and Ladislauss relationship with Solomon deteriorated in the early 1070s, Géza was proclaimed king in 1074, but Solomon maintained control of the western regions of his kingdom. During Gézas reign, Ladislaus was his brothers most influential adviser, Géza died in 1077, and his supporters made Ladislaus king. Solomon resisted Ladislaus with the assistance of King Henry IV of Germany, Ladislaus supported Henry IVs opponents during the Investiture Controversy. In 1081, Solomon abdicated and acknowledged Ladislauss reign, but he conspired to regain the royal crown, Ladislaus canonized the first Hungarian saints in 1085. He set Solomon free during the canonization ceremony, after a series of civil wars, Ladislauss main focus was the restoration of public safety.
He introduced severe legislation, punishing those who violated property rights with death or mutilation and he occupied almost all Croatia in 1091, which marked the beginning of an expansion period for the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Ladislauss victories over the Pechenegs and Cumans ensured the security of his kingdoms eastern borders for about 150 years and his relationship with the Holy See deteriorated during the last years of his reign, as the popes claimed that Croatia was their fief, but Ladislaus denied their claims. Ladislaus was canonized on 27 June 1192 by Pope Celestine III, legends depict him as a pious knight-king, the incarnation of the late-medieval Hungarian ideal of chivalry. He is a saint in Hungary and neighboring nations, where many churches are dedicated to him. Ladislaus was the son of the future King Béla I of Hungary and his wife, Richeza. Ladislaus and his brother, Géza, were born in Poland. Ladislauss physical and spiritual makeup testified to Gods gracious will even at his birth, the almost contemporaneous Gallus Anonymus wrote that Ladislaus was raised from childhood in Poland and almost became a Pole in his ways and life.
He received a Slavic name, Ladislaus is the Hungarian version of Vladislav, Béla and his family returned to Hungary around 1048. Béla received the so-called Duchy – which encompassed one-third of the kingdom – from his brother, the Illuminated Chronicle mentions that Andrews son, was anointed king with the consent of Duke Bela and his sons Geysa and Ladislaus in 1057 or 1058. Béla, who had been Andrews heir before Solomons coronation, left for Poland in 1059 and they returned with Polish reinforcements and began a rebellion against Andrew
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century AD. In 91 AD, the Huns were said to be living near the Caspian Sea, by 370, the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes time, considerable effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. However, there is no consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the Xiongnu and that of the Huns. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attilas rule, including very many speakers of Gothic and their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. They formed an empire under Attila the Hun, who died in 453. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century, the Huns were a confederation of warrior bands, ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power, in the Eurasian Steppe in the 4th to 6th centuries AD.
Most aspects of their ethnogenesis are uncertain, walter Pohl explicitly states, All we can say safely is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors. Jerome associated them with the Scythians in a letter, written four years after the Huns invaded the eastern provinces in 395. The equation of the Huns with the Scythians, together with a fear of the coming of the Antichrist in the late 4th century. This demonization of the Huns is reflected in Jordaness Getica, written in the 6th century, otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based primarily on the study of written sources, and to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Thereafter the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns ancestors became controversial among some, the similarity of their ethnonyms is one of the most important links between the two peoples. A Sogdian merchant described the invasion of northern China by the Xwn people in a letter, Étienne de la Vaissière asserts both documents prove that Huna or Xwn were the exact transcriptions of the Chinese Xiongnu name.
Christopher P. Atwood rejects that identification because of the very poor match between the three words. For instance, Xiongnu begins with a velar fricative, Huna with a voiceless glottal fricative, Xiongnu is a two-syllable word. However, according to Zhengzhang Shangfang, Xiongnu was pronounced in Late Old Chinese, the Chinese Book of Wei contain references to the remains of the descendants of the Xiongnu who lived in the region of the Altai Mountains in the early 5th century AD
Lehel, a member of the Árpád dynasty, was a Magyar chieftain and, together with Bulcsú, one of the most important figures of the Hungarian invasions of Europe. After the Magyar defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld, he was executed in Regensburg, the medieval chronicler Anonymus calls Lehel the son of Tas, who was one of the Seven chieftains of the Magyars, and descendent of late Grand Prince Árpád. Most historians agree there is a mismatch in the timing, though he should be the son of Tas. Lehels dukedom from about 925 was the Principality of Nitra, where he ruled in the former Kabarian lands, the historic cities of Alsólelóc and Felsőlelóc kept the name of Lél. His dukedom could refer to the status of Lél being a crown-prince, when in Spring of 954, the Magyars again attacked the Duchy of Bavaria, Lehel led the Nitrian Kabars. The Hungarian troops advanced up to Lotharingia, where they signed an armistice with the Salian prince Conrad the Red, the next year, they met with the united East Frankish forces under King Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld near Augsburg.
The battle ended with the defeat of the Hungarians. According to the Annales Sangallenses maiores, the three Hungarian military leaders were captured by Bohemian troopers, with Bulcsú and Súr, Lehel was arrested, handed over to King Ottos brother, Duke Henry of Bavaria, and hanged at his residence in Regensburg. By his victory, Otto put an end to the Hungarian invasions, close to the city, at the Lech field, the Germans smashed the Hungarians, part of them were killed brutally, some others were imprisoned. At that place Lehel and Bulcsú were imprisoned, and taken in front of the emperor, when the emperor asked, why the Hungarians are so cruel against the Christians, they replied, We are the revenge of the highest God, sent to you as a scourge. You shall imprison us and kill us, when we cease to chase you, the emperor called them, Choose the type of death you wish. Then Lehel replied, Bring me my horn, which I will blow, the horn was handed to him, and during the preparation to blow it, he stepped forward, and hit the emperor so strongly he died instantly.
Then he said, You will walk before me and serve me in the world, as it is a common belief within the Scythians. They were taken to custody and were hanged quickly in Regensburg and this fiction cleverly re-interpreted the fact that Duke Henry of Bavaria died shortly after the battle of disease, in Lehels favour. It may refer to Lehels former ally Conrad the Red, according to Widukind of Corvey, was killed in the battle, when an arrow pierced his throat. The legend was rendered in the 13th century chronicles by Magister Ákos and depicted in the Chronicon Pictum. Nowadays there is a described as Lehels Horn on display at Jászberény. This is a Byzantine ivory horn from 10-11th century and therefore cant have been the horn mentioned in the myth