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Chronobiology

Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms. These cycles are known as biological rhythms. Chronobiology comes from the ancient Greek χρόνος, biology, which pertains to the study, or science, of life; the related terms chronomics and chronome have been used in some cases to describe either the molecular mechanisms involved in chronobiological phenomena or the more quantitative aspects of chronobiology where comparison of cycles between organisms is required. Chronobiological studies include but are not limited to comparative anatomy, genetics, molecular biology and behavior of organisms within biological rhythms mechanics. Other aspects include epigenetics, reproduction and evolution; the variations of the timing and duration of biological activity in living organisms occur for many essential biological processes. These occur in animals, in plants, in microbial organisms such as fungi and protozoa.

They have been found in bacteria among the cyanobacteria. The best studied rhythm in chronobiology is the circadian rhythm, a 24-hour cycle shown by physiological processes in all these organisms; the term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" and dies, "day", meaning "approximately a day." It is regulated by circadian clocks. The circadian rhythm can further be broken down into routine cycles during the 24-hour day: Diurnal, which describes organisms active during daytime Nocturnal, which describes organisms active in the night Crepuscular, which describes animals active during the dawn and dusk hours While circadian rhythms are defined as regulated by endogenous processes, other biological cycles may be regulated by exogenous signals. In some cases, multi-trophic systems may exhibit rhythms driven by the circadian clock of one of the members; the endogenous plant cycles may regulate the activity of the bacterium by controlling availability of plant-produced photosynthate. Many other important cycles are studied, including: Infradian rhythms, which are cycles longer than a day.

Examples include circannual or annual cycles that govern migration or reproduction cycles in many plants and animals, or the human menstrual cycle. Ultradian rhythms, which are cycles shorter than 24 hours, such as the 90-minute REM cycle, the 4-hour nasal cycle, or the 3-hour cycle of growth hormone production. Tidal rhythms observed in marine life, which follow the 12.4-hour transition from high to low tide and back. Lunar rhythms, which follow the lunar month, they are relevant e.g. for marine life, as the level of the tides is modulated across the lunar cycle. Gene oscillations – some genes are expressed more during certain hours of the day than during other hours. Within each cycle, the time period during which the process is more active is called the acrophase; when the process is less active, the cycle is in its trough phase. The particular moment of highest activity is the maximum. How high the process gets is measured by the amplitude. A circadian cycle was first observed in the 18th century in the movement of plant leaves by the French scientist Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan.

In 1751 Swedish botanist and naturalist Carl Linnaeus designed a flower clock using certain species of flowering plants. By arranging the selected species in a circular pattern, he designed a clock that indicated the time of day by the flowers that were open at each given hour. For example, among members of the daisy family, he used the hawk's beard plant which opened its flowers at 6:30 am and the hawkbit which did not open its flowers until 7 am; the 1960 symposium at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory laid the groundwork for the field of chronobiology. It was in 1960 that Patricia DeCoursey invented the phase response curve, one of the major tools used in the field since. Franz Halberg of the University of Minnesota, who coined the word circadian, is considered the "father of American chronobiology." However, it was Colin Pittendrigh and not Halberg, elected to lead the Society for Research in Biological Rhythms in the 1970s. Halberg wanted more emphasis on the human and medical issues while Pittendrigh had his background more in evolution and ecology.

With Pittendrigh as leader, the Society members did basic research on all types of organisms, plants as well as animals. More it has been difficult to get funding for such research on any other organisms than mice, rats and fruit flies. More light therapy and melatonin administration have been explored by Alfred J. Lewy, Josephine Arendt and other researchers as a means to reset animal and human circadian rhythms. Additionally, the presence of low-level light at night accelerates circadian re-entrainment of hamsters of all ages by 50%. Humans can have a propensity to be morning people or evening people. In the second half of 20th century, substantial contributions and formalizations have been made by Europeans such as Jürgen Aschoff and Colin Pittendrigh, who pursued different but complementary views on the phenomenon of entrainment of the circadian system by light (parametric, co

Arthropods associated with sloths

A large number of arthropods are associated with sloths. These include biting and blood-sucking flies such as mosquitoes and sandflies, triatomine bugs, lice and mites; the sloth’s fur forms a micro-ecozone inhabited by green algae and hundreds of insects. Sloths have a specific community of commensal beetles and moths. Species of sloths recorded to host arthropods include: Pale-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus tridactylus Brown three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Linnaeus's two-toed sloth Choloepus didactylusThe large variety of arthropods associated with sloths comprise two distinct feeding guilds – the haematophagous guild, represented by biting flies and ticks, the coprophagous guild which comprises a unique assemblage of moths and beetles which utilize the sloth principally for phoresis and whose larval stages feed and develop in the dung of the host sloth. Six species of ticks of the genus Amblyomma have been recorded from both two- and three-toed sloths in Central and South America.

Of these, two species, Amblyomma geayi and Amblyomma varium are host-specific to sloths and the others are considered as accidental infestations. Adult males of Amblyomma geayi may remain on their hosts for more than three weeks, but the females depart after engorging to oviposit. Infestation with ticks can be high. Up to 99% of three-toed sloths, 86.7% of two-toed sloths have been recorded carrying ticks of Amblyomma spp at Manaus, Brazil. The tick Ambylomma varium have been recorded underneath the thighs of maned sloths examined in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the ticks were male and the majority of sloths carried only male ticks. Three species of macrochelid ascarine mites are recorded from inside the anus and rectum of three-toed sloths from Curari Island and Manaus; these are Macrocheles uroxys and Macrocheles lukoschusi. Besides these, the blood-sucking mites Liponissus inheringi, Lobalges trouessarti and Edentalges bradypus have been reported from three-toed sloths collected in southern Brazil.

The mite Edentalges choloepi has been recorded on Choloepus didactylus. Research in the area of Manaus, Brazil, on sloths and their associated arthropod fauna of sloths, reveals a diverse and dynamic community, with nine species of the coprophagous guild. Population strength for some species shows large fluctuations while for others, populations show stability; the diversity of coprophagous arthropods associated with sloths suggests intense competition among their larval, dung-feeding stages. Beetles form a prominent portion of the arthropod community associated with sloth dung. A number of species of the coprophilous family Scarabeidae are associated with three-toed but not two-toed sloths; the populations of these beetles can be quite large, in one case more than 980 beetles of the species Trichilium adisi were found in the fur of a single sloth. Beetles of the genus Uroxys have been recorded from sloths in Bolivia, Brazil and Panama. Beetles appear to congregate preferentially in specific parts of the body.

For example, scarab beetles occur near the elbow or on the flanks behind the knees buried deep inside the fur, while those of Trichilium spp have been found in the underfur of the lower back and thighs of Bradypus torquatus. Beetle larvae and some adult beetles use sloth dung for feeding; the population of beetles varies and the seasonal factors affecting the population size are yet to be ascertained. Lepidopteran moths of the snout moth families have evolved to inhabit sloth fur exclusively. Sloth moths follow a life-style broadly on the lines of Cryptoses choloepi, a moth in the snout moth family that lives in the fur of the brown three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus infuscatus. Adult female moths leave the fur of the sloth to lay eggs in the sloth droppings when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate; the larvae of Cryptoses choloepi live in the dung and newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a host sloth. Lepidopterans belonging to the coprophagous guild that are specialised to live around sloths include: Bradipodicola hahneli Cryptoses choloepi Cryptoses waagei Cryptoses rufipictus Bradyphila garbei Sloth moth

Burlington railroad strike of 1888

The Burlington railroad strike of 1888 was a failed union strike which pitted the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, the Switchmen's Mutual Aid Association against the Chicago and Quincy Railroad its extensive trackage in the Midwestern United States. It was led by the skilled engineers and firemen, who demanded higher wages, seniority rights, grievance procedures, it was fought bitterly by management, which rejected the notion of collective bargaining. There was much less violence than the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, but after 10 months the expensive company operation to permanently replace all the strikers was successful and the strike was a total defeat for them; the Burlington system of railroads was one of the great transportation networks of the 19th Century, operating about 6,000 miles of line in 1888, the year of the great strike. The system consisted of seven individual railroads, of which the Chicago and Quincy Railroad was the core unit, headed by company President Charles Elliott Perkins from 1881 and young General Manager Henry B.

Stone. The line was conservatively managed and profitable, paying its Boston-based investors healthy annual dividends of 8 percent throughout the decade of the 1880s; the profitability of the Burlington line rested on the twin pillars of maintenance of high shipping rates through pricing agreements with competitive lines and the suppression of wage rates, with President Perkins taking the view that wages were set by the simple market principle of supply and demand, leaving no room for misguided external intervention practices such as arbitration. Perkins was hostile to the notion of unionization and to the strike movement, approving a local decision to terminate striking Chicago freight handlers in 1886 and seeking to "go for" the Knights of Labor in the wake of that union's strikes upon other rail lines in that year; the company formally served notice on its workers that membership in the KOL and continued employment by the Burlington line was incompatible, forcing many members to quit the union to keep their jobs.

During the era of steam locomotion, operation of an engine was a two-person job, with an engineer controlling the throttle and responsible for the vehicle's safe operation, alongside a lesser-paid fireman, who broke coal into combustible-sized pieces and stoked the boiler which provided the train's motive energy. These two cab-dwelling operators were together known as "enginemen," with the young fireman subordinate to the engineer and an aspirant to promotion to the rank of engineer. Despite their proximity in the workplace and their commonality of interests, these two groups maintained their own distinct craft organizations, which stood a cross-purposes with one another, divided by jurisdictional jealousy. Membership in these craft brotherhoods, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, which were fraternal benefit-societies and which had taken a bleak view of the efficacy of striking, was still tolerated; these seem to have represented little risk to the company, with the B of LE having engaged in no strikes anywhere since its various local defeats in the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the firemen a easily replaceable group of lesser skilled workers with a similar tradition of antipathy to strikes and collaboration with employers.

On January 23, 1888, a meeting of the grievance committee of the B of LE was convened at Burlington, joined by the adjusting committee of the B of LF. the two bodies met individually for two days to identify their own specific concerned before holding a joint session on January 25, at which a negotiating committee of 14 engineers and 14 firemen was elected. The cause of an engineer terminated the previous week by the CB&Q, ostensibly for failing to maintain a schedule, which the B of LE believed was mitigated by a defective watch, was placed near the top of the joint committee's agenda. Adding fuel to the fire was the terminated engineer's important place in the B of LE as a member of the brotherhood's previous grievance committee. A meeting of the joint grievance committee with General Manager Stone over the fate of the fired engineer was sought without success, he left to Burlington to take a new position with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad in short order. Bad will remained in the aftermath.

The fate of the fired engineer was not the primary cause of the strike. A further and far more intractable division between the employees and the railroad related to a new schedule of pay for enginemen put forward on February 15 by the grievance committee, which sought to eliminate a much maligned system of differential pay based upon the time employees had spent with the company and specific conditions of various routes, instead basing pay upon raw mileage traveled — a method of wage calculation which would have had the effect of increasing wages across the board; the profitable Burlington system and its method of pay according to a myriad of classifications was seen by employees as less remunerative than the pay scales in use by other railroads in the Chicago area, which tended to be based upon mileage traveled. The summary rejection of the change to a mileage-based system by the unyielding General Manager Stone via a circular letter dated February 22, reaffirmed in a series of face-to-face negotiations over subsequent days, set the stage for a work stoppage.

The nature of the pay increase was frankly admitted. In a contemporary history of the strike, B of LE official John A. Hall acknowledged that "It is true that the Brotherhoods have demanded...'a considerable average increase of pay,' but the public

Peter Gallant

Peter J. Gallant is a Canadian curler from Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, he is the father of the 2017 Brier and World Champion Brett Gallant, Christopher Gallant, a former PEI junior champion and 2014 Canadian University Champion. Gallant has played in nine Briers. In 1982, he played second for Peter Jenkins. Gallant would not make it to the Brier again until 1991, he played third for Campbell again in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999. He played third for Peter MacDonald at the 2001 Nokia Brier. Gallant did not return to the Brier until 2007, where he skipped team Prince Edward Island for the first time at a Brier, he skipped PEI again the following year at the 2008 Brier in Winnipeg. Gallant has had some success at the Brier, his best performance coming in 1995 where his team lost in the tie-breaker against Ed Werenich. Gallant received an all-star award, he has had more success at the Canadian Mixed Curling Championships, appearing in 1982, finishing 3rd. He skipped PEI in 1991 in Thunder Bay. Gallant has played in the Canadian Senior Curling Championship in 2010 in Ottawa.

He played third for Rod MacDonald where the team finished at 5-6. Gallant won an award for all star third. Gallant has coached in three Canadian Juniors: 2009 where he won Gold and World Silver with PEI skip Brett Gallant, 2010 with Brett Gallant, 2012 with PEI skip Christopher Gallant, he has coached at the Brier on two occasions: 2012 with PEI. He has coached at the Scottie's on two occasions: 2013 with PEI. In January, 2016 Gallant began coaching, he became the national team coach after Kim's team won the Korean National Championships in April, 2016 in Uiseong, South Korea. Gallant is retired after serving as an Operations Manager for Irving Oil. Peter Gallant on the World Curling Federation database Peter Gallant on the World Curling Tour database Peter Gallant on the CurlingZone database

San Miguel Panixtlahuaca

San Miguel Panixtlahuaca is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico. It is part of the Juquila District in the center of the Costa Region; the name "Panixtlahuatl" in the Nahuatl language means "Plain of the Bridge". The municipality covers an area of 264.1 km² at an altitude of 770 meters above sea level. The climate is warm or temperate, with average temperatures between 22-16°C; the terrain is hilly, in the foothills of the Sierra Madre del Sur. There is a wide range of flowers and medicinal plants and trees. Birds include red-billed pigeon, macaw, chachalaca, magpies, eagles, buzzards, doves, vultures, partridges and roadrunners. Wild Animals include cat, wild boar, leopard, foxes, bobcat, skunks, dogs, anteaters, opossums and squirrels. There are coral snakes and black iguanas, rattlesnakes, boa constrictors, milk snakes, thread snakes and chameleons; as of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 5724 of whom 4,903 spoke an indigenous language. Panixtlahuaca is one of the centers of the Chatino people, related to the Zapotec but with a distinct language.

Agriculture includes the coffee crop, exported, rainfed maize and beans for personal consumption or for the domestic market. 10% of the population is engaged in animal husbandry. In September 2005 the local people were resisting pressure from state authorities to grant licenses for forestry and for sand and gravel extraction. In turn, the authorities accused the villagers of harboring armed rebel gangs and attempted to annul the elections of local officials. Further clashes with the authorities continued to occur in 2006, described as a period of terror by the local people. In April 2009, 15 trucks filled with armed federal troops surrounded the village of San Miguel Panixtlahuaca and erected road blocks to prevent anyone from entering or leaving combed the houses in search of weapons

Mikis Theodorakis

Michael "Mikis" Theodorakis is a Greek composer and lyricist who has contributed to contemporary Greek music with over 1000 works. He scored for the films Zorba the Greek, Z, Serpico, he composed the "Mauthausen Trilogy" known as "The Ballad of Mauthausen", described as the "most beautiful musical work written about the Holocaust" and his best work. He is viewed as Greece's best-known living composer, he was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize. Politically, he is associated with the left because of his long-standing ties to the Communist Party of Greece, he was an MP for the KKE from 1981-90. In 1989 he ran as an independent candidate within the centre-right New Democracy party, in order for the country to emerge from the political crisis, created due to the numerous scandals of the government of Andreas Papandreou, helped establish a large coalition between conservatives and leftists. In 1990 he was elected to the parliament, became a government minister under Constantine Mitsotakis, fought against drugs and terrorism and for culture and better relations between Greece and Turkey.

He continued to speak out in favor of left-liberal causes, Greek–Turkish–Cypriot relations, against the War in Iraq. He has opposed oppressive regimes and was a key voice against the 1967–74 Greek junta, which imprisoned him and banned his songs. Mikis Theodorakis was born on the Greek island of Chios and spent his childhood years in different provincial Greek cities such as Mytilene, Patras and Tripoli, his father, a lawyer and a civil servant, was from the small village of Kato Galatas on Crete and his mother, Aspasia Poulakis, was from an ethnically Greek family in Çeşme, in what is today Turkey. He was influenced by Byzantine liturgy, his fascination with music began in early childhood. He took his first music lessons in Patras and Pyrgos, where he was a childhood friend of George Pavlopoulos, in Tripoli, Peloponnese, he gave his first concert at the age of seventeen, he went to Athens in 1943, became a member of a Reserve Unit of ELAS, led a troop in the fight against the British and the Greek right in the Dekemvriana.

During the Greek Civil War he was arrested, sent into exile on the island of Icaria and deported to the island of Makronisos, where he was tortured and twice buried alive. During the periods when he was not obliged to hide, not exiled or jailed, he studied from 1943 to 1950 at the Athens Conservatoire under Filoktitis Economidis. In 1950, he finished his studies and took his last two exams "with flying colours", he went to Crete, where he became the "head of the Chania Music School" and founded his first orchestra. At this time he ended. In 1954 he travelled with his young wife Myrto Altinoglou to Paris where he entered the Conservatory and studied musical analysis under Olivier Messiaen and conducting under Eugene Bigot, his time in Paris, 1954–1959, was his second period of musical writing. His symphonic works: a Piano concerto, his first suite, his first symphony, his scores for the ballet: Greek Carnival, Le Feu aux Poudres, Les Amants de Teruel, received international acclaim. In 1957, he won the Gold Medal in the Moscow Music Festival.

In 1959, after the successful performances of Theodorakis's ballet Antigone at Covent Garden in London, the French composer Darius Milhaud proposed him for the American Copley Music Prize - an award of the "William and Noma Copley Foundation", which changed its name to "Cassandra Foundation" - as the "Best European Composer of the Year". His first international scores for the film Ill Met by Moonlight and Luna de Miel, directors: Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, were very successful: The Honeymoon title song became part of the repertoire of The Beatles. Chamber Music: Four String Quartets. In 1960, Theodorakis returned to Greece and his roots in genuine Greek music: With his song cycle Epitaphios he started the third period of his composing and contributed to a cultural revolution in his country, his most significant and influential works are based on Greek and world poetry – Epiphania, Little Kyklades, Axion Esti, Mauthausen and Romancero Gitano – he attempted to give back to Greek music a dignity which in his perception it had lost.

He developed his concept of "metasymphonic music". He founded the Little Orchestra of Athens and the Musical Society of Piraeus, gave many, many concerts all around Greece and abroad... and he became involved in the politics of his home country