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Chronology is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time. Consider, for example, the use of a timeline or sequence of events, it is "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events". Chronology is a part of periodization, it is a part of the discipline of history including earth history, the earth sciences, study of the geologic time scale. Chronology is the science of locating historical events in time, it relies upon chronometry, known as timekeeping, historiography, which examines the writing of history and the use of historical methods. Radiocarbon dating estimates the age of living things by measuring the proportion of carbon-14 isotope in their carbon content. Dendrochronology estimates the age of trees by correlation of the various growth rings in their wood to known year-by-year reference sequences in the region to reflect year-to-year climatic variation. Dendrochronology is used in turn as a calibration reference for radiocarbon dating curves.

The familiar terms calendar and era concern two complementary fundamental concepts of chronology. For example, during eight centuries the calendar belonging to the Christian era, which era was taken in use in the 8th century by Bede, was the Julian calendar, but after the year 1582 it was the Gregorian calendar. Dionysius Exiguus was the founder of that era, nowadays the most widespread dating system on earth. An epoch is the date. Ab Urbe condita is Latin for "from the founding of the City", traditionally set in 753 BC, it was used to identify the Roman year by a few Roman historians. Modern historians use it much more than the Romans themselves did. Before the advent of the modern critical edition of historical Roman works, AUC was indiscriminately added to them by earlier editors, making it appear more used than it was, it was used systematically for the first time only about the year 400, by the Iberian historian Orosius. Pope Boniface IV, in about the year 600, seems to have been the first who made a connection between these this era and Anno Domini.

Dionysius Exiguus' Anno Domini era was extended by Bede to the complete Christian era. Ten centuries after Bede, the French astronomers Philippe de la Hire and Jacques Cassini, purely to simplify certain calculations, put the Julian Dating System and with it an astronomical era into use, which contains a leap year zero, which precedes the year 1. While of critical importance to the historian, methods of determining chronology are used in most disciplines of science astronomy, geology and archaeology. In the absence of written history, with its chronicles and king lists, late 19th century archaeologists found that they could develop relative chronologies based on pottery techniques and styles. In the field of Egyptology, William Flinders Petrie pioneered sequence dating to penetrate pre-dynastic Neolithic times, using groups of contemporary artefacts deposited together at a single time in graves and working backwards methodically from the earliest historical phases of Egypt; this method of dating is known as seriation.

Known wares discovered at strata in sometimes quite distant sites, the product of trade, helped extend the network of chronologies. Some cultures have retained the name applied to them in reference to characteristic forms, for lack of an idea of what they called themselves: "The Beaker People" in northern Europe during the 3rd millennium BCE, for example; the study of the means of placing pottery and other cultural artifacts into some kind of order proceeds in two phases and typology: Classification creates categories for the purposes of description, typology seeks to identify and analyse changes that allow artifacts to be placed into sequences. Laboratory techniques developed after mid-20th century helped revise and refine the chronologies developed for specific cultural areas. Unrelated dating methods help reinforce a chronology, an axiom of corroborative evidence. Ideally, archaeological materials used for dating a site should complement each other and provide a means of cross-checking. Conclusions drawn from just one unsupported technique are regarded as unreliable.

The fundamental problem of chronology is to synchronize events. By synchronizing an event it becomes possible to relate it to the current time and to compare the event to other events. Among historians, a typical need is to synchronize the reigns of kings and leaders in order to relate the history of one country or region to that of another. For example, the Chronicon of Eusebius is one of the major works of historical synchronism; this work has two sections. The first contains narrative chronicles of nine different kingdoms: Chaldean, Median, Persian, Greek, Peloponnesian and Roman; the second part is a long table synchronizing the events from each of the nine kingdoms in parallel columns. By comparing the parallel columns, the reader can determine which events were contemporaneous, or how many years separated two different events. To place all the events on the same time scale, Eusebius used an Anno Mundi era, meaning that events were dated from the supposed beginning of the world as computed from the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Pen

Gisela Kallenbach

Gisela Kallenbach is a German politician. She served as a Member of the European Parliament for Alliance'90/The Greens, part of the European Greens, from 2004 to 2009. Since 2009, she has been a member of the Parliament of Saxony. From 2000 to 2003, she was International Mayor of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, she was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2001. Due to her family background and Christian faith, she was denied the right to go to Gymnasium and take the Abitur by the East German communist regime, she became an engineer and an English translator. From 1990 to 2000, she worked as an adviser for the city of Leipzig's environmental administration, she became involved in local politics for the Greens in 1990. She is involved with the Zeitzeugenportal, an initiative of the Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur, a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, co-organized a public hearing in the European Parliament on totalitarian regimes in support of the declaration.

She is a supporter of the Freiheit statt Angst demonstrations concerned with citizens' data privacy

Presque Isle State Park

Presque Isle State Park is a 3,112-acre Pennsylvania State Park on an arching, sandy peninsula that juts into Lake Erie, 4 miles west of the city of Erie, in Millcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The peninsula sweeps northeastward, it has 13 miles of roads, 21 miles of recreational trails, 13 beaches for swimming, a marina. Popular activities at the park include swimming, hiking and birdwatching; the recorded history of Presque Isle begins with the Erielhonan, a Native American tribe who gave their name to Lake Erie, includes French and American forts, as well as serving as a base for Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's fleet in the War of 1812. With the growing importance of shipping on Lake Erie in the 19th century, Presque Isle became home to several lighthouses and what became a United States Coast Guard station. In 1921, it became a state park, as of 2007 it hosts over 4 million visitors per year, the most of any Pennsylvania state park; the Presque Isle peninsula formed on a moraine from the end of the Wisconsin glaciation and is being reshaped by waves and wind.

This leads to seven ecological zones within the park, which provides a classic example of ecological succession. A National Natural Landmark since 1967, the park has been named one of the best places in the United States for watching birds in the Gull Point Natural Area; the Tom Ridge Environmental Center at the entrance to the park allows visitors to learn more about the park and its ecology. Presque Isle State Park has been chosen by the Pennsylvania Bureau of Parks for its list of "25 Must-See Pennsylvania State Parks". Presque Isle was formed at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation about 11,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants of the southern Lake Erie coast were the Erielhonan known as the "Eriez", an Iroquoian speaking tribe of Native Americans. Erielhonan meant the "Cat" or "Raccoon" people, the name "Erie", a corruption of Erielhonan, became the name of the lake and county in which Presque Isle Park is found and of the city nearest the park. An Erielhonan legend taught that the Great Spirit led them to Presque Isle because of the wealth of game, the abundance of clean fresh water, the cool breezes "coming from the land of snow and ice".

Another legend explains how the Erielhonan ventured into Lake Erie in search of the land where the sun set, but the spirit of the lake blew a fierce storm to keep them from finding it. To protect the Erielhonan from the storm, their god laid his outstretched arm into the lake, giving them safety during the storm; the god's arm remained in the lake. The Erielhonan are believed to have farmed on the peninsula, they fought the last starting in 1653 with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. Despite initial victories over the Senecas, in 1654 the Erielhonans' largest village, was destroyed by 1,800 Iroquois warriors. By 1656, the Erielhonan had been destroyed as a people, although the Iroquois adopted survivors who were absorbed into the Senecas; the French first named the peninsula in the 1720s. They built Fort Presque Isle at the modern city of Erie in the summer of 1753, naming it for the peninsula that protected the fort; the French built two "military outposts" on Presque Isle itself. The first outpost was located at the entrance to the peninsula and the second was built at the eastern point.

During the French and Indian War, the French abandoned their outposts and burned their fort in 1759. The British constructed a new fort of the same name that year, which fell to Native American forces on June 19, 1763, during Pontiac's Rebellion. Presque Isle passed from British to American control after the American Revolutionary War, the Iroquois sold their rights to the land containing the peninsula to the United States at the second Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1784. Pennsylvania did not acquire an undisputed title to the land until it purchased the Erie Triangle from the federal government on April 3, 1792. In 1795 General Anthony Wayne built a new, American "Fort Presque Isle", on April 18 of that year the town of "Presqu' Ile", since renamed Erie, was laid out near it. Wayne died at the fort on December 15, 1796, was buried there. Erie County was formed from Allegheny County on March 12, 1800. Millcreek Township, which contained both the Presque Isle peninsula and village of Erie, was one of the original townships.

Erie was named the county seat in 1803, incorporated as a borough in 1805, became a city in 1851. During the War of 1812, Presque Isle played a part in the victory over the British in the Battle of Lake Erie. Oliver Hazard Perry, commander of the American fleet, made strategic use of the bay as a place to construct six of the nine ships in his fleet. Using this location protected the men by creating an obstacle, forcing potential attackers to circumnavigate the peninsula to reach them; the "Little Bay" near the tip of the peninsula where the ships sheltered, next to the current Perry's Monument, was named "Misery Bay" because of the hardships during the winter of 1813–1814, after the men returned there from battle. Many men were kept in quarantine near the bay. A great many infected men were buried in what is now called Graveyard Pond. After the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813, Perry's two largest ships were badly damaged, the US Brig Lawrence was intentionally sunk in Misery Bay; the Lawrence was burned while on display at the 1876 Centennial Exposition.


Elmore, Victoria

Elmore is a small town in Victoria north-east of Bendigo on the Campaspe River. Elmore is close to the Whipstick State Park. At the 2016 census, Elmore had a population of 776. In the 1840s a small settlement developed on the Campaspe River servicing pastoral runs; the Post Office opened on 1 January 1849 as Bertram's Inn. On 1 January 1850 it was renamed Campaspie. In 1864 when the township was established the name became Runnymede and in around 1882 the name was changed again to Elmore. Local businesses include a branch of the Bendigo Bank, café, wine store and chip shop, IGA supermarket, BP petrol station, the Shamrock Hotel, a two-storey old building being restored to its original state, the Railway Hotel, the Victoria Hotel, the Elmore Bakery, the Elmore Pharmacy and a medical centre. A railway station is located in Elmore. In the first week of October one of Australia's oldest and largest field days is held at Elmore. In 2004 there were 45,000 visitors; the first field day was held at Elmore in 1964.

There is now a permanent site with pavilions, conference rooms and catering facilities which are hired out. In January 2007, the Elmore Events Centre was the location of the 2007 Australian Scout Jamboree, the 21st Australian Jamboree. Over 13,000 people attended from 22 different countries and all of the Australian states and territories. Elmore Events Centre will again host the 2022 Australian Scout Jamboree, the 26th Australian Jamboree; the town has an Australian Rules football team playing in the Heathcote District Football League. Golfers play at the course of the Elmore Golf Club on Hunter Road. Elmore is noted for being the home of the famous Elmore Oil, a product invented by longtime Elmore resident, Ralph Linford. Elmore Oil is a natural oil used for the relief of arthritis pain and was invented by Ralph in 1998. Elmore Oil uses the well-known eucalyptus oil grown locally in the region. About Elmore Elmore field days - website

Herm Doscher

John Henry "Herm" Doscher, Sr. was an American third baseman and umpire in the early years of professional baseball, playing for five different teams in the National Association and National League from 1872 though 1882. He served as a regular umpire in both early major leagues, the NL and American Association, his son Jack was a major league pitcher for several years for the Brooklyn Superbas. Jack Doscher was the first son of a major leaguer to play in the majors. Born in New York City, Doscher began his playing career in the National Association with the 1872 Brooklyn Atlantics as a right fielder, he only played in six games that year, but batted.360, played in only one game in the 1873 season in Brooklyn. He didn't play in the Association in 1874, but did return for the 1875 season when he played in 22 games, all at third base, for the Washington Nationals, he didn't hit well, was only able to play in the minor leagues for the next few seasons. One of his stops was with the London Tecumsehs in 1877, a team that went on to win the championship that season.

He reached the National League again in 1879. After that season, Doscher was named to the NL umpiring staff, he worked 51 games in 1880 and 79 in 1881 before returning to the playing ranks with five games for his newest and last team, the Cleveland Blues, he appeared in 25 games in 1882. In 1882, he accepted a temporary job as a scout with Cleveland though he had signed a contract with the Detroit Wolverines for the 1883 season; the Cleveland directors had him expelled from the league for "embezzelment and obtaining money under false pretense". It was proven in NYC court that the original contract was never signed by Detroit, voiding the original contract, he was unanimously reinstated in 1886, returned to umpiring in the American Association in 1887. Known as a colorful, but a no-nonsense, hardline player, he was a natural to the umpiring profession. Once quoted as saying "I've got to play ring master, school teacher and momma, doctor in every game", he would use any tactic he could to control the game physical force if necessary.

His full-time return as an umpire lasted just three season, 1887, 1888 and 1890, but his officiating career was not without notable occurrences. He was involved in two no-hitters; the other was Adonis Terry's no-hitter on Terry's second career no-hitter. On September 21, 1890, with the Rochester Broncos at the St. Louis Browns in the second game of a doubleheader, St. Louis leading 10-3 in the eighth inning, Doscher ejected Rochester's Sandy Griffin for arguing and called an end to game, giving the victory to St. Louis because Griffin refused to leave the field, it was Doscher's only forfeit on record as an umpire. Doscher's occupations in subsequent years include work as a scout. Doscher died in Buffalo, New York at the age of 81, was interred at Elmlawn Cemetery in Tonawanda, New York. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Retrosheet


Ogge is a lake in the municipalities of Birkenes and Iveland in Aust-Agder county, Norway. It is located about 40 kilometres north of the city of Kristiansand, just east of the villages of Vatnestrøm and Oggevatn; the 6.71-square-kilometre lake includes about 360 reefs. The overall length of the lake is 16 kilometres; the Sørlandsbanen railway line and the Norwegian County Road 405 both run along the west side of the lake. Ogge is a place for kayaking, it has a number of camping sites with restrooms and picnic facilities on many of the small islands. Little of the shoreline is private property. On canoe trips, there are moose and varied birdlife. Canoes can be rented locally. List of lakes in Aust-Agder List of lakes in Norway Ogge padleguide Ogge Gjesteheim