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Chrysler Building

The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco–style skyscraper located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood on the East Side of Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue near Midtown Manhattan. At 1,046 feet, the structure was the world's tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931, it is the tallest brick building in the world with a steel framework. As of 2019, the Chrysler is the 11th-tallest building in the city, tied with The New York Times Building. A project of real estate developer and former New York State Senator William H. Reynolds, the building was constructed by Walter Chrysler, the head of the Chrysler Corporation, served as the corporation's headquarters from 1930 until the mid-1950s; the Chrysler Building's construction was characterized by a competition with 40 Wall Street and the Empire State Building to become the world's tallest building. Although the Chrysler Building was built and designed for the car manufacturer, the corporation did not pay for its construction and never owned it.

When the Chrysler Building opened, there were mixed reviews of the building's design, ranging from views of it as inane and unoriginal to the idea that it was modernist and iconic. Perceptions of the building have evolved into its now being seen as a paragon of the Art Deco architectural style. In the mid-1920s, New York's metropolitan area surpassed London's as the world's most populous metropolitan area and its population exceeded ten million by the early 1930s; the era was characterized by profound technological changes. Consumer goods such as radio and the automobile—whose use grew exponentially in the 1920s—became widespread. In 1927, Walter Chrysler's automotive company, the Chrysler Corporation, became the third-largest car manufacturer in the United States, behind Ford and General Motors; the following year, Chrysler was named Time magazine's "Person of the Year". The economic boom of the 1920s and speculation in the real estate market fostered a wave of new skyscraper projects in New York City.

The Chrysler Building was built as part of an ongoing building boom that resulted in the city having the world's tallest building from 1908 to 1974. Following the end of World War I, European and American architects came to see simplified design as the epitome of the modern era and Art Deco skyscrapers as symbolizing progress and modernity; the 1916 Zoning Resolution restricted the height that street-side exterior walls of New York City buildings could rise before needing to be setback from the street. This led to the construction of Art Deco structures in New York City with significant setbacks, large volumes, striking silhouettes that were elaborately decorated. Art Deco buildings were constructed for only a short period of time; the Chrysler Building project was shaped by these circumstances. The land on which the Chrysler Building stands was donated to The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in 1902; the site is a trapezoid with a 201-foot-long frontage on Lexington Avenue.

The site bordered the old Boston Post Road, which predated, ran aslant of, the Manhattan street grid established by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811. As a result, the east side of the building's base is aslant; the Chrysler Building was to be the Reynolds Building, a project of real estate developer and former New York State Senator William H. Reynolds. Prior to his involvement in planning the building, Reynolds was best known for developing Coney Island's Dreamland amusement park; when the amusement park was destroyed by fire in 1911, Reynolds turned his attention to Manhattan real estate, where he set out to build the tallest building in the world. In 1921, Reynolds rented a large plot of land at the corner of Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street with the intention of building a tall building on the site. In 1927, after several years of delays, Reynolds hired the architect William Van Alen to build a forty-story building there. Van Alen was respected in his field for his work on the Albemarle Building at Broadway and 24th Street, designing it in collaboration with his partner H. Craig Severance.

Van Alen and Severance complemented each other, with Van Alen being an original, imaginative architect and Severance being a shrewd businessperson who handled the firm's finances. However, the relationship between them became tense over disagreements on; the breaking point came after a 1924 article, in the Architectural Review, that praised the Albemarle Building's design, which the article attributed to Van Alen, while ignoring Severance's role altogether. The architects' partnership dissolved acrimoniously several months with lawsuits over the firm's clients and assets lasting over a year; this ended up being decisive for the design of the future Chrysler Building, since Severance's more traditional architectural style would otherwise have restrained Van Alen's more modern outlook. By February 2, 1928, the proposed building's height had been increased to 54 stories, which would have made it the tallest building in Midtown; the proposal was changed again two weeks with official plans for a 63-story building.

A little more than a week after that, the plan wa

Karuba (board game)

Karuba is a tile-laying race game for 2–4 players, designed by Rudiger Dorn and published by HABA in 2015. Each player has 4 explorers, which move through the jungle on the player's private board in order to discover treasure and reach hidden temples; the game was nominated for the 2016 Spiel Des Jahres award. In Karuba, a player randomly picks a numbered tile each turn. Tiles contain roads which touch two, three, or four edges of the tile, forming curves, straightaways, T-intersections, etc. All the players play the identical numbered tile on their own separate jungle boards. After a few turns, each player board looks unique with tiles configured in different places. Explorers can move along the roads created by the tiles when a player discards a tile instead of placing it on their board; some tiles contain gold or gems when placed, when an explorer stops on these tiles the player collects the treasure. The players race to have their explorers reach the temples before the other players, which are worth more points the fewer other players have reached the corresponding temple on their own board.

The game ends when one player reaches all all 36 tiles have been used. In 2018 HABA released Karuba: The Card Game, a shorter, simpler version of Karuba which supports up to six players

Hugh I, Duke of Burgundy

Hugh I was duke of Burgundy between 1076 and 1079. Hugh was son of Henry of Burgundy and grandson of Duke Robert I, he inherited Burgundy from his grandfather, following the premature death of Henry, but abdicated shortly afterwards to his brother Eudes I, in oder to become a monk at Cluny. He fought the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula with Sancho of Aragón, his entry to Cluny in 1079, after sustaining injuries in battle, at the same time than Guy I of Mâcon and Guigues II of Albon, drew criticism from the pope Gregory VII. Gregory thought he had not made sure the duchy was at peace, was thus endangering the lives of many christians, he took vows as a monk and became prior of the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny. He married Sybil of Nevers, who had no known descendants. Dukes of Burgundy family tree