Chuck Jones

Charles Martin Jones was an American animated filmmaker and cartoonist, best known for his work with Warner Bros. Cartoons on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts, he wrote, and/or directed many classic animated cartoon shorts starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, Pepé Le Pew, Porky Pig, Michigan J. Frog, the Three Bears, a slew of other Warner characters. After his career at Warner Bros. ended in 1962, Jones started Sib Tower 12 Productions, began producing cartoons for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, including a new series of Tom and Jerry shorts and the television adaptation of Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. He started his own studio, Chuck Jones Enterprises, which created several one-shot specials, periodically worked on Looney Tunes related works. Jones was nominated for eight Academy Awards, he won for the cartoons For Scent-imental Reasons, So Much for So Little, The Dot and the Line. Robin Williams presented Jones with an Honorary Academy Award in 1996 for his iconic work in the animation industry.

Film historian Leonard Maltin has praised Jones' work at Warner Bros. MGM and Chuck Jones Enterprises, he said that the "feud" that there may have been between Jones and colleague Bob Clampett was because they were so different from each other. In Jerry Beck's The 50 Greatest Cartoons, ten of the entries were directed by Jones, with four out of the five top cartoons being Jones shorts. Jones was born on September 21, 1912, in Spokane, the son of Mabel McQuiddy and Charles Adams Jones, he moved with his parents and three siblings to the Los Angeles, California area. In his autobiography, Chuck Amuck, Jones credits his artistic bent to circumstances surrounding his father, an unsuccessful businessman in California in the 1920s, his father, Jones recounts, would start every new business venture by purchasing new stationery and new pencils with the company name on them. When the business failed, his father would turn the huge stacks of useless stationery and pencils over to his children, requiring them to use up all the material as fast as possible.

Armed with an endless supply of high-quality paper and pencils, the children drew constantly. In one art school class, the professor gravely informed the students that they each had 100,000 bad drawings in them that they must first get past before they could draw anything worthwhile. Jones recounted years that this pronouncement came as a great relief to him, as he was well past the 200,000 mark, having used up all that stationery. Jones and several of his siblings went on to artistic careers. During his artistic education, he worked part-time as a janitor. After graduating from Chouinard Art Institute, Jones got a phone call from a friend named Fred Kopietz, hired by the Ub Iwerks studio and offered him a job, he worked his way up starting as a cel washer. I went on to take animator's drawings and traced them onto the celluloid. I became what they call an in-betweener, the guy that does the drawing between the drawings the animator makes". While at Iwerks, he met a cel painter named Dorothy Webster, who became his first wife.

Jones joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, the independent studio that produced Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies for Warner Bros. in 1933 as an assistant animator. In 1935, he was assigned to work with a new Schlesinger director Tex Avery. There was no room for the new Avery unit in Schlesinger's small studio, so Avery and fellow animators Bob Clampett, Virgil Ross, Sid Sutherland were moved into a small adjacent building they dubbed "Termite Terrace"; when Clampett was promoted to director in 1937, Jones was assigned to his unit. Jones became a director himself in 1938; the following year Jones created his first major character, Sniffles, a cute Disney-style mouse, who went on to star in twelve Warner Bros. cartoons. He was involved in efforts to unionize the staff of Leon Schlesinger Studios, he was responsible for recruiting animators, layout men, background people. All animators joined, in reaction to salary cuts imposed by Leon Schlesinger; the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio had signed a union contract, encouraging their counterparts under Schlesinger.

In a meeting with his staff, Schlesinger talked for a few minutes turned over the meeting to his attorney. His insulting manner had a unifying effect on the staff. Jones gave a pep talk at the union headquarters; as negotiations broke down, the staff decided to go on strike. Schlesinger locked them out before agreeing to sign the contract. A Labor-Management Committee was formed and Jones served as a moderator; because of his role as a supervisor in the studio, he could not himself join the union. Jones created many of his lesser-known characters during this period, including Charlie Dog and Bertie, The Three Bears. During World War II, Jones worked with Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, to create the Private Snafu series of Army educational cartoons. Jones collaborated with Seuss on animated adaptations of Seuss' books, including How the Grinch Stole Christmas! in 1966. Jones directed such shorts as The Weakly Reporter, a 1944 short that related to shortages and ra

Basque Y

Basque Y is the high-speed rail network being built between the three cities of the Basque Autonomous Community, in Spain. It will transport cargo and passengers; the cargo trains will connect the Port of Bilbao with the Port of Pasaia, will consist of 157 kilometers of double track and 37 kilometers of single track. Due to the mountainous relief of the region, 105,9 km will be in 10 % in 71 bridges; the minimum speed is 120 km/h, whilst the maximum is 250 km/h. The Basque Y will be built in European rail gauge, it will connect France via Irun. While the French high-speed rail line is not planned to reach Hendaye until 2020, the Hendaye-Bordeaux track allows 160 km/h; the network will include a connection to the Navarrese Corridor, the high speed line projected between Zaragoza and the capital of Navarre, Pamplona. As announced it could take well under one hour to connect the cities while the current slower network takes from 1 h 40 min to 2.5 hours. However, a closer study revealed in February 2015 that the projections below do not hold water, conspicuously delaying initial time estimates.

Bilbao-Abando Vitoria-Gasteiz Irún San Sebastián-Norte Ezkio-Itsaso Euba It took 15 years from the first proposals of a Basque high-speed network to the detailed project. The main issues were disagreements between the series of Spanish and Basque governments, who would bear the costs. Through the Basque tax agreement, the Spanish government will make initial payments on behalf of the Basque government. An agreement on 25 April 2006 puts the section between Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bilbao under Spanish control, the section in Gipuzkoa province under Basque control, it will be the costliest investment in the Basque Country. In June 2012, the European Investment Bank agreed to offer €1bn of funding; the actual completion of the works has been postponed for several times, but the latest deadline was set at 2020 by Basque high-ranking officials. In early 2015, relevant public authorities renewed their commitment with the project, while on the French branch financial tensions and public interest considerations risk to halt progress in high-speed rail works.

It will ease mobility between the Basque capitals, in fact, travel times between Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastián and Vitoria-Gasteiz will be cut in half. In addition, the Basque government is improving the existing EuskoTren infrastructure between Bilbao and Donostia-San Sebastián, enabling a better connection between smaller towns and big cities; the cargo traffic will remove lorries from the roads, the railway will connect the Port of Bilbao with Europe's major railway lines. The Basque Y will is being built in European rail gauge. To reduce the environmental impact, the layout avoids the natural areas of Aizkorri and Aralar; the increase on the usage of railway, will reduce the usage of planes, more polluting than trains. In addition it will be more affordable than traveling by plane, taking passengers to the centre of cities, instead of the outskirts, where airports are located; the official Y-shaped layout was approved by the Basque Parliament, but criticised by Ezker Batua-Berdeak, a coalition of the Basque branch of United Left, a component member of the Basque Government in 2007.

EB put forward a U-shaped layout. More significant is the opposition staged by the Basque nationalist left and several ecologist groups, such as AHT Gelditu. A demonstration against the train gathered thousands to Arrasate/Mondragón in December 2007. Before the 2010-2011 permanent ceasefire, the Basque armed separatist group ETA had the works as one of its targets. In December 2008, Ignacio Uría Mendizábal, the chief executive of a construction company working on the project, was shot dead by ETA and in February 2009 a bomb planted against Ferrovial went off in Madrid. Amidst a climate of bitter criticism to the Conservative Spanish government for its institutional recentralization and its "always and only obstructive" position "against Basque initiatives", PNV's Basque Government has voiced its concern and mistrust over the Madrid government's actual commitment in the face of overdue funding by December 2014. EH Bildu, the leading political force in Gipuzkoa, confirmed in early 2015 its frontal refusal to the project, pointing to the Basque Y's alleged shaky foundations.

Basque nationalist left's spokespersons labelled the project a "deception-based propaganda operation". High-speed rail in Spain Official website of the project. Information about the project on the Basque Governments Transportation department. Advertisement promoting the Basque Y. AHT Ez. Basque opposition to high-speed trains


Wihtwara was the kingdom founded on the Isle of Wight, a 147-square-mile island off the south coast of England, during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. The name was derived from the Jutish name Wihtwara, its capital was a fort named Wihtwarasburgh. It has been suggested that the modern-day village of Carisbrooke was built on top of Wihtwarasburgh due to the fact that they share their location, it has been suggested that Wihtwarasburgh was built on top of a pre-existing Roman fort, but this has not been proven. Wihtland is the name given to the Isle of wight. In A/S Wiht means a spirit being; the Wihtwara are the people of Wihtland after Wihtgar who, along with Stuf, was one of the two earliest kings of Wihtland. Wihtgar and Stuf were nephews of Cerdic, the founder of the Wessex dynasty known only as the Gewisse; some scholars have suggested that Wihtgar may have been fictitious: that is, the central figure of a founding myth invented retrospectively, to justify the name. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle differs, instead claiming that Wihtgar and Stuf received the land from Cerdic's son Cynric in 534, with the death of Wihtgar taking place in 544.

Subsequent kings are unknown until the final Jutish king, born in the mid 7th Century. In 661 Wulfhere of Mercia conquered Wessex and gave the overlordship to his godson, King Aethelwalh of Sussex and forced the Islanders to convert to Christianity. After Wulfhere's departure the island returned to paganism. Arwald was killed resisting an invasion in 686 by King Caedwalla of Wessex together with his brother Mul of Kent. According to Bede, Caedwalla "endeavoured to destroy all the inhabitants" of Wihtland and to replace them with his own followers; when Caedwalla died a few years wounds sustained in the fierce fighting the Wihtwara were reputedly responsible. The only recorded survivor from the alleged massacres of the Wihtwara, was Arwald's sister. Arwald's sister was married to King Egbert of Kent. Arwald's sister was therefore the mother of King Wihtred of Kent and grandmother of Æthelbert II of Kent. Æthelbert was the grandfather of Egbert of Wessex, who was, in turn, the paternal grandfather of King Alfred the Great.

After the Norman Conquest the Isle of Wight was given to the de Redvers family in 1101 who were known as "Lords of the Isle of Wight". However the last of them was Izabel de Forz, known informally as the "Queen of the Isle of Wight". Forz was visited shortly before her death by King Edward Longshanks, who said that she had sold the Isle of Wight to him for 6,000 marks; the village of Queens Bower is said to be named after her. In 1444, Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick a favourite of King Henry VI was given the title of King of the Isle of Wight. Beauchamp died shortly afterwards and the title was not used again; the closest existing title at that time - the Lordship of the Isle of Wight - was held by the uncle of King Henry VI, Duke of Gloucester, after being bestowed it in 1434. St. Bede "History of the English Church" Eddius Stephanus "Vita Dunstani" Henry Beauchamp