Comerica Park is an open-air ballpark located in Downtown Detroit. It serves as the home of the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball, replacing Tiger Stadium in 2000; the park is named after Comerica Bank, founded in Detroit and was based there when the park opened. While Comerica has since moved its headquarters to Dallas, the bank still retains a large presence in the Detroit area; the stadium's seating capacity is 41,083. Public transportation for the park is available via the Detroit People Mover station at Grand Circus Park and the QLine at the Montcalm Street station, in addition to SMART, which runs regional routes from the suburbs, DDOT. Comerica Park sits on the original site of the Detroit College of Law. Founded in 1894, the Tigers had played at the corner of Michigan and Trumbull Avenues in Detroit's Corktown neighborhood since 1896, when Bennett Park opened. In 1911, new Tigers owner Frank Navin ordered the construction of a new ballpark to be built on the same site. Opening in 1912, the ballpark, which became known as Tiger Stadium, served as the Tigers' home for the next 88 seasons.
By the mid-1990s, it had become apparent that the much-beloved ballpark had become obsolete and could not be renovated any further. Groundbreaking for a new ballpark to replace Tiger Stadium was held on October 29, 1997. At the time of construction, the scoreboard in left field was the largest in Major League Baseball. In December 1998, Comerica Bank agreed to pay $66 million over 30 years for the naming rights for the new ballpark, it was part of a downtown revitalization plan for the city of Detroit, which included the construction of Ford Field, adjacent to the ballpark. The first game was held on April 2000, against the Seattle Mariners. Upon its opening, there was some effort to try to find a nickname for the ballpark, with the abbreviation CoPa suggested by many, it is referred to as Comerica. The first game at Comerica Park was held on Tuesday, April 11, 2000 with 39,168 spectators attending, on a cold snowy afternoon; the temperature that afternoon was 36 °F. The Tigers defeated the Seattle Mariners 5–2.
The winning pitcher, as in the final game at Tiger Stadium, was Brian Moehler. The main entrance to the ballpark is located across the street from the Fox Theatre and between two historic downtown churches, St. John Episcopal Church and Central United Methodist Church. Outside of the main entrance is a tiger statue. There are 8 other heroic-sized tiger statues throughout the park, including two prowling on top of the scoreboard in left field; these tigers' eyes light up after a Tigers home run or a victory and the sound of a growling tiger plays as well. The tigers were created by sculptor Michael Keropian and fabricated by ShowMotion Inc. in Norwalk, Connecticut. Along the brick walls outside of the park are 33 tiger heads with lighted baseballs in their mouths. At the left-center field concourse there are statues of all of the players whose numbers have been retired by the Tigers. A statue of Ty Cobb is there, but he does not have a number, as he played baseball before players began to wear numbers on their uniforms.
These players' names, along with the names of Hall of Fame players and broadcasters who spent a significant part of their career with the Tigers, are on a wall in right-center field. Ernie Harwell, the team's long time radio announcer and a recipient of the Hall of Fame's Ford C. Frick Award, has a statue just inside the stadium on the first base side; the field itself features a distinctive dirt strip between the pitcher's mound. This strip, sometimes known as the "keyhole", was common in early ballparks, but it's rare in modern facilities. Additionally, the home plate area is in the shape of the home plate itself, not as a standard circle. In the northeastern corner of the stadium behind the stands from the third base line is a Ferris wheel with twelve cars designed like baseballs. In the northwestern corner of the stadium behind the stands from the first base line is a carousel; the flagpole located between center and left fields was in play, as was the flagpole in Tiger Stadium. However, the left field wall was moved in front of the pole before the 2003 season.
A ball that hits the pole is now ruled a home run. The right field of the stadium features the Pepsi Porch, a picnic deck between the 100 and 200 level seating bowls. In right field, part of the 100 level seating bowl, is an area of seats known as "Kaline's Corner", an homage to Hall of Fame right fielder Al Kaline, who once played for the Tigers when the team played in Tiger Stadium. An LED scoreboard was added to the right-center field wall, the upper deck fascia for the 2007 season. A giant fountain is located behind center field. General Motors sponsored the fountain from 2000 to 2008, used the area to showcase GM manufactured vehicles as well. While GM dropped its sponsorship for the 2009 season due to financial issues, the GM branding was not removed from the fountain. Instead, signs for Chrysler and Ford were added to the display, along with the message "The Detroit Tigers support our automakers." In 2010, GM returned to sponsoring the display, now known as the Chevrolet Fountain. A redesigned and upgraded left field video display debuted for the 2012 season.
The serif "TIGERS" letters were removed, replaced by cursive lettering that can display graphics and video. An analog clock below the Tigers letters and above the Comerica Park lettering was removed completely. A high-definition LED display was installed, much larger than the three displays that had existed there previously; the previous
Petco Park is a baseball park located in the downtown area of San Diego, United States, home to the San Diego Padres of Major League Baseball. The park opened in 2004, replacing Qualcomm Stadium, which the Padres shared with the San Diego Chargers of the National Football League. Petco Park is named after the San Diego-based pet supplies retailer Petco, which paid for the naming rights until 2026. In addition to baseball, the park is used as venue for concerts, soccer and rugby sevens; the ballpark is between 10th avenues, south of J Street. The southern side of the stadium is bounded by San Diego Trolley light rail tracks along the north side of Harbor Drive; the portion of K Street between Seventh and 10th now is closed to automobiles and serves as a pedestrian promenade along the back of the left and center field outfield seating. Two of the stadium's outfield entrance areas are located at K Street's intersections with Seventh and 10th avenues; the main entrance, behind home plate, is at the south end of Park Boulevard and faces the San Diego Trolley station 12th & Imperial Transit Center.
The ballpark is located 1 mile away from Santa Fe Depot station, served by Amtrak and Coaster. The ballpark was constructed by San Diego Ballpark Builders, a partnership with Clark Construction, ROEL Construction and Douglas E. Barnhart, Inc; the construction cost of more than $450 million was funded by the Center City Development Corporation and the San Diego Redevelopment Agency. The stadium was intended to be part of a comprehensive plan to revitalize San Diego's aging downtown the East Village area; the stadium is across Harbor Drive from the San Diego Convention Center, its main entrance behind home plate is two blocks from the downtown terminal of the San Diego Trolley light rail system. When the field was finished, the first home plate was placed by young San Diego native Marlon Cook, selected through the Boys & Girls Club of Memorial Park for his exceptional community involvement; the ballpark was scheduled to open for the 2002 season. Part of this was a court decision, which nullified an passed ballot proposition, required the proposition be put to voters a second time.
Construction encountered a further delay regarding the Western Metal Supply Co. building, a historic landmark. After negotiations with the preservation community, the builders agreed to rehabilitate the building in accordance with The Secretary of the Interior's Standards, the building was renovated and included in the stadium design in an example of adaptive reuse; the resulting delays required the Padres to play the 2002 and 2003 seasons at Jack Murphy/Qualcomm Stadium. The first baseball game played at Petco Park, March 11, 2004, was part of a four-team NCAA invitational tournament hosted by San Diego State University; the San Diego State Aztecs baseball team, of which retired Padres player Tony Gwynn was the head coach, defeated Houston. It was the largest attended game in college baseball history. Lance Zawadzki recorded the first hit. On April 8, 2004, there was lighthearted pushing and shoving before the gates opened about 4 p.m. as numerous Padres faithful tried to be the first to enter Petco Park.
Brent Walker, 17, had a distinction all to himself. "I'm proud to be the first fan to come in", said Walker, wearing a San Francisco Giants jersey. The San Diego Padres played their first regular season game and defeated the San Francisco Giants 4-3 in 10 innings. On April 15, 2004 Mark Loretta hit the first Padre home run off of Hideo Nomo of the Los Angeles Dodgers, it was caught by a bartender at the Kansas City Barbecue. The stadium's first playoff game came October 8, 2005; the St. Louis Cardinals beat the Padres, 7-4, to finish off the three-game sweep of the 2005 NLDS. On March 18 and 20, 2006, the ballpark hosted the semifinals and finals of the first World Baseball Classic, it hosted second-round games of the 2009 World Baseball Classic. On April 4, 2006, Petco Park had its first rainout, postponing a Padres evening game against the San Francisco Giants. On August 4, 2007, Barry Bonds hit. On April 17, 2008, the Padres and Rockies played in a 22-inning game, the longest game in Petco Park history.
The Rockies won the game, 2-1. It was the longest MLB game in nearly 15 years. On July 2, 2009, MLB experienced the first game delayed/halted by a swarm of bees at Petco Park in a game between the Padres and the Houston Astros. A small swarm of honeybees took up residence around a chair in left field, causing the game to be delayed by 52 minutes. A beekeeper was called in and the swarm was exterminated; the Astros went on to win that game, 7-2. On June 14, 2010, during a Toronto Blue Jays vs. San Diego Padres game, there was a magnitude-5.7 earthquake, centered about 85 miles east of San Diego. Play stopped momentarily in the eighth inning; the Blue Jays went on to win 6-3. Rain delays led to the suspension of the Padres' game with the Los Angeles Dodgers on April 8, 2011; the first delay caused the game to start 28 minutes late. Play was stopped for more than 90 minutes in the second inning and again in the sixth inning for more than hour; the score was tied at 2-2 in the top of the ninth inning when play was suspended at 1:40 a.m. PDT April 9.
After a fourth rain delay, the game was finished April 9, with the Dodgers winning in 11 innings, 4-2. On April 30, 2012
The Fresno Bee
The Fresno Bee is a daily newspaper serving Fresno and surrounding counties in that U. S. state's central San Joaquin Valley. It ranks fourth in circulation among the company's newspapers; the Fresno Bee was founded in 1922 by the McClatchy brothers Charles Kenny and Valentine Stuart, sons of The Sacramento Bee's second editor James McClatchy. C. K.'s only son Carlos McClatchy became The Fresno Bee's first editor. The two Central Valley newspapers linked by family ownership and editorial philosophy, formed the core of what grew into The McClatchy Company. In 1926, the McClatchys purchased The Republican; the Fresno Republican had been founded in 1876, by Dr. Chester A. Rowell and a group of investors that included inventor and entrepreneur Frank Dusy. In 1932, The Bee took over the subscription lists of The Fresno Republican and merged the newspapers; the paper launched its website in 1996. The Bee was following the example of The New York Times and other newspapers hoping to combine the creative strengths of the worlds of digital and print journalism.
Since 2017, the paper's relationship with their hometown representative Devin Nunes has deteriorated. Nunes took issue with several op-eds the paper had published on his handling of Russian interference in the 2016 elections. Nunes responded by airing TV ads attacking the paper and mailing constituents a 40-page glossy pamphlet focused on attacking the Bee's reputation. California portal Journalism portal FresnoBee.com official website FresnoBee.com official mobile website Fresno Bee Latest to Merge Online, Print Units, a November 2005 article from Editor & Publisher
Oracle Park is a baseball park located in the South Beach neighborhood of San Francisco, California. Since 2000, it has served as the home of the San Francisco Giants, the city's Major League Baseball franchise. Named Pacific Bell Park SBC Park in 2003 after SBC Communications acquired Pacific Bell, the stadium was christened AT&T Park in 2006, after SBC acquired AT&T and took on the name; the current name was adopted in 2019. The park stands along the San Francisco Bay, a segment of, named McCovey Cove in honor of former Giants player Willie McCovey. Oracle Park has played host to both professional and collegiate American football games; the stadium was the home of the annual college postseason bowl game now known as the Redbox Bowl from its inaugural playing in 2002 until 2013, served as the temporary home for the University of California's football team in 2011. Professionally, it was the home of the San Francisco Demons of the XFL and the California Redwoods of the United Football League.
Public transit access to the stadium is provided within San Francisco by Muni Metro or Muni Bus, from the Peninsula and Santa Clara Valley via Caltrain, from parts of the Bay Area across the water via various ferries of San Francisco Bay. The Muni 2nd and King Station is directly outside the ballpark, the 4th & King Caltrain station is 1.5 blocks from the stadium, the Oracle Park Ferry Terminal is outside the east edge of the ballpark beyond the center field bleachers. Designed to be a 42,000-seat stadium, there were slight modifications before the final design was complete; when the ballpark was brought to the ballot box in the fall of 1996 for voter approval, the stadium was 15° clockwise from its current position. The center-field scoreboard was atop the right-field wall and the Giants Pavilion Building were two separate buildings. Groundbreaking on the ballpark began on December 11, 1997, in the industrial waterfront area of San Francisco known as China Basin in the up-and-coming neighborhoods of South Beach and Mission Bay.
The stadium cost $357 million to build and supplanted the Giants' former home, Candlestick Park, a multi-use stadium in southeastern San Francisco, home to the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers until 2014, when they relocated to Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara. A team of engineers from UC Davis was consulted in the design process of the park, resulting in wind levels that are half those at Candlestick. Fans had shivered through 40 seasons at "The'Stick" and looked forward to warmer temperatures at the new ballpark, but because Oracle Park, like its predecessor, is built right on San Francisco Bay, cold summer fog and winter jackets in July are still not unusual at Giants games, despite the higher average temperature. When it opened on March 31, 2000, the ballpark was the first Major League Baseball ballpark built without public funds since the completion of Dodger Stadium in 1962. However, the Giants did receive a $10 million tax abatement from the city and $80 million for upgrades to the local infrastructure.
The Giants have a 66-year lease on the 12.5-acre ballpark site, paying $1.2 million in rent annually to the San Francisco Port Commission. The park opened with a seating capacity of 40,800, but this has increased over time as seats have been added. In April 2010, the stadium became the first MLB ballpark to receive LEED Silver Certification for Existing Buildings and Maintenance. On April 3, 1996, Pacific Bell, a telephone company serving California based in San Francisco, purchased the naming rights for the planned ballpark for $50 million for 24 years; the stadium was named Pac Bell Park for short. Just days before the sponsorship was announced, SBC Communications had announced their intention to acquire Pacific Bell's parent company, Pacific Telesis, a deal which closed in April 1997. SBC stopped using the Pacific Bell name for marketing, reached an agreement with the Giants to change the stadium's name to SBC Park on January 1, 2004. After SBC bought AT&T Corporation on November 18, 2005, the name of the merged company became AT&T Inc.
As a result, in 2006 the stadium was given its third name in six years: AT&T Park. On January 9, 2019, it was reported that AT&T had given the Giants the option of ending the naming deal a year early, if the team could find a new partner; the Giants and Oracle Corporation came to a rapid agreement, with the old AT&T Park signs being replaced with temporary Oracle Park banners on January 10. Some fans still refer to the stadium as Pac Bell Park, as it was the first name given to the stadium. Others have nicknamed the stadium "The Phone Booth" or "Telephone Park", in response to its multiple name changes, while some referred to the stadium as "Some Big Corporation Park" during the SBC years. Others yet refer to it as "Mays Field" in honor of Giants great Willie Mays or "The Bell". Many refer to the stadium as "China Basin" or "McCovey Cove" after its location, which would be immune to changes in sponsorship naming; the stadium contains 68 luxury suites, 5,200 club seats on the club level, an additional 1,500 club seats at the field level behind home plate.
On the facing of the upper deck along the left-field line are the retired numbers of Bill Terry, Mel Ott, Carl Hubbell, Monte Irvin, Willie Mays, Barry Bonds, Juan Marichal, Orlando Cepeda, Jackie Robinson, Willie McCovey, Gaylord Perry, as well as the retired uniforms, denoted "NY", of Christy Mathewson and John McGraw who played or managed in the pre-number era. These two pre-number–era retired uniforms are among only six such retired uniforms in all of the Major Leagues. Oracle Park has a reputation of being a pitcher's park and the most pitc
A baseball field called a ball field, sandlot or a baseball diamond, is the field upon which the game of baseball is played. The term can be used as a metonym for a baseball park. Unless otherwise noted, the specifications discussed in this section refer to those described within the Official Baseball Rules, under which Major League Baseball is played; the starting point for much of the action on the field is home plate, a five-sided slab of whitened rubber, 17 inches square with two of the corners removed so that one edge is 17 inches long, two adjacent sides are 8.5 inches and the remaining two sides are 12 inches and set at an angle to make a point. The plate is set into the ground such. Adjacent to each of the two parallel 8.5-inch sides is a batter's box. The point of home plate where the two 12-inch sides meet at right angles is at one corner of a 90-foot square; the other three corners of the square, in counterclockwise order from home plate, are called first and third base. Three canvas or rubber bases 15 inches square and 3–5 inches in thickness made of soft material mark the three bases.
Near the center of the square is an artificial hill known as the pitcher's mound, atop, a white rubber slab known as the pitcher's plate, colloquially the "rubber." The specifications for the pitcher's mound are described below. All the bases, including home plate, lie within fair territory. Thus, any batted ball that touches those bases must be in fair territory. While the first and third base bags are placed so that they lie inside the 90-foot square formed by the bases, the second base bag is placed so that its center coincides with the "point" of the ninety-foot square. Thus, although the "points" of the bases are 90 feet apart, the physical distance between each successive pair of base markers is closer to 88 feet; the lines from home plate to first and third bases extend to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction and are called the foul lines. The portion of the playing field between the foul lines is fair territory; the area within the square formed by the bases is called the infield, though colloquially this term includes fair territory in the vicinity of the square.
Most baseball fields are enclosed with a fence. The fence is set at a distance ranging from 300 to 420 feet from home plate. Most professional and college baseball fields have a right and left foul pole; these poles are at the intersection of the foul lines and the respective ends of the outfield fence and, unless otherwise specified within the ground rules, lie in fair territory. Thus, a batted ball that passes over the outfield wall in flight and touches the foul pole is a fair ball and the batter is awarded a home run. First base is the first of four bases that must be touched by a player on the batting team in order to score a run. Unlike when an offensive player reaches second or third base, it is permissible for a batter-runner to overrun first base without being in jeopardy of being put out. After contact is made with the base, the batter-runner may slow down and return to first base at his leisure, so long as he makes no move or attempt to advance to second base; the first baseman is the defensive player responsible for the area near first base.
A professional first baseman is a slow runner and tall. A tall first baseman presents a large target to which other fielders can throw, his height gives him a larger range in reaching and catching errant throws. Players who are left-handed are marginally preferable for first base because: first, it is easier for a left-handed fielder to catch a pick-off throw from the pitcher and tag the baserunner. A right-handed first baseman must, when setting himself up to receive a throw from an infielder, execute a half-pivot near the base. There are three infield positions that can only be occupied by right-handed players: 2nd base, 3rd base, shortstop; this is. It takes a left-handed thrower more time to make that pivot and in the fast-paced major league game, that time is critical; as a result, there are fewer positions a left-handed player can occupy, if that player is not fast, the outfield may not be a good fit. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the first baseman is assigned the number 3.
Second base is the second of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a base runner in order to score a run for that player's team. Second base is defended by the second baseman and the shortstop. Second base is known as the keystone sack. A runner on second base is said to be in "scoring position," owing to the high likelihood of reaching home plate and scoring a run from second base on most base hits. Since second is the farthest base from home plate, it is the most common target of base stealing. Ideally, the second baseman and shortstop possess quick hands and feet and the ability to release the ball and with accuracy. One will cover second base when the other attempts to field the ball. Both players must communicate well to be able to make a double play. Particular agility is required of the second baseman in double play situations, which forces the player to t
In baseball, a left fielder is an outfielder who plays defense in left field. Left field is the area of the outfield to the left of a person standing at home plate and facing towards the pitcher's mound. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the left fielder is assigned the number 7. Outfielders must cover large distances - speed and quickness in reacting to the ball are key, they must be able to catch fly balls on the run. They must be able to throw the ball over a long distance to be effective. Left fielders must familiarize themselves with the varying configurations of different ballparks' foul territory, prevent balls hit down the foul lines from getting past them into the left field corner. Amateur players may find it difficult to concentrate on the game, since they are so far from the action. Emphasizing the correct position will give outfield players something to concentrate on at each pitch. Hits to left field tend to curve toward the left field foul line, left fielders must learn to adjust to that.
Of all outfielders, the left fielder will have the weakest arm, as they do not need to throw the ball as far to prevent the advance of any baserunners. The left fielder still requires good fielding and catching skills, tends to receive more balls than the right fielder because right-handed hitters tend to "pull" the ball into left field; the left fielder backs up third base on pick-off attempts from the catcher or pitcher and bunts, when possible. If a runner is stealing third base the left fielder must back up the throw from the catcher. Left fielders must back up third base when a ball is thrown from right field, back up center field when a pop fly is hit into the pocket. Despite giving their teams the advantage of accommodating a player with a weak arm, a left fielder with an above average throwing arm can compile many assists. After being converted to left field, Alfonso Soriano led the league with 22 and 19 outfield assists in 2006 and 2007 his first two years playing the outfield. Despite leading the league in errors and coming out of the game for a defensive replacement in late innings, his strong arm is best utilized in left.
The following are baseball players inducted to the National Baseball Hall of Fame as left fielders: When most left fielders are older or struggling defensively, they will move to first base or designated hitter, usually. Third basemen will sometimes move with Ryan Braun and Alex Gordon being examples. Baseball Hall of Fame Gold Glove Award
Motocross is a form of off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits. The sport evolved from motorcycle trials competitions held in the United Kingdom. Motocross first evolved in the U. K. from motorcycle trials competitions, such as the Auto-Cycle Clubs's first quarterly trial in 1909 and the Scottish Six Days Trial that began in 1912. When organisers dispensed with delicate balancing and strict scoring of trials in favour of a race to become the fastest rider to the finish, the activity became known as "hare scrambles", said to have originated in the phrase, "a rare old scramble" describing one such early race. Though known as scrambles racing in the United Kingdom, the sport grew in popularity and the competitions became known internationally as "motocross racing", by combining the French word for motorcycle, motocyclette, or moto for short, into a portmanteau with "cross country"; the first known scramble race took place at Camberley, Surrey in 1924. During the 1930s the sport grew in popularity in Britain where teams from the Birmingham Small Arms Company, Matchless, AJS competed in the events.
Off-road bikes from that era differed little from those used on the street. The intense competition over rugged terrain led to technical improvements in motorcycles. Rigid frames gave way to suspensions by the early 1930s, swinging fork rear suspension appeared by the early 1950s, several years before manufacturers incorporated it in the majority of production street bikes; the period after World War II was dominated by BSA, which had become the largest motorcycle company in the world. BSA riders dominated international competitions throughout the 1940s. In 1952 the FIM, motorcycling's international governing body, set up an individual European Championship using a 500 cc engine displacement formula. In 1957 it was upgraded to World Championship status. In 1962 a 250 cc world championship was established. In the smaller 250 cc category companies with two-stroke motorcycles came into their own. Companies such as Husqvarna from Sweden, CZ from the former Czechoslovakia and Greeves from England became popular due to their lightness and agility.
Stars of the day included BSA-works riders Jeff Smith and Arthur Lampkin, with Dave Bickers, Joe Johnson and Norman Brown on Greeves. By the 1960s, advances in two-stroke engine technology meant that the heavier, four-stroke machines were relegated to niche competitions. Riders from Belgium and Sweden began to dominate the sport during this period. Motocross arrived in the United States in 1966 when Swedish champion, Torsten Hallman rode an exhibition event against the top American TT riders at the Corriganville Movie Ranch known as Hopetown in Simi Valley, California; the following year Hallman was joined by other motocross stars including Roger DeCoster, Joël Robert, Dave Bickers. They dominated the event, placing their lightweight two-strokes into the top six finishing positions. Motocross began to grow in popularity in the United States during this period, which fueled an explosive growth in the sport. By the late 1960s Japanese motorcycle companies began challenging the European factories for supremacy in the motocross world.
Suzuki claimed the first world championship for a Japanese factory when Joël Robert won the 1970 250 cc crown. The first stadium motocross event took place in 1972 at the Los Angeles Coliseum. In 1975 a 125 cc world championship was introduced. European riders continued to dominate motocross throughout the 1970s but, by the 1980s, American riders had caught up and began winning international competitions. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Japanese motorcycle manufacturers presided over a boom period in motocross technology; the typical two-stroke air-cooled, twin-shock rear suspension machines gave way to machines that were water-cooled and fitted with single-shock absorber rear suspension. In the 1990s, America's leading motorcycle sport governing body, the AMA, increased the allowable displacement limit for four stroke powered machines in the AMA motocross championship, due to the low relative power output of a four stroke engine, compared to the then-dominating two stroke design. By 1994, the displacement limit of a four stroke power motocross bike was up to 550 cc in the 250 class, to incentivize manufactures to further develop the design for use in motocross.
By 2004 all the major manufacturers had begun competing with four-stroke machines. European firms experienced a resurgence with Husqvarna, KTM winning world championships with four-stroke machinery; the sport evolved with sub-disciplines such as stadium events known as supercross and arenacross held in indoor arenas. Classes were formed for all-terrain vehicles. Freestyle motocross events where riders are judged on their jumping and aerial acrobatic skills have gained popularity, as well as supermoto, where motocross machines race both on tarmac and off-road. Vintage motocross events take place - for motorcycles predating the 1975 model year. Many VMX races include a "Post Vintage" portion, which includes bikes dating until 1983; the FIM Grand Prix Motocross World Championship is predominantly held in Europe, but includes events in North America, South America, Asia and Africa. It is the major Motocross series worldwide. There are four classes: MXGP for 450cc machines, MX2 for 250cc machines, MX3 for 650cc machines and Women's MX.
Competitions consist of two races which are called motos with a duration of 30 minutes plus two laps. The AMA Motocross Championship continues until late August; the championship consists of twelve rounds at twelve major tracks all over the continental United States. There are three classes: the 250 Motocross Class for 0–125 cc 2-stroke or 150–250 cc 4-stroke machines, the 450 Mot