Chula Vista is the second largest city in the San Diego metropolitan area, the seventh largest city in Southern California, the fourteenth largest city in the state of California, the 76th-largest city in the United States. The population was 243,916 as of the 2010 census. Located just 7.5 miles from downtown San Diego and 7.5 miles from the Mexican border in the South Bay region of the metropolitan area, the city is at the center of one of the richest economic and culturally diverse zones in the United States. Chula Vista is so named because of its scenic location between the San Diego Bay and coastal mountain foothills; the area, along with San Diego, was inhabited by the Kumeyaay before contact from the Spanish, who claimed the area. In 1821, Chula Vista became part of the newly declared Mexican Empire, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 as a result of the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.
Founded in the early 19th century, incorporated in October 1911, fast population growth has been observed in the city. Located in the city is one of America's few year-round United States Olympic Training centers, while popular tourist destinations include Aquatica San Diego, North Island Credit Union Amphitheatre, the Chula Vista marina, the Living Coast Discovery Center. Fossils of aquatic life, in the form of a belemnitida from the Jurassic, have been found within the modern borders of Chula Vista, it is not. It isn't until 10,000 years ago that human activity has been found within the modern borders of Chula Vista in Otay Valley of the San Dieguito people; the oldest site of human settlement within the modern boundaries of Chula Vista, was named Otai by the Spanish in 1769, had been occupied as far back as 7,980 years ago. Another place where humans first settled within the modern boundaries of Chula Vista was at the Rolling Hills Site, which dates back to 7,000 years ago. In the year 3000 BCE, people speaking the Yuman language began movement into the region from the Lower Colorado River Valley and southwestern Arizona portions of the Sonoran desert.
The Kumeyaay tribe came to populate the land, on which the city sits today, who lived in the area for hundreds of years. In the year 1542 CE, a fleet of three Spanish Empire ships commanded by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailed into San Diego Harbor. Early explorations by Spanish conquistadors, such as these, led to Spanish claims of the land; the historic land on which Chula Vista sits became part of the 1795 land grant known as Rancho del Rey or The King's Ranch. The land was renamed Rancho de la Nación. After Mexico became independent from Spain, what is now Chula Vista became part of Alta California. Beginning in 1829, the land, now Chula Vista was divided among Rancho Janal, Rancho Otay, Rancho de la Nación and Rancho La Punta. During the Mexican–American War, California was claimed by the United States, regardless of the California independence movement that had swept the state. Though California was now under the jurisdiction of the United States, land grants were allowed to continue in the form of private property.
In 1873, the United States Army built a telegraph line between San Diego and Fort Yuma which ran through Telegraph Canyon in Chula Vista. The San Diego Land and Town Company developed lands of the Rancho de la Nación for new settlement; the town began as a five thousand acre development, with the first house being erected in 1887. Around this time, the lemon was introduced to the city, by a retired professor from the University of Wisconsin. Chula Vista can be translated from Spanish as "beautiful view"; the 1888 completion of the dam allowed for irrigation of Chula Vista farming lands. Chula Vista became the largest lemon-growing center in the world for a period of time; as of February 2019, the oldest surviving buildings in Chula Vista originate from around this time, including the Barber house, the Cordrey house. Additionally, the Coronado Belt Line Railroad was built through Chula Vista, connecting Hotel Del Coronado with the National City, where Southern California Railroad terminated. Another railroad built through Chula Vista, was the National City and Otay Railroad, routed down Third Avenue.
During the depression at the end of the century, industrial employment in Chula Vista was limited to the La Punta Salt Works and packing houses. The citizens of Chula Vista voted to incorporate on October 17, 1911; the State approved the city’s incorporation in November. One of its first city council members was a former Clevelandite Greg Rogers, a leader of the Chula Vista Yacht Club; the yacht club would the first on the West Coast to build race specific boats, which resulted in a uniquely designed sloop. In 1915, a Carnegie Library was built on F Street. In the 1910s, Chinese and Mexican farm laborers worked the fields within the city, with most commuting in from Downtown San Diego and Logan Heights. In January 1916, Chula Vista was impacted by the Hatfield Flood, named after Charles Hatfield, when the Lower Otay Dam collapsed flooding the valley surrounding the Otay River. In 1916, the Hercules Powder Compan
Ysgol Gymraeg Pwll Coch is a large Welsh-medium primary school in the Leckwith area of western Cardiff, in Wales. The current head teacher is Christopher Newcombe, who joined the school in 2016. Ysgol Gymraeg Pwll Coch provides education for pupils from a wide and diverse area of west Cardiff, including Grangetown and parts of Canton, Butetown and Victoria Park. There are 520 pupils between 11 years old on roll, including 64 part-time nursery age pupils. Pupils are divided into 18 single-age classes; the school feeds Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Plasmawr Welsh-medium secondary schools. Welsh is the main medium of the school's life and work, although in 2019 only 10% of the pupils came from Welsh-speaking homes. About 25% of pupils came from ethnic minority backgrounds; the name "Pwll Coch" means "red pool"' in Welsh, refers to a pool in the River Ely and a hamlet which grew nearby, close to the modern Tŷ Pwll Coch public house. Tradition states that the pool filled with blood following the Battle of St Fagans in 1648.
The area is no longer part of the school's catchment area. The Estyn inspection report on the school in 2018 classified the school as good in all five areas that were inspected, it commented that "The staff create a happy and inclusive ethos at the school, where everyone is respected and appreciated... The quality of teaching is good... most pupils make sound progress, achieve well and use their skills to a high standard by the end of key stage 2... Leaders are effective... Standards of behaviour are high." Ysgol Gymraeg Pwll Coch was founded in 1996, co-located with Fitzalan High School. In September 1999, the school moved to a new building on land opposite Fitzalan High on Lawrenny Avenue, the first purpose-built Welsh-medium school in Cardiff. By September 2000, due to the school's popularity, the number of pupils had increased with two classes per year group. To house the larger numbers, temporary accommodation was erected on the school grounds. In 2006, a significant extension of the junior department was built and the school operated two classes for all years by 2008.
By September 2011 the school had temporarily expanded further, with three-form entry for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. In 2014 the intake reverted to two-form entry. There were over 520 pupils on roll in 2018. In February 2019, a new Welsh-medium specialist resource base, Yr Hafan, was opened at the school for pupils with complex learning needs from across the city. Yr Hafan was opened by the First Minister of Wales, Mark Drakeford, on 22 November 2019. 1996: Anna Roberts 2009: Meinir Howells 2016: Christopher Newcombe Ysgol Gymraeg Pwll Coch web site
Nancy Stockall is an Full Professor of Early Childhood Studies and Special Education at Sam Houston State University. She has held positions at the University of Arkansas at Fort Smith, the flagship University of Arkansas campus at Fayetteville as well as at Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio. Before obtaining her Ph. D. from Kent State University, she was first both a general education and special education elementary teacher and became the Special Education Administrator for Massillon City Schools in Massillon, Ohio. Her most recent accomplishment includes the David Payne Faculty Excellence Award for Civic Engagement from Sam Houston State University, her dissertation was the recipient of the 1995 Outstanding Dissertation Award from the American Educational Research Association Early Education for Children with Disabilities. Dr. Stockall's research interests relate to the field of semiotics, with special interest in applying semiotic methodology to inform inclusive practices for students with mild disabilities in general education classrooms.
She has worked on numerous projects linking applied semiotics to general early childhood education, human development and rehabilitation, aviation studies. Author of over 100 publications and presentations, her latest publications include: • Right from the Start: Universal design for preschoolers. Teaching Exceptional Children • Planning Literacy Environments for Diverse Preschoolers. Young Exceptional Children. • Fathers' Role in Play: Enhancing early language and literacy of children with developmental delays. Early Childhood Education Journal. • The Daily Dozen: Strategies for Enhancing Social Communication of Infants with Language Delays. Young Children Additional published work includes: Stockall, N. & Dennis, L. R.. Using Pivotal Response Training and Technology to Engage Preschoolers With Autism in Conversations. Intervention in School and Clinic, 49, 195-202. Stockall, N. & Smith, R. E.. Alternative Assessment Portfolios for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study. Exceptionality, 21, 127-146.
Dr. Stockall is involved with the American Educational Research Association, has served as the Membership Chair, Treasurer and, Secretary of the association's Semiotics in Education Special Interest Group. Stockall, N. S.. When an Aide Really Becomes an Aid Providing Professional Development for Special Education Paraprofessionals. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46, 197-205. Stockall, N. Dennis, L. R. & Rueter, J. A.. Developing a Progress Monitoring Portfolio for Children in Early Childhood Special Education Programs. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46, 32-40. Nancy Stockall. "The nature of inclusion in a Blue Ribbon school: A revelatory case". Exceptionality. 10: 171–188. Doi:10.1207/S15327035EX1003_2
Bridge Constructor is a series of physics-based simulation-puzzle video games developed by ClockStone and published by Headup Games. While themes and elements change across the series, each game is based on planning out a bridge across a river or ravine using a number of parts, limited by the geometry of the space and the total cost of the parts; the goal for each scenario is to make sure that one or more vehicles driving across the bridge can reach the other side safely. The first Bridge Constructor game, eponymous to the series, was released for Microsoft Windows on 1 December 2011. While it was successful in Europe and topped the app charts there, it didn't catch on in North America until after a Reddit post by a player of the game within the "GamePhysics" subforum in March 2014; the post showed a GIF-image of a truck just making it across a bridge as it was collapsing underneath it. This created a large interest in the title, resulting it being the top paid iOS within 10 days of the image's posting.
Headup Games took initiative to offer sales on the game and cross-promote the other titles in the series. With the boost in North America, the game saw over 27 million free and paid downloads, a "good seven-digit figure" in paid sales by March 2014, according to Gregor Ebert of Headup Games. Bridge Constructor Portal was announced in December 2017, for release on mobile and personal computers that same month, for consoles in 2018. Developed under license from Valve, the game sets challenges in the Aperture Laboratory facilities from the Portal series, under the watchful eye of the artificial intelligence GLaDOS; the game will use the same core gameplay of Bridge Constructor, but add in elements from Portal such as the wormhole-like portals and other features
Stuart Charles "The Sausage King" Alexander was an American businessman and heir of the Santos Linguisa Sausage Factory, founded by a late great aunt, Pia Santos, her husband, Antonio, in San Leandro, California in 1921. Alexander was convicted in 2004 of the murder of three state and USDA meat compliance officials in 2000. Born the middle child of three sons of Shirley Mae Parriott and the late Herman "Tweedy" Alexander. Alexander, whose paternal family roots could be traced back to Portugal, was a lifelong resident of San Leandro, California, he would inherit the family business, The Santos Linguica Factory and would proclaim himself the "Sausage King," after the death of his father, who had run the once thriving business for many years, in 1993. Alexander's father, had been well known in the local and national business circles as an astute businessman, had been recognized and renowned for making arguably the finest linguica sausage in the Bay Area, if not nationwide, he had been grooming the young Stuart for years after the death of his eldest son, who died at the age of eighteen in a motorcycle accident.
Stefen was set to inherit the reins of the company. Tweedy had no choice but to pass the reins to Stuart. However, Tweedy had little faith. Stuart's father was verbally abusive to his son telling him that he would "never amount to anything". By many accounts of acquaintances of the family, the relationship between the father Tweedy and the young Stuart was rocky, at best. By the account of his mother Shirley, who divorced Tweedy when Stuart was ten, Tweedy could at times be demanding with the son, "yelled at him all the time" when, at times with him at the factory during the summers and weekends, young Stuart made a mistake. Coupled with this and the breakup of his parents marriage in 1971, this had helped to cultivate a deep-seated anger and resentment that manifested violently in relations with other people from a young age. Alexander, described by some who knew him to have a "short fuse", to be at times "combative", was charged with beating Clifford Berg, 75, an elderly neighbor, after an argument in 1996.
One person who owned a printing shop near the linguisa factory, Richard Miller, 38, said during the murder trial before the grand jury, that Alexander "didn't like the idea of people telling him what to do", with his business, that he was "very anti-authority", at least from what he knew about the sausage maker. It was alleged by those that were close to him that Alexander would keep e-mails and letters from the meat compliance officers mockingly "harassing" him and show them to his secretary, his mother. In spite of this, the business did continue to thrive, at least for a time, this helped to earn the hard-working and ambitious Alexander recognition within the local civic and political circles, not much unlike his father. Inspired by the perceived harassment of the state and USDA inspection practices, Alexander made a failed electoral campaign for San Leandro Mayoral Office in 1998. Still, with the business still in the black, Alexander did find time to start a romantic relationship with Eve Elder, a 33-year-old insurance claims agent, around 1995.
As the relationship wore on, Elder would see some odd signs of the deadly violent streak in Alexander when commenting about the inspectors. In what had started out as a joke, the couple concocted a series of short stories. Soon, the tone of Alexander's words would take on a much darker tone; as another former girlfriend, Charlotte Knapp, 38, seeing Alexander off and on up until the time of the murders, would testify during the murder trial, Alexander used profanities to describe the inspectors and would at times have some choice words ready for them, or for anyone else whom he deemed as "trespassers" that came upon his factory. On occasion wielding a gun, one of the several firearms; as time went by, Alexander began to cultivate an antagonistic and contentious relationship with the four inspectors who were assigned to oversee his business operations in terms of "cooking temperature and other health concerns". He felt that these inspectors were harassing him unnecessarily, "interfering with the way his sausage was best made, had always been made by his family" by demanding that his linguisa be smoked at 140 degrees Fahrenheit, a state and USDA requirement.
There were requirements about the type of smoker that could be used. This would wreak havoc upon his finances; this caused the now-illegally operated factory to lose more and more money. Coupled with that and hi
BCA Research Inc. is an independent provider of global investment research and investment strategy advice. BCA was founded by A. Hamilton Bolton in 1949 in Montreal, Canada; the firm is known by the title of its first publication The Bank Credit Analyst. BCA Research provides economic analysis and trend forecasts of the major financial asset classes and geographic markets; these include foreign exchange, fixed income and commodities & energy. The geographical coverage includes the US, Emerging Markets, Europe and Global strategies. BCA delivers the research through weekly bulletins, daily insights, special reports, proprietary market studies, chart packs and conferences. BCA Research clients include portfolio managers, hedge funds, asset management firms, pension funds and endowments, central banks, security dealers, sovereign wealth funds, private banking, insurance companies, private equity firms, family offices and individual investors. BCA Research has been recognized as a top independent investment research firm both in North America and Europe.
The founder, A. Hamilton Bolton was noted for his work on the Elliot Wave Theory, published Money and Investment Profits, a book on investments and the business cycle, just prior to his death in 1967, he was succeeded by J. Anthony Boeckh, who led the company from 1968 to 2001. During that time, Bolton's original work on supercycles was refined into what BCA calls the debt supercycle. BCA Research was acquired by Metal Bulletin PLC in 2001. Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC bought Metal Bulletin along with BCA Research in 2006. Official Website