The chupacabra or chupacabras is a legendary creature in the folklore of parts of the Americas, with its first purported sightings reported in Puerto Rico. The name comes from the animal's reported habit of attacking and drinking the blood of livestock, including goats. Physical descriptions of the creature vary, it is purportedly a heavy creature, the size of a small bear, with a row of spines reaching from the neck to the base of the tail. Eyewitness sightings have been claimed in Puerto Rico, have since been reported as far north as Maine, as far south as Chile, being spotted outside the Americas in countries like Russia and the Philippines, but many of the reports have been disregarded as uncorroborated or lacking evidence. Sightings in northern Mexico and the southern United States have been verified as canids afflicted by mange. According to biologists and wildlife management officials, the chupacabra is an urban legend. Chupacabras can be translated as "goat-sucker", from chupar and cabra.
It is known as both chupacabras and chupacabra throughout the Americas, with the former being the original word, the latter a regularization of it. The name is attributed to Puerto Rican comedian Silverio Pérez, who coined the label in 1995 while commenting on the attacks as a San Juan radio deejay; the first reported attack attributed to the creatures occurred in March 1995 in Puerto Rico. Eight sheep were discovered dead, each with three puncture wounds in the chest area and drained of blood. A few months in August, an eyewitness, Madelyne Tolentino, reported seeing the creature in the Puerto Rican town of Canóvanas, when as many as 150 farm animals and pets were killed. In 1975, similar killings in the small town of Moca were attributed to El Vampiro de Moca, it was suspected that the killings were committed by a Satanic cult. Each of the animals was reported to have had its body bled dry through a series of small circular incisions. Puerto Rican comedian and entrepreneur Silverio Pérez is credited with coining the term chupacabras soon after the first incidents were reported in the press.
Shortly after the first reported incidents in Puerto Rico, other animal deaths were reported in other countries, such as the Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Colombia, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama, Brazil, United States, Mexico. A five-year investigation by Benjamin Radford, documented in his 2011 book Tracking the Chupacabra, concluded that the description given by the original eyewitness in Puerto Rico, Madelyne Tolentino, was based on the creature Sil in the 1995 science-fiction horror film Species; the alien creature Sil is nearly identical to Tolentino’s chupacabra eyewitness account and she had seen the movie before her report: "It was a creature that looked like the chupacabra, with spines on its back and all... The resemblance to the chupacabra was impressive," Tolentino reported. Radford revealed that Tolentino "believed that the creatures and events she saw in Species were happening in reality in Puerto Rico at the time," and therefore concludes that "the most important chupacabra description cannot be trusted."
This, Radford believes undermines the credibility of the chupacabra as a real animal. In addition, the reports of blood-sucking by the chupacabra were never confirmed by a necropsy, the only way to conclude that the animal was drained of blood. An analysis by a veterinarian of 300 reported victims of the chupacabra found that they had not been bled dry. Radford divided the chupacabra reports into two categories: the reports from Puerto Rico and Latin America where animals were attacked and it is supposed their blood was extracted, the reports in the United States of mammals dogs and coyotes with mange, that people call "chupacabra" due to their unusual appearance. In late October 2010, University of Michigan biologist Barry O'Connor concluded that all the chupacabra reports in the United States were coyotes infected with the parasite Sarcoptes scabiei, whose symptoms would explain most of the features of the chupacabra: they would be left with little fur, thickened skin, rank odor. O'Connor theorized that the attacks on goats occurred "because these animals are weakened, they're going to have a hard time hunting.
So they may be forced into attacking livestock because it's easier than running down a rabbit or a deer."Although several witnesses came to the conclusion that the attacks could not be the work of dogs or coyotes because they had not eaten the victim, this conclusion is incorrect. Both dogs and coyotes can kill and not consume the prey, either because they are inexperienced, or due to injury or difficulty in killing the prey; the prey can die afterwards from internal bleeding or circulatory shock. The presence of two holes in the neck, corresponding with the canine teeth, are to be expected since this is the only way that most land carnivores have to catch their prey. There are reports of stray Mexican Hairless Dogs being mistaken for chupacabras; the most common description of the chupacabra is that of a reptile-like creature, said to have leathery or scaly greenish-gray skin and sharp spines or quills running down its back. It is said to be 3 to 4 feet high, stands and hops in a fashion similar to that of a kangaroo.
Another common description of the chupacabra is of a strange breed of wild dog. This form is hairless and has a pronounced spinal ridge, unusually pronounced eye sockets and claws. Unlike c
A gremlin is a folkloric mischievous creature, similar to the chupacabra, that causes malfunctions in aircraft or other machinery. Depictions of these creatures vary, they are described or depicted as animals with spiky backs, large strange eyes, small clawed frames that feature sharp teeth. Since World War II, different fantastical creatures have been referred to as gremlins, bearing varying degrees of resemblance to the originals; the term "gremlin" denoting a mischievous creature that sabotages aircraft originates in Royal Air Force slang in the 1920s among the British pilots stationed in Malta, the Middle East, India, with the earliest recorded printed use being in a poem published in the journal Aeroplane in Malta on 10 April 1929. Sources have sometimes claimed that the concept goes back to World War I, but there is no print evidence of this. Although their origin is found in myths among airmen, claiming that the gremlins were responsible for sabotaging aircraft, John W. Hazen states that "some people" derive the name from the Old English word gremian, "to vex", while Carol Rose, in her book Spirits, Fairies and Goblins: An Encyclopedia, attributes the name to a combination of the name of Grimm's Fairy Tales and Fremlin Beer.
An early reference to the gremlin is in aviator Pauline Gower's 1938 novel The ATA: Women with Wings, where Scotland is described as "gremlin country", a mystical and rugged territory where scissor-wielding gremlins cut the wires of biplanes when unsuspecting pilots were about. An article by Hubert Griffith in the servicemen's fortnightly Royal Air Force Journal dated 18 April 1942 chronicles the appearance of gremlins, although the article states the stories had been in existence for several years, with recollections of it having been told by Battle of Britain Spitfire pilots as early as 1940; this concept of gremlins was popularized during World War II among airmen of the UK's RAF units, in particular the men of the high-altitude Photographic Reconnaissance Units of RAF Benson, RAF Wick and RAF St Eval. The flight crews blamed gremlins for otherwise inexplicable accidents which sometimes occurred during their flights. Gremlins were thought at one point to have been enemy sympathies, but investigations revealed that enemy aircraft had similar and inexplicable mechanical problems.
As such, gremlins were portrayed as being equal opportunity tricksters, taking no sides in the conflict, acting out their mischief from their own self-interest. In reality, the gremlins were a form of deflecting blame; this led folklorist John Hazen to note that "the gremlin has been looked on as new phenomenon, a product of the machine age – the age of air". Some experts believe. Author and historian Marlin Bressi stated, "Gremlins, while imaginary, played a important role to the airmen of the Royal Air Force. Gremlin tales helped build morale among pilots, which, in turn, helped them repel the Luftwaffe invasion during the Battle of Britain during the summer of 1940; the war may have had a different outcome if the R. A. F. pilots had allowed Germany's plans for Operation Sea Lion to develop. In a way, it could be argued that gremlins, troublesome as they were helped the Allies win the war." Bressi noted: "Morale among the R. A. F. pilots would have suffered. It was far better to make the scapegoat a fantastic and comical creature than another member of your own squadron."
Author Roald Dahl is credited with getting the gremlins known outside the Royal Air Force. He would have been familiar with the myth, having carried out his military service in 80 Squadron of the Royal Air Force in the Middle East. Dahl had his own experience in an accidental crash-landing in the Western Desert. In January 1942, he was transferred to Washington, D. C. as Assistant Air attaché at the British Embassy. It was there that he wrote his first children's novel, The Gremlins, in which "Gremlins" were tiny men who lived on RAF fighters. In the same novel, Dahl called the wives of gremlins "Fifinellas", their male children "Widgets", their female children "Flibbertigibbets". Dahl showed the finished manuscript to Sidney Bernstein, the head of the British Information Service, who came up with the idea to send it to Walt Disney; the manuscript arrived in Disney's hands in July 1942, he considered using it as material for a live action/animated full-length feature film, offering Dahl a contract.
The film project was changed to an animated feature and entered pre-production, with characters "roughed out" and storyboards created. Disney managed to have the story published in the December 1942 issue of Cosmopolitan Magazine. At Dahl's urging, in early 1943, a revised version of the story, again titled The Gremlins, was published as a picture book by Random House; the 1943 publication of The Gremlins by Random House consisted of 50,000 copies, with Dahl ordering 50 copies for himself as promotional material for himself and the upcoming film, handing them out to everyone he knew, including the British ambassador in Washington Lord Halifax, the US First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt who read it to her grandchildren. The book was considered an international success with 30,000 more sold in Australia but initial efforts to reprint the book were precluded by a wartime paper shortage. Reviewed in major publications, Dahl was considered a writer-of-note and his appearances in Hollywood to follow up with the film project were met with notices in Hedda Hopper's columns.
The film project was reduced to an animated short and cancelled in August 1943, when c
A changeling is a creature found in folklore and folk religion throughout Europe. A changeling was believed to be a fairy child, left in place of a human child stolen by the fairies; the theme of the swapped child is common in medieval literature and modernly reflects concern over infants thought to be afflicted with unexplained diseases, disorders, or developmental disabilities. A changeling is identifiable via a number of traits, they may display intelligence far beyond their apparent years, as well as possess uncanny insight. A common way that a changeling could identify itself is through displaying unusual behaviour when it thinks it's alone, such as jumping about, dancing or playing an instrument — though this last example is found only within Irish and Scottish legend."A human child might be taken due to many factors: to act as a servant, the love of a human child, or malice. Most it was thought that fairies exchanged the children. In rare cases, the elderly of the fairy people would be exchanged in the place of a human baby, so that the old fairy could live in comfort, being coddled by its human parents.
Simple charms such as an inverted coat or open iron scissors left where the child sleeps, were thought to ward them off. A peasant family's subsistence depended upon the productive labour of each member, it was difficult to provide for a person, a permanent drain on the family's scarce resources. "The fact that the changelings' ravenous appetite is so mentioned indicates that the parents of these unfortunate children saw in their continuing existence a threat to the sustenance of the entire family. Changeling tales support other historical evidence in suggesting that infanticide was the solution selected." One belief is that trolls thought that it was more respectable to be raised by humans and that they wanted to give their own children a human upbringing. Some people believed. Once children had been baptized and therefore become part of the Church, the trolls could not take them. Beauty in human children and young women traits which evoke brightness or reflectivity, such as blond hair and blue or silver gray eyes, as these are said to attract fairies, as they find preciousness in these perceived traits.
In Scottish folklore, the children might be replacements for fairy children in the tithe to Hell. According to common Scottish myths, a child born with a caul across his or her face is a changeling, will soon die. Other folklore says. In these cases either the newborn human child would be switched with a fairy baby to be suckled by the human mother, or the human mother would be taken back to the fairy world to breastfeed the fairy babies, it is thought that human midwives were necessary to bring fairy babies into the world. Some stories tell of changelings who proceed to live a human life. Changelings who do not forget, however, in some stories return to their fairy family leaving the human family without warning; the human child, taken may stay with the fairy family forever. Feeling connected to the fate of a changeling, there are families who turn their changeling loose to the wilderness; some folklorists believe that fairies were memories of inhabitants of various regions in Europe, driven into hiding by invaders.
They held that changelings had occurred. The Mên-an-Tol stones in Cornwall are said to have a fairy or pixie guardian who can make miraculous cures. In one case, a changeling baby was passed through the stone in order for the mother to have her real child returned to her. Evil pixies had changed her child, the stones were able to reverse their spell. In Germany, the changeling is known as Wechselbalg, Kielkropf or Dickkopf. Several methods are known in Germany to identify a changeling and to return the replaced real child: confusing the changeling by cooking or brewing in eggshells; this will force the changeling to speak, claiming its real age, revealing its position beyond synchronicity. Attempting to heat the changeling in the oven - a lie by capacity to endure present. Hitting or whipping the changelingSometimes the changeling has to be fed with a woman's milk before replacing the children. In German folklore, several possible parents are known for changelings; those are: the devil, a belief shared by Martin Luther a female dwarf a water spirit a Roggenmuhme/Roggenmutter In Ireland, looking at a baby with envy – "over looking the baby" – was dangerous, as it endangered the baby, in the fairies' power.
So too was admiring or envying a woman or man dangerous, unless the person added a blessing. Women were in danger in liminal states: being a new bride, or a new mother. Putting a changeling in a fire would cause it to jump up the chimney and return the human child, but at least one tale recounts a mother with a changeling finding that a fairy woman ca
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition on something based on a cultural sense that it is excessively repulsive or too sacred for ordinary people. Such prohibitions are present in all societies. On a comparative basis taboos, for example related to food items, seem to make no sense at all as what may be declared unfit for one group by custom or religion may be acceptable to another. Whether scientifically correct or not, taboos are meant to protect the human individual, but there are numerous other reasons for their existence. An ecological or medical background is apparent in many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. Taboos can help use a resource more efficiently, but when applied to only a subsection of the community they can serve to suppress a subsection of the community. A taboo acknowledged by a particular group or tribe as part of their ways, aids in the cohesion of the group, helps that particular group to stand out and maintain its identity in the face of others and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging".
The meaning of the word "taboo" has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom, sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment, religious beliefs, or cultural norms. "Breaking a taboo" is considered objectionable by society in general, not a subset of a culture. The term "taboo" comes from the Tongan tapu or Fijian tabu, related among others to the Maori tapu and Hawaiian kapu, its English use dates to 1777 when the British explorer James Cook visited Tonga, referred to the Tongans' use of the term "taboo" for "any thing is forbidden to be eaten, or made use of". He wrote: Not one of them would sit down, or eat a bit of any thing.... On expressing my surprise at this, they were all taboo; the term was translated to him as "consecrated, forbidden, unclean or cursed." Tabu itself has been derived from alleged Tongan morphemes ta and bu, but this may be a folk etymology, tapu is treated as a unitary, non-compound word inherited from Proto-Polynesian *tapu, in turn inherited from Proto-Oceanic *tabu, with the reconstructed meaning "sacred, forbidden."
In its current use on Tonga, the word tapu means "sacred" or "holy" in the sense of being restricted or protected by custom or law. On the main island, the word is appended to the end of "Tonga" as Tongatapu, here meaning "Sacred South" rather than "Forbidden South". Sigmund Freud speculated that incest and patricide were the only two universal taboos and formed the basis of civilization. However, although cannibalism, in-group murder, incest are taboo in the majority of societies, exceptions can be found, such as marriages between brothers and sisters in Roman Egypt. Modern Western societies, however, do not condone such relationships; these familial sexual activities are criminalised if all parties are consenting adults. Through an analysis of the language surrounding these laws, it can be seen how the policy makers, society as a whole, find these acts to be immoral. Common taboos involve restrictions or ritual regulation of hunting. In Madagascar, a strong code of taboos, known as fady change and are formed from new experiences.
Each region, village or tribe may have its own fady. The word "taboo" gained popularity at times, with some scholars looking for ways to apply it where other English words had been applied. For example, J. M. Powis Smith, in his book The American Bible, used "taboo" in relation to Israel's Tabernacle and ceremonial laws, including Exodus 30:36, Exodus 29:37. Albert Schweitzer wrote a chapter about taboos of the people of Gabon; as an example, it was considered a misfortune for twins to be born, they would be subject to many rules not incumbent on other people. Communist and materialist theorists have argued that taboos can be used to reveal the histories of societies when other records are lacking. Marvin Harris endeavored to explain taboos as a consequence of ecologic and economic conditions; some argue that contemporary Western multicultural societies have taboos against tribalisms and prejudices. Changing social customs and standards create new taboos, such as bans on slavery. Incest itself has been pulled both ways, with some seeking to normalize consensual adult relationships regardless of the degree of kinship and others expanding the degrees of prohibited contact Although the term taboo implies negative connotations, it is sometimes associated with enticing propositions in proverbs such as forbidden fruit is the sweetest.
In medicine, professionals who practice in ethical and moral grey areas, or fields subject to social stigma such as late termination of pregnancy, may refrain from public d
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator and eats another organism, its prey. It is one of a family of common feeding behaviours that includes parasitism and micropredation and parasitoidism, it is distinct from scavenging on dead prey, though many predators scavenge. Predators may search for prey or sit and wait for it; when prey is detected, the predator assesses. This may involve pursuit predation, sometimes after stalking the prey. If the attack is successful, the predator kills the prey, removes any inedible parts like the shell or spines, eats it. Predators are adapted and highly specialized for hunting, with acute senses such as vision, hearing, or smell. Many predatory animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, have sharp claws or jaws to grip and cut up their prey. Other adaptations include aggressive mimicry that improve hunting efficiency. Predation has a powerful selective effect on prey, the prey develop antipredator adaptations such as warning coloration, alarm calls and other signals, mimicry of well-defended species, defensive spines and chemicals.
Sometimes predator and prey find themselves in an evolutionary arms race, a cycle of adaptations and counter-adaptations. Predation has been a major driver of evolution since at least the Cambrian period. At the most basic level, predators eat other organisms. However, the concept of predation is broad, defined differently in different contexts, includes a wide variety of feeding methods. A parasitoid, such as an ichneumon wasp, lays its eggs on its host. Zoologists call this a form of parasitism, though conventionally parasites are thought not to kill their hosts. A predator can be defined to differ from a parasitoid in two ways: it kills its prey immediately. There are other borderline cases. Micropredators are small animals that, like predators, feed on other organisms. However, since they do not kill their hosts, they are now thought of as parasites. Animals that graze on phytoplankton or mats of microbes are predators, as they consume and kill their food organisms. However, when animals eat seeds or eggs, they are consuming entire living organisms, which by definition makes them predators, albeit unconventional ones: for instance, a mouse that eats grass seeds has no adaptations for tracking and subduing prey and its teeth are not adapted to slicing through flesh.
Scavengers, organisms that only eat organisms found dead, are not predators, but many predators such as the jackal and the hyena scavenge when the opportunity arises. Among invertebrates, social wasps are both scavengers of other insects. While examples of predators among mammals and birds are well known, predators can be found in a broad range of taxa, they are common among insects, including mantids, dragonflies and scorpionflies. In some species such as the alderfly, only the larvae are predatory. Spiders are predatory, as well as other terrestrial invertebrates such as scorpions. In marine environments, most cnidarians, ctenophora and flatworms are predatory. Among crustaceans, crabs and barnacles are predators, in turn crustaceans are preyed on by nearly all cephalopods. Seed predation is restricted to mammals and insects and is found in all terrestrial ecosystems. Egg predation includes both specialist egg predators such as some colubrid snakes and generalists such as foxes and badgers that opportunistically take eggs when they find them.
Some plants, like the pitcher plant, the Venus fly trap and the sundew, are carnivorous and consume insects. Some carnivorous fungi catch nematodes using either active traps in the form of constricting rings, or passive traps with adhesive structures. Many species of protozoa and bacteria prey on other microorganisms. Among freshwater and marine zooplankton, whether single-celled or multi-cellular, predatory grazing on phytoplankton and smaller zooplankton is common, found in many species of nanoflagellates, ciliates, rotifers, a diverse range of meroplankton animal larvae, two groups of crustaceans, namely copepods and cladocerans. To feed, a predator must search for and kill its prey; these actions form a foraging cycle. The predator must decide. If it chooses pursuit, its physical capabilities determine the mode of pursuit. Having captured the prey, it may need to expend energy handling it (e.g. killing it, removing any shell or
The Curupira is a mythological creature of Brazilian folklore. This creature blends many features of West African and European fairies but was regarded as a demonic figure; the name comes from the Tupi language kuru'pir, meaning "covered in blisters". According to the cultural legends, this creature has bright red/orange hair, resembles a man or a dwarf, but its feet are turned backwards. Curupira lives in the forests of Brazil and uses its backward feet to create footprints that lead to its starting point, thus making hunters and travelers confused. Besides that, it can create illusions and produce a sound that's like a high pitched whistle, in order to scare and drive its victim to madness, it is common to portray a Curupira riding a collared peccary, much like another Brazilian creature called Caipora. A Curupira will prey on poachers and hunters that take more than they need of the forest, he attacks people who hunt animals that were taking care of their offspring. There are many different versions of the legend, so the creature's appearance and habits may vary from each region in Brazil.
However, Curupira is considered a nationwide folkloric figure. A being called the Demon Curupira was featured in several episodes of the 1999 – 2002 television series BeastMaster. Played by Australian actress Emilie de Ravin, this Curupira, while still possessing the backwards feet, had the appearance of a young and deceptively sweet-faced blonde girl clad in green, she was a spirit of the forest and capricious. She was an uneasy ally of the title character Dar, played by Daniel Goddard