Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Cantonese opera is one of the major categories in Chinese opera, originating in southern China's Guangdong Province. It is popular in Guangdong, Hong Kong and among Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. Like all versions of Chinese opera, it is a traditional Chinese art form, involving music, martial arts and acting. There is debate about the origins of Cantonese opera, but it is accepted that opera was brought from the northern part of China and migrated to the southern province of Guangdong in the late 13th century, during the late Southern Song dynasty. In the 12th century, there was a theatrical form called the Nanxi or "Southern drama", performed in public theatres of Hangzhou capital of the Southern Song. With the invasion of the Mongol army, Emperor Gong of the Song dynasty fled with hundreds of thousands of Song people into Guangdong in 1276. Among them were Nanxi performers from Zhejiang, who brought Nanxi into Guangdong and helped develop the opera traditions in the south. Many well-known operas performed today, such as Tai Nui Fa originated in the Ming Dynasty and The Purple Hairpin originated in the Yuan Dynasty, with lyrics and scripts in Cantonese.
Until the 20th century all the female roles were performed by males. Beginning in the 1950s immigrants fled Shanghai to areas such as North Point, their arrival boosted the Cantonese opera fan-base. The Chinese Government wanted to deliver the message of socialist revolution to Chinese people under colonial governance in Hong Kong. Agents of the Chinese government founded newspaper platforms, such as Ta Kung Pao and Chang Cheung Hua Pao to promote Cantonese Opera to the Hong Kong audience; these new platforms were used to promote new Cantonese Opera releases. This helped to boost the popularity of Cantonese Opera among the Hong Kong audience. Cantonese Opera became a part of daily entertainment activity in the colony; the popularity of a Cantonese Opera continued to grow during the 1960s. More theatres were established in Sheung Wan and Sai Wan, which became important entertainment districts. Performances began to be held in playgrounds, which provided more opportunities to develop Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong.
As the variety of venues grew, so the variety of audiences became wider. However, Cantonese Opera began to decline as cinema started to develop in the late 1960s. Compared to Cantonese Opera, cinema was cheaper and TV was more convenient. Subsequently, some theatres started to be repurposed as residential buildings; the resulting decline in available theatres further contributed to the decline of Cantonese Opera in the territory. Since the demolition of Lee Theatre and the closing down of many stages that were dedicated to Cantonese genre throughout the decades, Hong Kong's Sunbeam Theatre is one of the last facilities, still standing to exhibit Cantonese Opera. By early 1980s, Leung Hon-wai was one of the first in his generation of the Chinese Artists Association of Hong Kong who gave classes and engaged in talent-hunting; the Cantonese Opera Academy of Hong Kong classes started in 1980. To intensify education in Cantonese opera, they started to run an evening part-time certificate course in Cantonese Opera training with assistance from The Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts in 1998.
In 1999, the Association and the Academy further conducted a two-year daytime diploma programme in performing arts in Cantonese Opera in order to train professional actors and actresses. Aiming at further raising the students' level, the Association and the Academy launched an advanced course in Cantonese opera in the next academic year. In recent years, the Hong Kong Arts Development Council has given grants to the Love and Faith Cantonese Opera Laboratory to conduct Cantonese opera classes for children and young people; the Leisure and Cultural Services Department has funded the International Association of Theatre Critics to implement the "Cultural Envoy Scheme for Cantonese Opera" for promoting traditional Chinese productions in the community. The Hong Kong Government planned to promote Cantonese Opera through different communication channels, they wanted to build more theatres for the Hong Kong public to have more opportunities to enjoy Cantonese Opera. The scheme arrived to develope professional talents in Cantonese Opera.
Cantonese Opera became a part of the compulsory Music subject in primary school. For teachers, the Education Bureau provided some training and teaching materials related to Cantonese Opera. To continue the tradition by passing on what elders and veterans inherited from former generations and to improve sustainability with new and original music and scripts. Cantonese Opera Development Fund Hong Kong Arts Development Council, Grants The Art of Fong Yim-fun Sustainability Project, Shaw College, CUHK. In August 2014, the Fong Yim Fun Art Gallery was formally opened. Dr. Yang Leung Yin-fong Katie, the Honorary Life Chairman, donated one of her properties to be the permanent office of the Chinese Artists Association of Hong Kong to provide residences for aged musicians. In the 1840s, a large number of Guangdong businessmen came to Shanghai for opportunities, they owned abundant resources, their influence in Shanghai has increased. Various clansmen associations have been established to sponsor different cultural activities, Cantonese opera was one of them.
From the 1920s to the 1930s, the development of Cantonese opera in Shanghai was impressive. At that time, the department stores opened
Tsing Yi, sometimes referred to as Tsing Yi Island, is an island in the urban area of Hong Kong, to the northwest of Hong Kong Island and south of Tsuen Wan. With an area of 10.69 km², the island has extended drastically by reclamation along all its natural shore and the annexation of Nga Ying Chau and Chau Tsai. Three major bays or harbours, Tsing Yi Lagoon, Mun Tsai Tong and Tsing Yi Bay in the northeast, have been reclaimed for new towns; the island is zoned into four quarters: the northeast quarter is a residential area, the southeast quarter is Tsing Yi Town, the southwest holds heavy industry, the northwest includes a recreation trail, a transportation interchange and some dockyards and ship building industry. The island is in the northwest of Victoria Harbour and part of its coastline is subject to the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance. Tsing Yi means "green/ blue/ black clothes", but is a kind of fish blackspot tuskfish, once abundant in nearby waters. People named the island after the fish.
Tsing Yi Tam or Tsing Yi Tam Shan appeared on some early Chinese maps. The island was known as Chun Fa Lok once upon a time, which means the fall of spring flowers, or Chun Fa Island, on some Western maps. Now, Chun Fa Lok is still a former village on the southeast corner of the island. A government document in the Ming Dynasty named the water near Chun Fa Lok, Chun Fa Yeung,which is the ocean of spring flowers; the Ming navy defeated once pirate fleets there. In some historical sources, Tsing-I Island is used instead of Tsing Yi Island, Chung-Hue Island instead of Chun Fa Island. Tsing Yi Town, together with Kwai Chung Town, is part of Tsuen Wan New Town in the Kwai Tsing District in the New Territories. Although Tsing Yi Island is a de facto outlying island, it is not accordingly included in the Islands District. Tsing Yi Island, with Kwai Chung, were in the same administration unit as Tsuen Wan because of their proximity and close-knit neighbourhood. Unlike Kwai Chung, whose villages are part of Tsuen Wan Rural Committee, Tsing Yi Island has its own, Tsing Yi Rural Committee.
The rural committee was politically significant until the establishment of a District Council and Regional Council, less significant since the urban population grew much larger than the rural population. There were about 4,000 people on the island when the British took the New Territories around 1898. In the following one hundred years, the population has grown to nearly 50 times this size. In an estimation in 2007, there are about 200,400 people, it is expected to grow to 203,300 in the near future. Most of the population live in Tsing Yi Town. Tsing Yi Island is a hilly island with Tsing Yi Peak in Liu To Shan in the north east. Small plain can be found surrounding the former Tsing Yi Lagoon in island northeast; the rocks on the island are granite and were exposed due to extensive housing and infrastructure construction. Although the island is not fallen in the administration of country park, most of the hilly area remains green; the Tsing Yi Peak is a barrier separating industrial west and residential east.
The hilly area of the island remains intact and is designated as a green belt. In 1997 a once lost endemic plant, Hong Kong croton, was found in the woodland beneath the highest peak, Tsing Yi Peak, on the island. In the early days, the inhabitants on the island were farmers and fishermen; the major population concentrated in the northeast portion of the island. Farmers grew rice and pineapples, while fishermen lived in huts connected by plank walkways in the small harbour of Tsing Yi Tong which stretched far back into the island. Many fishermen lived on their junks and boats all the time, fishing in the nearby waters; as late as the 1970s, Tsing Yi Tong resembled Tai O with its characteristic stilt houses and water vehicles. Like many other fishing villages in Hong Kong, the Tsing Yi dwellers worshipped Tin Hau, the goddess of mercy and the sea. A Tin Hau Temple was built on the shore of Tsing Yi Tong. At the birthday of Tin Hau, fishermen of all nearby waters would come to the Temple for celebrations.
The temple was white in color and thus people call it Pak Miu. From the 1920s onwards, a Chinese company built lime factories on the present site of Greenfield Garden, it is the earliest known industry on the island. The lime industry continued to flourish during the 1950s, a tanning factory was founded at the same period. After World War II, other heavy industries moved in as well. In the 1960s, several oil companies moved their oil storage depots onto the island and a Green Island Cement cement plant. CLP commissioned its 1520MW oil-fired Tsing Yi Power Station in 1969 at Nam Wan due to its proximity to the oil tank farms. Meanwhile, some small shipbuilding companies opened on Tsing Yi, remain on the north side of the island. In the 1970s, six large-scale companies on the island collectively built the Tsing Yi Bridge to connect Tsing Yi Town and Kwai Chung Town over the Rambler Channel; the bridge was soon transferred to the Hong Kong Government, remaining the sole road connection to the island for more than ten years.
Several industrial buildings for light industries were constructed beside the bridge afterward. Several dockyards moved to the west shore of the island at the end of the 1970s. During the 1950s, Wok Tai Wan on Tsing Yi Island was a paradise for nudists, hence Tsing Yi was once synonymous with nudism
Chun Kwan is a deity in China with surname Ng. At the reign of Emperor Lizong in South Sung Dynasty, Guangdong was raided by pirates; the government's military having little success against the pirates, the people suffered. Ng annihilated the bands of pirates and returned peace to people. After his death, his spirit performed good deeds in Lung Kong and the Emperor awarded him the title of Chun Kwan Tai Tai and built temples for him, he has done various kind acts on Tsing Yi Island of Hong Kong and a memorial was inscribed in Chun Kwan Temple on the island. Chun Kwan Temple
The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period; the Song came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia dynasties in the north. It was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty; the Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass; the Song dynasty is divided into two distinct periods and Southern. During the Northern Song, the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China; the Southern Song refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars.
During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze and established its capital at Lin'an. Although the Song dynasty had lost control of the traditional "birthplace of Chinese civilization" along the Yellow River, the Song economy was still strong, as the Southern Song Empire contained a large population and productive agricultural land; the Southern Song dynasty bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging the mountain castle Diaoyucheng, Chongqing, his younger brother Kublai Khan was proclaimed the new Great Khan, though his claim was only recognized by the Mongols in the west.
In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279; the Mongol invasion led to a reunification under the Yuan dynasty. The population of China doubled in size during the 10th and 11th centuries; this growth was made possible by expanded rice cultivation in central and southern Song, the use of early-ripening rice from south-east and southern Asia, the production of widespread food surpluses. The Northern Song census recorded double of the Han and Tang dynasties, it is estimated that the Northern Song had a population of some 120 million people, 200 million by the time of the Ming dynasty. This dramatic increase of population fomented an economic revolution in pre-modern China; the expansion of the population, growth of cities, the emergence of a national economy led to the gradual withdrawal of the central government from direct involvement in economic affairs. The lower gentry assumed a larger role in local affairs.
Appointed officials in county and provincial centers relied upon the scholarly gentry for their services and local supervision. Social life during the Song was vibrant. Citizens gathered to view and trade precious artworks, the populace intermingled at public festivals and private clubs, cities had lively entertainment quarters; the spread of literature and knowledge was enhanced by the rapid expansion of woodblock printing and the 11th-century invention of movable-type printing. Technology, philosophy and engineering flourished over the course of the Song. Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism. Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period; the officials who gained power by succeeding in the exams became a leading factor in the shift from a military-aristocratic elite to a bureaucratic elite.
After usurping the throne of the Later Zhou dynasty, Emperor Taizu of Song spent sixteen years conquering the rest of China, reuniting much of the territory that had once belonged to the Han and Tang empires and ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. In Kaifeng, he established a strong central government over the empire; the establishment of this capital marked the start of the Northern Song period. He ensured administrative stability by promoting the civil service examination system of drafting state bureaucrats by skill and merit and promoted projects that ensured efficiency in communication throughout the empire. In one such project, cartographers created detailed maps of each province and city that were collected in a large atlas. Emperor Taizu promoted groundbreaking scientific and technological innovations by supporting such works as the astronomical clock tower designed and built by the engineer Zhang Sixun; the Song court maintained diplomatic relations with Chola India, the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt, the Kara-Khanid Khanate of Central Asia, the Goryeo kingdom in Korea, other countries that were trade partners with Japan.
Chinese records mention an embassy from the ruler of "Fu lin", Michael VII Doukas, its arrival in 1081. However, China's closest neighbouring states had the greatest impact on its domestic and foreign policy. From its
Places of worship in Hong Kong
Hong Kong counts 600 temples and monasteries. While Buddhism and Christianity are the most practiced religions, most religions are represented in the Special Administrative Region. Chi Lin Nunnery Guan Yin Temples Kwun Yam Shrine Lin Fa Temple Po Lin Monastery Ten Thousand Buddhas Monastery Tsing Shan Monastery Miu Fat Buddhist Monastery Ching Chung Koon Chong Har Ching Ser Fung Ying Seen Koon Man Mo Temple Sam Shan Kwok Wong Temple Shang Sin Chun Tong Sin Hing Tung Tai Sing Fat Tong Wong Tai Temple Wong Tai Sin Temple Wun Chuen Sin Koon Yuen Yuen Institute Yuk Hui Temple Over 100 temples are dedicated, at least to Tin Hau, they include: Tin Hau temple, located at 10, Tin Hau Temple Road, Causeway Bay, east of Victoria Park, in Eastern District, on Hong Kong Island. It is one of the declared monuments of Hong Kong; the temple has given its name to the MTR station serving it. The Tin Hau temple in Yau Ma Tei is famous in Hong Kong; the public square, Yung Shue Tau before it is surrounded by a night market of Temple Street.
The Tin Hau Temple at Tai Miu Wan is considered the most sacred. It is one of the Grade I historic building. Che Kung Temples Chun Kwan Temple on Tsing Yi Island Emperor Guan Temples Hip Tin Temples Kwan Kung Pavilion on Cheung Chau Man Mo Temples, dedicated to Kwan Tai and Man Cheong Fan Sin Temple in Sheung Wun Yiu Hau Wong Temples and Yeung Hau Temples Hung Shing Temples and Tai Wong Temples Lam Tsuen wishing trees Lo Pan Temple in Kennedy Town Pak Tai Temples Sam Tai Tsz Temple and Pak Tai Temple complex in Sham Shui Po Shing Wong Temples Tam Kung Temples and Tam Tai Sin Temples Tu Di Gong, or Earth God shrines For Catholic Church, See List of Catholic Churches in Hong Kong For Anglican Church, See List of Anglican Churches in Hong Kong Note: Only churches with wiki articles are listed on this list Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception Hop Yat Church Peak Church The Vine Christian Fellowship St. John's Cathedral, Hong Kong Chinese Methodist Church, at No. 36 Hennessy Road Sky City Church, meeting in the Apex of the Central Plaza Tung Fook Church Holy Trinity Cathedral Lifehouse International Church Hong Kong St Andrew's Church, Kowloon Rosary Church Wing Kwong Pentecostal Holiness Church Kowloon Tong Alliance Church, in Christian Alliance International School Christ the Worker Parish Crown of Thorns' Church Shatin Anglican Church Shatin Baptist Church Tao Fong Shan Christian Centre Trappist Haven Monastery, Lantau - Latin Rite Catholic Béthanie Khalsa Diwan Sikh Temple - at the corner of Queen's Road East and Stubbs Road Ohel Leah Synagogue - Robinson Road Jamia Masjid - Shelley Street, Hong Kong Island Kowloon Masjid and Islamic Centre - Nathan Road, Tsim Sha Tsui Ammar Stanley Mosque Chai Wan Mosque Ibrahim Mosque Hong Kong China Temple located on Cornwall Street, Kowloon Tong Religion in Hong Kong List of buildings and structures in Hong Kong Chinese mythology
Tsing Yi Heung Sze Wui Road
Tsing Yi Heung Sze Wui Road is one of the oldest roads on the Tsing Yi Island, Hong Kong. It was built to connect Tsing Yi Bridge when the bridge was being built; the name "Tsing Yi Heung Sze Wui" derives from the local Cantonese pronunciation of Tsing Yi Rural Committee. After the reclamation of Tsing Yi Lagoon and Tsing Yi Bay, the road ended at Chun Kwan Temple; the office building of the Tsing Yi Rural Committee is close to the temple, though it is on Fung Shue Wo Road. Tsing Yi Fire Station and Tsing Yi Police Station are on the road. List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google Maps of Tsing Yi Heung Sze Wui Road