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Church (building)

A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, a church interior is structured in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the vertical beam of the cross is represented by the center aisle and seating while the horizontal beam and junction of the cross is formed by the bema and altar. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring a range of thoughts and emotions in visitors and worshippers. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe.

A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop. In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived.

According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256. In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of cathedral-building and construction of smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. Besides serving as a place of worship, the cathedral or parish church was employed as a general gathering-place by the communities in which they were located, hosting such events as guild meetings, mystery plays, fairs. Church grounds and buildings were used for the threshing and storage of grain.

Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the term "Romanesque" refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, the trend in fact appeared throughout Western and Central Europe; the romanesque style is defined by large and bulky edifices that are made up of simple, sparsely decorated geometric structures. Frequent features of the Romanesque church include circular arches, round or octagonal towers and cushion capitals on pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault gained popularity. Interiors widened and the motifs of sculptures took on more epic traits and themes; the Gothic style emerged around 1140 in Île-de-France and subsequently spread throughout Europe. Gothic churches lost the compact qualities of the romanesque era and decorations contained symbolic and allegorical features; the first pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses began to appear, all possessing geometric properties that reduced the need for large, rigid walls to ensure structural stability.

This permitted the size of windows to increase, producing brighter and lighter interiors. Nave ceilings became pillars and steeples grew taller. Many architects used these developments to push the limits of structural possibility, an inclination which resulted in the collapse of several towers possessing designs that had unwittingly exceeded the boundaries of soundness. In Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, a style in which every vault would be built to the same height. Gothic cathedrals were lavishly designed, as in the romanesque era, many share romanesque traits. However, several exhibit unprecedented degrees of detail and complexity in decoration; the Notre-Dame de Paris and Notre-Dame de Rei

1734 in art

Events from the year 1734 in art. Engraving Copyright Act in Britain protects original engravings. Charles-Joseph Natoire receives his first royal commission, for the Chambre de la Reine at the Palace of Versailles. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin The Game of Knucklebones The House of Cards Charles-Joseph Natoire – Venus Demanding Arms from Vulcan for Aeneas Peter Scheemakers – Gilded equestrian statue of King William III January 10 – Giovanni Pichler, German-Italian artist in engraved gems March 9 Marie-Suzanne Giroust, French painter Francisco Bayeu y Subías, Spanish painter in the Neoclassical style of religious and historical themes April 1 – Cristoforo Dall'Acqua, Italian painter and engraver May 7 – Jean Humbert, Dutch portrait painter May 20 – Anton Janša, Slovene apiarist and painter July 4 – Jean Henri Riesener, furniture designer August 31 – Gaetano Gandolfi, Bolognese painter September 3 – Joseph Wright of Derby, British painter September 17 – Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, French etcher and painter December 15 – George Romney, English painter date unknown Peter Perez Burdett, English draughtsman Samuel Cotes, British painter of miniature portraits and worked in crayons Francesco Antonio Franzoni, Italian sculptor Moses Haughton the elder, English designer and painter of portraits and still life Francis Sartorius, painter of horses February 10 – Jean Raoux, French painter March 7 – John Verelst, Dutch Golden Age portrait painter May 4 – James Thornhill, English painter May 15 – Sebastiano Ricci, Italian painter in the Cortonesque style of grand manner fresco painting May 27 – Claude Audran III, French painter September 13 – Tobias Querfurt, German painter and engraver October 5 - Paolo Alboni, Italian painter November - Peter Angelis, French painter November 21 – Alexis Simon Belle, French portrait painter December 5 – Peter Tillemans, Flemish baroque painter of portraiture and works on sporting and military subjects date unknown Giacomo Bolognini, Italian painter of the Baroque Pietro Capelli, Italian painter of the Rococo, active in quadratura Louis de Chastillon, French painter in enamel and miniature, engraver Andrea Procaccini, Italian painter for the royal family of Philip V Gao Qipei, Chinese painter of landscapes and figures Gaetano Sabatini, Italian draftsman and painter Cornelis Verelst, Dutch flower painter

Posse Comitatus (organization)

The Posse Comitatus was a loosely organized, far-right populist social movement in the United States starting in the late 1960s, whose members spread a conspiracy-minded, anti-government and anti-Semitic message in the name of white Christians to counter what they believe is an attack on their social and political rights. Many Posse members practice survivalism and played a role in the formation of the armed citizens' militias in the 1990s; the Posse Comitatus pioneered the use of false liens and other types of "paper terrorism" to harass opponents with frivolous legal actions. Developing strong ties to the white supremacist Christian Identity movement, they believe themselves to be the true Israelites, chosen by God, they state that the Jews seek to help Satan destroy civilization, undermine white citizens' rights by means of the Federal Reserve and the Internal Revenue Service. Posse charters were issued in 1969 in Portland, Oregon, by Henry Lamont Beach, "a retired dry cleaner and a one-time member of the Silver Shirts, a Nazi-inspired organization, established in America after Hitler took power in Germany".

William Potter Gale has been described by one expert as the founder of the movement. Posse members believe that there is no legitimate form of government above that of the county level and no higher law authority than the county sheriff. If the sheriff refuses to carry out the will of the county's citizens:... he shall be removed by the Posse to the most populated intersection of streets in the township and at high noon be hung by the neck, the body remaining until sundown as an example to those who would subvert the law. Some Posse members embraced the white supremacist beliefs of Christian Identity; some believe that the U. S. federal government is illegitimate and in the hands of a Zionist Occupation Government, an alleged Jewish conspiracy. In 1985, a member of the Posse Comitatus announced: "Our nation is now under the control of the International Invisible government of the World Jewry." Members of the Posse Comitatus refuse to pay taxes, to obtain driver's licenses, or otherwise to comply with regulatory authorities.

They deny the validity of United States fiat money as not backed by gold, which they claim the Constitution requires. They have unusual legal documents drawn up and attempt to record them, declaring independence from the United States, or claiming to file "common law" liens against perceived enemies like Internal Revenue Service employees or judges, they are involved in various tax protests, have invoked arguments popularized by tax protesters. The Posse Comitatus made national news when, on February 13, 1983, former Posse member Gordon Kahl killed two federal marshals who had come to arrest him in North Dakota and became a fugitive. Another shootout ensued on June 3, 1983, in which Kahl and Lawrence County, Sheriff Gene Matthews were killed. Other members of the group have been convicted of crimes ranging from tax evasion and counterfeiting to threatening the lives of IRS agents and judges; the organization demonstrated to support its members over other issues. On September 2, 1975, Francis Earl Gillings, the founder of a San Joaquin County Posse group, led a group of armed Posse members to prevent United Farm Workers union organizers from attempting to organize non-union tomato pickers.

As sheriff's deputies attempted to arrest Gillings on a traffic warrant, one got into a scuffle with Gillings and a shot was fired, injuring a deputy's ear. On August 15, 2012, five suspects were arrested in connection with the fatal shooting of two sheriff's deputies and wounding two others in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana. Terry Smith, 44; the men are rumored to be affiliated with a Posse Comitatus group. On August 17, 2012, two more suspects—Chanel Skains, 37, Britney Keith, 23—were charged with accessory after the fact; the legal theories of Posse Comitatus have been further developed by the sovereign citizen movement, which claims that a U. S. citizen can become a "sovereign citizen" and thereby be subject only to common law or "constitutional law," not to statutory law. The Uniform Commercial Code plays a part in these legal theories, for example see the 1991 case United States v. Saunders, 951 F.2d 1065. in the 9th Circuit United States Court of Appeals. Some African-American groups have adopted sovereign citizen beliefs.

Some within the movement see African Americans, who only gained legal citizenship after the Civil War and passage of the 14th Amendment, as "14th Amendment citizens" with fewer rights than whites. The sovereign citizen movement in turn gave rise to the "redemption movement," which claims that the U. S. government has enslaved its citizens by using them as collateral against foreign debt. Redemption scheme promoters sell instructions explaining how citizens can "free" themselves by filing particular government forms in a particular order using particular wording; the movement "has earned its promoters untold profits, buried courts and other agencies under tons of worthless paper, led to scores of arrests and convictions."The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation classifies some sovereign citizens as a domestic terrorist movement. In 2010 the Southern Poverty Law Center estimated that 100,000 Americans were "hard-core sovereign believers" with another 200,000 "just starting out by testing sovereign techniques for resisting everything from speeding tickets to drug charges."

In the late 1970s, the Posse Comitatus attempted to take over Alpine