Mary Baker Eddy
Mary Baker Eddy established the Church of Christ, Scientist, as a Christian denomination and worldwide movement of spiritual healers. She wrote and published the movement's textbook and Health with Key to the Scriptures and 15 other books, she started several weekly and monthly magazines—the Christian Science Sentinel, The Christian Science Journal, The Herald of Christian Science—that feature articles on Christian Science practice and verified testimonies of healing. In 1908, at the age of 87, she founded The Christian Science Monitor, a global newspaper that has won seven Pulitzer Prizes. Eddy's book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures has been a best seller for decades, was selected as one of the "75 Books by Women Whose Words Have Changed the World", by the Women's National Book Association. In 1995 Eddy was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. In 2002, The Mary Baker Eddy Library opened its doors, giving the public access to one of the largest collections about an American woman.
Eddy was born Mary Morse Baker in a farmhouse in Bow, New Hampshire to farmer Mark Baker and his wife Abigail Barnard Baker, née Ambrose. Eddy was the youngest of the Bakers' six children: boys Samuel Dow and George Sullivan, followed by girls Abigail Barnard, Martha Smith, Mary Morse. Mark Baker was a religious man from a Protestant Congregationalist background, a firm believer in the final judgment and eternal damnation, according to Eddy. McClure's magazine published a series of articles in 1907 that were critical of Eddy, stating that Baker's home library consisted of the Bible—though Eddy responded that this was untrue and that her father had been an avid reader. Eddy wrote that her father had been a justice of the peace at one point and a chaplain of the New Hampshire State Militia, he developed a reputation locally for being disputatious. McClure's reported several similar stories from neighbors, including that he once killed a crow with his walking stick for violating the Sabbath; the magazine described him as a supporter of slavery and alleged that he had been pleased to hear about Abraham Lincoln's death.
Eddy responded that Baker had been a "strong believer in States' rights, but slavery he regarded as a great sin."The Baker children inherited their father's temper, according to McClure's. Life was spartan and repetitive; every day continued with hard work. The only rest day was the Sabbath. Eddy and her father had a volatile relationship. Ernest Sutherland Bates and John V. Dittemore wrote in 1932 that Baker sought to break Eddy's will with harsh punishment, although her mother intervened. Eddy experienced periods of sudden illness in an effort to control her father's attitude toward her; those who knew the family described her as falling to the floor and screaming, or silent and unconscious, sometimes for hours. Robert Peel, one of Eddy's biographers, worked for the Christian Science church and wrote in 1966: This was when life took on the look of a nightmare, overburdened nerves gave way, she would end in a state of unconsciousness that would sometimes last for hours and send the family into a panic.
On such an occasion Lyman Durgin, the Baker's teen-age chore boy, who adored Mary, would be packed off on a horse for the village doctor... Gillian Gill wrote in 1998 that Eddy was sick as a child and appears to have suffered from an eating disorder, but reports may have been exaggerated concerning hysterical fits. Eddy described her problems with food in the first edition of Health, she wrote that she had suffered from chronic indigestion as a child and, hoping to cure it, had embarked on a diet of nothing but water and vegetables, at one point consumed just once a day: "Thus we passed most of our early years, as many can attest, in hunger, pain and starvation."Eddy experienced near invalidism as a child and most of her life until her discovery of Christian Science. Like most life experiences, it formed her lifelong, diligent research for a remedy from constant suffering. Eddy writes in her autobiography,"From my childhood I was impelled by a hunger and thirst after divine things, - a desire for something higher and better than matter, apart from it, - to seek diligently for the knowledge of God as the one great and ever-present relief from human woe."
She writes on page 33 of the chapter, "Medical Experiments," in her autobiography, "I wandered through the dim mazes of'materia medica,' till I was weary of'scientific guessing,' as it has been well called. I sought knowledge from the different schools, - allopathy, hydropathy and from various humbugs, - but without receiving satisfaction." In 1836 when Eddy was fifteen, the Bakers moved twenty miles to Sanbornton Bridge, New Hampshire, known after 1869 as Tilton. My father was taught to believe that my brain was too large for my body and so kept me much out of school, but I gained book-knowledge with far less labor than is requisite. At ten years of age I was as familiar with Lindley Murray's Grammar as with the Westminster Catechism. My favorite studies were natural philosophy and moral science. From my brother Albert, I received lessons in the ancient tongues, Hebrew and Latin; as a youngster, she was tutored by Albert, a brilliant young man in his own right who clerk
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Æolian-Skinner Organ Company, Inc. of Boston, Massachusetts was an American builder of a large number of pipe organs from its inception as the Skinner Organ Company in 1901 until its closure in 1972. Key figures were Ernest M. Skinner, Arthur Hudson Marks, Joseph Silver Whiteford, G. Donald Harrison; the company was formed from the merger of the Skinner Organ Company and the pipe organ division of the Æolian Company in 1932. The Skinner & Cole Company was formed in 1902 as a partnership of Ernest Skinner and Cole, another former Hutchings-Votey employee. By 1904 the partnership had dissolved, the "Ernest M. Skinner & Company" purchased the Skinner and Cole assets, in the form of the contract for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Holy Trinity in New York City from the former company for $1. Between 1904 and 1910, the firm produced 30 instruments, including several new instruments of Skinner's design, in the 60- to 80-stop size range. By 1912 the firm had perfected the "Pitman Windchest" to a state of simple technical elegance.
The Pitman chest allows the air to be held pressurized, directly at the valves located beneath each of the thousands of pipes, which increases responsiveness to the player, eliminates noise and other problems found with the "Ventil"-style chests, which apply wind only when a stop is drawn. All major builders of electro-pneumatic action organs, including M. P. Möller, W. W. Kimball and Reuter, use some form of the Pitman windchest to this day, although most have only begun to credit Skinner with the design and subsequent refinements that make it an industry benchmark. Skinner developed and perfected numerous parts of the "actions" for the instruments, as well as the Whiffletree Shade Motor, a mechanical device that moves the expression shades in a smooth, fluid motion without the "slam" that accompanies mechanical expression shade controls; this allowed the instruments to provide quick and responsive control of the expression levels of the different parts of the instrument. In 1914 the Skinner Organ Factory company moved into a new factory building in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston at Crescent Avenue and Sydney Street.
G. Donald Harrison joined the Skinner firm in July 1927, began to influence how Skinner organs were built. After several years of conflict between Ernest Skinner and Arthur Marks, Harrison was appointed Vice-President and Tonal Director of Æolian-Skinner in 1933; the company’s tonal philosophy continued to turn from the romantic-style orchestral instruments built under the direction of Skinner to a classically eclectic style. Organists began to look to the past to find direction for the future, in doing so they found that they were in sympathy with the ideas being developed by Harrison; these ideas included the provision of smaller-scaled diapasons, along with more higher-pitched and mutation stops in place of large-scaled unison diapasons, color reeds and flutes. During Harrison's tenure from 1933 until his death in 1956, the tonal design of Æolian-Skinner organs changed a great deal, but retained and perfected many of Ernest Skinner's mechanical innovations; the company used Skinner's Pitman windchest, throughout its existence.
The high quality and distinctive design details of the Æolian-Skinner console were preserved. Notable instruments built or rebuilt during the Harrison period include: New Haven, Connecticut: Trinity Church on the Green Boston, Massachusetts: Church of the Advent Minneapolis, Minnesota: Northrop Auditorium Opus 892C Groton, Massachusetts: Groton School San Francisco, California: Grace Cathedral Opus 910 New York, New York: Church of St. Mary the Virgin Salt Lake City, Utah: Mormon Tabernacle St. Mark's Episcopal Church, Mt. Kisco, New York Boston, Massachusetts: Symphony Hall Boston, Massachusetts: The First Church of Christ, Scientist Opus 1203 Jacksonville, Illinois: MacMurray College Annie Merner Chapel – G. Donald Harrison "signature" organ New York, New York: Cathedral of St. John the Divine Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Sage Chapel Rock Hill, South Carolina: Winthrop University Opus 1257 Rochester, Minnesota: St Marys Hospital Chapel Seymour, Connecticut: Seymour Congregational Church, Opus 1262 After Harrison's death in June 1956, former Vice President Joseph S. Whiteford was appointed President.
Whiteford joined the company in 1948 and had distinguished himself through research in the field of musical acoustics as it relates to church music. Under his direction, Æolian-Skinner built pipe organs for five of the foremost symphony orchestras in America, his love for vocal music led him to emphasize the role of the organ in accompanying singing. He had a charismatic personality, well suited to the prestige of the Æolian-Skinner name. In fact, his personal involvement secured major contracts that were directly commissioned without competing bids, his tonal work was not without criticism, including from within the company- e.g. Donald Gillett's unhappiness with Whiteford's "string quartet Greats". For more information see Dr Charles Callahan's book Aeolian-Skinner Remembered. Notable instruments from the Whiteford period include: Detr
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies. There is no official definition of the band, but the range always includes all of the high frequency band, extends from 1.7–30 MHz. Radio waves in the shortwave band can be reflected or refracted from a layer of electrically charged atoms in the atmosphere called the ionosphere. Therefore, short waves directed at an angle into the sky can be reflected back to Earth at great distances, beyond the horizon; this is called skywave or "skip" propagation. Thus shortwave radio can be used for long distance communication, in contrast to radio waves of higher frequency which travel in straight lines and are limited by the visual horizon, about 64 km. Shortwave radio is used for broadcasting of voice and music to shortwave listeners over large areas, it is used for military over-the-horizon radar, diplomatic communication, two-way international communication by amateur radio enthusiasts for hobby and emergency purposes, as well as for long distance aviation and marine communications.
The widest popular definition of the shortwave frequency interval is the ITU Region 1 definition, is the span 1.6–30 MHz, just above the medium wave band, which ends at 1.6 MHz. There are other definitions of the shortwave frequency interval: 1.71 to 30 MHz in ITU Region 2 1.8 to 30 MHz 2.3 to 30 MHz 2.3 to 26.1 MHz In Germany and Austria the ITU Region 1 shortwave radio frequency interval can be subdivided in: de:Grenzwelle: 1.605–3.8 MHz In Germany these shortwave radio frequency intervals have been seen used: the above other definitions The name "shortwave" originated during the early days of radio in the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered divided into long wave, medium wave and short wave bands based on the wavelength of the radio waves. Shortwave radio received its name because the wavelengths in this band are shorter than 200 m which marked the original upper limit of the medium frequency band first used for radio communications; the broadcast medium wave band now extends above the 200 m/1,500 kHz limit, the amateur radio 1.8 MHz – 2.0 MHz band is the lowest-frequency band considered to be'shortwave'.
Early long distance radio telegraphy used long waves, below 300 kilohertz. The drawbacks to this system included a limited spectrum available for long distance communication, the expensive transmitters and gigantic antennas that were required, it was difficult to beam the radio wave directionally with long wave, resulting in a major loss of power over long distances. Prior to the 1920s, the shortwave frequencies above 1.5 MHz were regarded as useless for long distance communication and were designated in many countries for amateur use. Guglielmo Marconi, pioneer of radio, commissioned his assistant Charles Samuel Franklin to carry out a large scale study into the transmission characteristics of short wavelength waves and to determine their suitability for long distance transmissions. Franklin rigged up a large antenna at Poldhu Wireless Station, running on 25 kW of power. In June and July 1923, wireless transmissions were completed during nights on 97 meters from Poldhu to Marconi's yacht Elettra in the Cape Verde Islands.
In September 1924, Marconi transmitted daytime and nighttime on 32 meters from Poldhu to his yacht in Beirut. Franklin went on to refine the directional transmission, by inventing the curtain array aerial system. In July 1924, Marconi entered into contracts with the British General Post Office to install high speed shortwave telegraphy circuits from London to Australia, South Africa and Canada as the main element of the Imperial Wireless Chain; the UK-to-Canada shortwave "Beam Wireless Service" went into commercial operation on 25 October 1926. Beam Wireless Services from the UK to Australia, South Africa and India went into service in 1927. Shortwave communications began to grow in the 1920s, similar to the internet in the late 20th century. By 1928, more than half of long distance communications had moved from transoceanic cables and longwave wireless services to shortwave and the overall volume of transoceanic shortwave communications had vastly increased. Shortwave stations had cost and efficiency advantages over massive longwave wireless installations, however some commercial longwave communications stations remained in use until the 1960s.
Long distance radio circuits reduced the load on the existing transoceanic telegraph cables and hence the need for new cables, although the cables maintained their advantages of high security and a much more reliable and better quality signal than shortwave. The cable companies began to lose large sums of money in 1927, a serious financial crisis threatened the viability of cable companies that were vital to strategic British interests; the British government convened the Imperial Wireless and Cable Conference in 1928 "to examine the situation that had arisen as a result of the competition of Beam Wireless with the Cable Services". It recommended and received Government approval for all overseas cable and wireless resources of the Empire to be merged into one system controlled by a newly formed company in 1929, Imperial and International Communications Ltd; the name of the company was changed to Cable and Wireless Ltd. in 1934. Long-distance cables had a
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures is the central text of the Christian Science. Mary Baker Eddy described it as her "most important work." She began writing it in February 1872 and the first edition was published in 1875. However, she would continue making changes for the rest of her life; the book was selected as one of the "75 Books By Women Whose Words Have Changed The World," by the Women's National Book Association. Christian Science develops its theology and its healing method from these simple statements: "God is All-in all." "God is good." "God is Mind, God is infinite. The five physical senses, which take no account of Spirit, are the origin of all false beliefs. Adherents of Christian Science claim. Praying from this standpoint removes the belief and brings healing; the latest edition of the book consists of a short preface, the main section, a "Key to the Scriptures", Fruitage. Some editions include a word index; the main section is 500 pages long and comprises chapters titled as follows: Prayer Atonement and Eucharist Marriage Christian Science versus Spiritualism Animal Magnetism Unmasked Science, Medicine Physiology Footsteps of Truth Creation Science of Being Some Objections Answered Christian Science Practice Teaching Christian Science Recapitulation.
This section is 100 pages long, comprises Genesis The Apocalypse Glossary This section consists of 84 testimonials of the healing power derived from reading the text in Science and Health. There are descriptions of addiction, broken bone, cancer, eczema, a fibroid tumor, rheumatism. Prior intervention by physicians is mentioned in 50 of these cases, one relates a confirmatory X-ray by a physician; the first edition was copyrighted in 1875. The copyright for Science and Health went through several renewals including a posthumous renewal in 1934 by the Christian Science Board of Directors. At the request of the Christian Science Board of Directors, in December 1971 Congress passed a law extending the copyright on Science and Health by 75 years. However, following a legal suit brought by David James Nolan and Lucile J. Place of United Christian Scientists, the copyright extension was found unconstitutional in 1985 by Federal District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson. In 1987 the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia upheld the ruling of the district court.
As a result and Health has been in the public domain since 1987. The first edition was printed by W. F. Co.. Their invoice for 1,000 copies, dated 30 October 1875, was made out to George M. Barry and Edward Hitchins for $2285.35. It consisted of 2 pages of errata. There were hundreds of typographic errors, some because the printer, not understanding the author's meaning, had tried to correct the wording without consulting her; the second edition, printed by Rand, Avery & Co, appeared with 167 pages of new material. It was called Science and Health Volume 2 to indicate that it was a supplement to the first edition, but it, was full of typographic errors; however the third edition, printed by John Wilson at the University Press in Cambridge was of a high standard. Twelve further two-volume editions followed, before the 16th edition appeared as a single volume in 1886; this edition of the book had 552 pages, plus an index of 38 pages, "with Key to the Scriptures" had been added to the title. Eddy remained loyal to the University Press for the rest of her life, in 1897 made a substantial investment to save it from bankruptcy.
Eddy left Boston in 1889, in order to revise the text for the 50th edition. This consisted of 578 pages plus a 73-page index, for the first time included marginal headings; the 226th "thousand" appeared in 1902, this included "Fruitage," making up the page count of 700 pages which remains to this day. The last numbered edition was the 418th, which appeared in 1906, but further changes were made until 1910; the German translation appeared in 1912. At Eddy's insistence, the English text of each page was printed opposite the German translation; the same format was kept for the subsequent versions in other languages: Czech, Dutch, French, Indonesian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Swedish. During the 1990s, a trade edition was released which included an index and a banner headline "More than 10 million copies sold." This edition was intended for marketing through ordinary booksellers. Science and Health encapsulates the teachings of Christian Science and Christian Scientists call it their "textbook."
At Sunday services, passages from the book are read along with passages from the Bible. Eddy called the two books Christian Science's "dual and impersonal pastor." Eddy, Mary Baker. Science & Health with Key to the Scriptures; the Christian Science Board of Directors. "The Constitution and the Christian Science Textbook". Mary Baker Eddy Institute. 2000. Retrieved 2006-10-15. Brosang, Ernest J.. A Christian Science Library: A Descriptive and Extended Bibliography. Printed. Read Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures online The major milestones of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures from the Mary Baker Eddy Library website Science and Health (First edition. Boston: Chri
Araldo Cossutta was an architect who worked in the United States. From 1956 to 1973 he worked at the firm I. M. Partners. I. M. Pei is now among the most honored architects in the world. Cossutta was Pei's associate and his partner in the first phase of Pei's career, he was responsible for some of the firm's best-known designs from that era, including three that have received "landmark" designations in recent years. In 1973 he and Vincent Ponte left Pei's firm to form Cossutta & Ponte, which became Cossutta and Associates; the new firm designed the Credit Lyonnais Tower in Lyon and the Tower at Cityplace in Dallas, among other commissions. Cossutta was born on the island of Krk, in the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, he was educated at the University of Belgrade, the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1949 Cossutta worked in the atelier of Le Corbusier, who "arguably had more of an influence on the form of the modern world than any other architect."
He received a master's degree from Harvard in 1952. From 1952-1955, he worked for Michael Hare and Associates. In 1955, Pei founded I. M. Pei and Associates. Like Cossutta, Pei had been profoundly influenced by Le Corbusier. Cossutta became an associate in Pei's new firm shortly after its creation. Cossutta's designs for Pei's firm include the Denver Hilton Hotel, University Gardens Apartments in Chicago, the north and south buildings of the L'Enfant Plaza complex in Washington, D. C. the Third Church of Christ, Scientist in Washington, D. C. and the Christian Science Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Architecture critics include Cossuta's buildings from the 1960s and 1970s as examples of the Brutalist architecture that flowered in that period; the name itself refers to the typical use of raw concrete. One of the seminal buildings for the New Brutalism was Le Corbusier's Unité d'Habitation in Marseille, France. Benjamin Flowers writes that, "In appearance, New Brutalism is characterized but not by rugged and dramatic concrete surfaces and monumental sculptural forms."
Among the most recognized of Cossutta's designs is the Christian Science Center in Boston. The Center incorporated the original Mother Church buildings, the eight story Christian Science Publishing House, three newly constructed buildings; the five buildings were incorporated into a large plaza with a 670-foot long reflecting pool. The new buildings were the Colonnade Building with its sculpted, raw concrete colonnade, a 28-story office building, the quarter-round Sunday School Building with its 500-seat auditorium; the plaza of the Christian Science Center was declared an historic landmark by the City of Boston in 2011. The report noted; the Pei/Cossutta plan made the Christian Science Center one of the most monumental – and successful – public spaces in Boston." Michael Kubo and his colleagues have written that this Brutalist design "shows how, with proper care and stewardship, these buildings can be wonderful participants in an active urban setting. At their best, they are powerful monuments of an ethic inspired by, but critical of, its Modernist past — an ethic that sought authenticity for its time and embraced the future wholeheartedly."
The Christian Science Center has been changed little since its construction around 1970, is an example of a large public space, maintained by a private organization. Significant modifications to the design have been proposed by the Church. Cossutta's design for the Third Church of Christ, Scientist incorporates an octagonal church building with a raw concrete facade, an eight-story office building, the plaza lying between the buildings; the design is considered Brutalist, has been controversial since the building's construction. While the building won an "Award for Excellence in Architecture" from the Metropolitan Washington Board of Trade, the Washington Post architecture critic Wolf von Eckardt was quite negative about the bunker-like exterior of the church and its disruption of the 19th Century scale of this section of Washington, close to the White House; the design and the early criticism of it were the subjects of an entire chapter in a 1988 book about Washington's architecture by Sue Kohler and Jeffrey Carson.
These authors admired the auditorium, which they characterized as "exceptionally dynamic and powerful", wrote that Cossutta's arrangement of the church, a paired office building constructed at the same time, the plaza was "a tour de force". About 1990 the congregation of the Church began to seek a buyer for the property, which they felt had become unsuitable; the probable consequence would have been demolition of the church building. In an effort to save the building, in 1991 two independent groups joined to file an application for historic landmark status for the church; this application was approved by a unanimous vote sixteen years in 2007. An application to demolish the building to permit redevelopment of the property was denied in 2008; the conflict between the congregation's and the Christian Science Church's right to control the property, the buildings' status as an important exemplar of brutalist ecclesiastical architecture and attracted national attention. A de