Simon VI, Count of Lippe
Count Simon VI of Lippe was an imperial count and ruler of the County of Lippe from 1563 until his death. Simon was the son of Count Bernhard VIII of Lippe and his wife Catherine, daughter of the Count Philip III of Waldeck-Eisenberg, since he was still a minor when his father died, his uncle Hermann Simon of Pyrmont took up the regency until 1579. Simon was an intelligent prince, a man after the renaissance ideal and he corresponded with many leading scientists of his time, among them Tycho Brahe and Jost Bürgi. He acted as a counselor and chamberlain to the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II, for whom he undertook diplomatic missions and he acted as an intermediary and an agent in the trade in Dutch paintings. The castle at Brake had been pledged to Christoph von Donop from 1562 to 1570, in 1584-1589, Simon had it expanded in the style of the Weser Renaissance. He used is as his residence until his death, in September 1599 he suffered a severe defeat at the Siege of Rees by the Spaniards. From 1600, he employed the Dutch military architect Johan van Rijswijk, under Simon VI, the County converted to Calvinism in 1605.
Using his monarchic privilege of cuius regio, eius religio he prompted the conversion of the Church of Lippe to Calvinism and this led to a dispute with many of his subjects, especially the Free and Hanseatic City of Lemgo, which had been Lutheran since 1522. Lemgo defied the edict to convert to Calvinism, leading to the Revolt of Lemgo and this religious dispute was resolved by the Peace of Röhrentrup in 1617, granting Lemgo the right to determine its faith independently. The Lutheran minority only joined the else Reformed Church of Lippe again in 1882 and it served as a court library as well as a collection of a professional politician and diplomat. It contained theological and historical works as well as philosophical and jurisprudential literature and it became the basis for the Lippe State Library at Detmold, where the collection is still kept. Simon died in 1613 and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Simon VII, Simon VIs youngest son, Philip I found the Schaumburg-Lippe line, whose seat of government was in Bückeburg.
In 1578, Simon married Countess Armgard of Rietberg, in 1585, he married Elisabeth, a daughter of Count Otto IV of Schaumburg and Holstein-Pinneberg. Graf zur Lippe, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,34, Duncker & Humblot, pp. 362–367 Michael Bischoff, ein europäischer Renaissanceherrscher, Weser Renaissance Museum Brake Castle, Lemgo,2010, ISBN 978-3-9807816-5-7
A parish is a church territorial unit constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates. Historically, a parish often covered the same area as a manor. By extension the term refers not only to the territorial unit. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, and where minsters catered to the surrounding district. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish comprises a division of a diocese or see, parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest. Some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry, in the Roman Catholic Church, each parish normally has its own parish priest, who has responsibility and canonical authority over the parish.
These are called assistant priests, parochial vicars, curates, or, in the United States, associate pastors, each diocese is divided into parishes, each with their own central church called the parish church, where religious services take place. An example is that of personal parishes established in accordance with the 7 July 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum for those attached to the form of the Roman Rite. Most Catholic parishes are part of Latin Rite dioceses, which cover the whole territory of a country. There can be overlapping parishes of eparchies of Eastern Catholic Churches, the Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Churchs secession from Rome remaining largely untouched, Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury,30 and York,14. A chapelry was a subdivision of a parish in England. It had a status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church.
In England civil parishes and their parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities. Thus their boundaries began to diverge, the word parish acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council. The parish is the level of church administration in the Church of Scotland
The Athanasian Creed, known as Pseudo-Athanasian Creed or Quicunque Vult, is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology. The Latin name of the creed, Quicunque vult, is taken from the opening words, the creed has been used by Christian churches since the sixth century. It is the first creed in which the equality of the three persons of the Trinity is explicitly stated and it differs from the Nicene-Constantinopolitan and Apostles Creeds in the inclusion of anathemas, or condemnations of those who disagree with the creed. It was designed to distinguish Nicene Christianity from the heresy of Arianism, this Creed was recited at the Sunday Office of Prime in the Western Church, it is not in common use in the Eastern Church. The creed has never gained acceptance in liturgy among Eastern Christians since it was considered as one of many unorthodox fabrications that contained the Filioque clause, the Athanasian Creed is rarely used even in the Western Church. When used, one practice is to use it once a year on Trinity Sunday.
A medieval account credited Athanasius of Alexandria, the defender of Nicene theology. According to this account, Athanasius composed it during his exile in Rome and this traditional attribution of the Creed to Athanasius was first called into question in 1642 by Dutch Protestant theologian G. J. Athanasius name seems to have attached to the creed as a sign of its strong declaration of Trinitarian faith. The reasoning for rejecting Athanasius as the author usually relies on a combination of the following, The creed originally was most likely written in Latin, neither Athanasius nor his contemporaries ever mention the Creed. It is not mentioned in any records of the ecumenical councils and it appears to address theological concerns that developed after Athanasius died. It was most widely circulated among Western Christians, the use of the creed in a sermon by Caesarius of Arles, as well as a theological resemblance to works by Vincent of Lérins, point to Southern Gaul as its origin. The most likely time frame is in the fifth or early sixth century AD – at least 100 years after Athanasius.
The theology of the creed is firmly rooted in the Augustinian tradition, for example, in the authoritative modern monograph about the creed, J. N. D. Kelly asserts that Vincent of Lérins was not its author, but that it may have come from the same milieu, the oldest surviving manuscripts of the Athanasian Creed date from the late 8th century. The Athanasian Creed is usually divided into two sections, lines 1–28 addressing the doctrine of the Trinity, and lines 29–44 addressing the doctrine of Christology, enumerating the three persons of the Trinity, the first section of the creed ascribes the divine attributes to each individually. Thus, each person of the Trinity is described as uncreated, eternal, although one God, the Father and Holy Spirit are distinct from each other. For the Father is neither made nor begotten, the Son is not made but is begotten from the Father, the Holy Spirit is neither made nor begotten but proceeds from the Father and the Son
Protestant Church in Baden
The Evangelical Church in Baden is a united Protestant church. Its headquarter, the Evangelical Superior Church Council is located in Karlsruhe, the church is not confused with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Baden, based in Freiburg im Breisgau. The church body comprises only congregations of united Protestant confession, in 1922 the church counted 821,000 parishioners. They still formed a minority in the assembly of the church. After the Nazi takeover the synodals standing for the group of the Ecclesiastical Liberal Union jumped ship. This adulteration of Protestant church governance started the Kirchenkampf in Baden, on 24 June 1933 the Landessynode elected the incumbent Prelate Julius Kühlewein the new powerful Landesbischof regnant, being ex officio the head of the EOK, downsized in members. Representatives of the Baden Covenant of Confessors participated in the first Reichs Synod of Confession and voted in, with others, the Baden Confessors protested that self-aggrandising act of Kühlewein.
This again split Kühleweins previous supporters in two, those following his new course, and those who did not and his task would be to protect church members, when attacked as subversive Confessing Christians by the Nazi government. This shift of behaviour and opinion opened the way for reconciliation of many Baden Confessors with the church leader. In 1937 Kühlewein joined with the Baden church the moderately Nazi-opposing block of the so-called intact regional Lutheran churches, to wit Bavaria and neighbouring Württemberg. So any offertory, to-be-collected, all budgets and payments by any entity of the church, were subject to approval by government-appointed comptrollers. This caused an outrage of pastors, rallying for public demonstrations, and a sharp protest by Kühlewein, backing the demonstrators, after the government waged war on Poland and thus started the Second World War, male members of the Confessing Church were preferently drafted for the army. Hanns Kerrl demanded to calm down the struggle of the churches, so the Gestapo concentrated on pastors of the Confessing Church, who were not drafted.
In January 1940, urged by the Wehrmacht, Hitler repeated that no wide-ranging actions against the Confessing Church are to be taken, so on 1 July 1957 the present name, Evangelical Regional Church in Baden replaced the former naming United Evangelical Protestant Regional Church of Baden. Ordination of women and blessing of same-sex unions were allowed, media related to Evangelische Landeskirche in Baden at Wikimedia Commons Evangelical Church in Baden
The Apostles Creed, sometimes entitled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or symbol. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists, the Apostles Creed is Trinitarian in structure with sections affirming belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ His Son and the Holy Spirit. The Apostles Creed was based on Christian theological understanding of the Canonical gospels and its basis appears to be the old Roman Creed known as the Old Roman Symbol. Because of the origin of its original form, it does not address some Christological issues defined in the Nicene. It thus says nothing explicitly about the divinity of either Jesus or the Holy Spirit and this makes it acceptable to many Arians and Unitarians. Nor does it address many other questions which became objects of dispute centuries later. The earlier text evolved from simpler texts based on Matthew 28,19, part of the Great Commission, written between 710 and 714. Bettenson and Maunder state that it is first from Dicta Abbatis Pirminii de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus and this longer Creed seems to have arisen in what is now France and Spain.
Charlemagne imposed it throughout his dominions, and it was accepted in Rome. It has been argued nonetheless that it dates from the half of the 5th century. Some have suggested that the Apostles Creed was spliced together with phrases from the New Testament, for instance, the phrase descendit ad inferos echoes Ephesians 4,9, κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα μέρη τῆς γῆς. It is of interest that this phrase first appeared in one of the two versions of Rufinus in A. D.390 and did not appear again in any version of the creed until A. D.650. This phrase and that on the communion of saints are found in the Apostles Creed. Musical settings of the Symbolum Apostolorum as a motet are rare, the French composer Le Brung published one Latin setting in 1540, the Spanish composer Fernando de las Infantas published two in 1578. More recently, in 1979 John Michael Talbot, a Third Order Franciscan and recorded Creed on his album, in 1986 Graham Kendrick published the popular We believe in God the Father, closely based on the Apostles Creed.
Rich Mullins and Beaker composed a musical setting titled Creed, released on Mullins‘1993 album A Liturgy, the song Creed on Petra’s 1990 album Beyond Belief is loosely based on the Apostles Creed. In 1991, GIA Publications published a hymn text directly based on the Apostles’ Creed, called I Believe in God Almighty and it has been sung to hymn tunes from Wales, the Netherlands, and Ireland. In 2014 Hillsong released a version of the Apostles Creed under the title This I Believe on their album No Other Name, in 2016 Keith Getty and Kristyn Getty released an expression of the Apostles Creed under the title We Believe on their album Facing a Task Unfinished
Evangelical Church in Central Germany
The Evangelical Church in Central Germany is a United church body covering most of the German states of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia and some adjacent areas in Brandenburg and Saxony. The Church is the most important Christian denomination in Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt, the bishops seat is Magdeburg, the capital of Saxony-Anhalt. The Church is a member of the federation of Lutheran. Its principal church is Magdeburg Cathedral, ilse Junkermann has been the Landesbischof of the church since 2009. Ordination of women and blessing of same-sex unions were allowed
Cuius regio, eius religio
Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means Whose realm, his religion, meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled. Any other practice of worship beyond the first two named, which were the most widespread in the Empire, was forbidden and considered by the law to be heretical. Prior to the 16th century and after the Great Schism, there had been one dominant faith in Western and Central European Christendom, martin Luthers agenda at first called for the reform of the Catholic Church, but was not necessarily a rejection of the faith per se. Later on, Luthers movement broke away from the Catholic Church, the new Protestant theology galvanized social action in the German Peasants War, which were brutally repressed and the popular political and religious movement crushed. It was broadly understood by princes and Catholic clergy alike that growing institutional abuses within the Catholic Church hindered the practices of the faithful, in 1537, Pope Paul III had called a council to examine the abuses and to suggest and implement reforms.
In addition, he instituted several internal reforms, despite these efforts, and the cooperation of Charles V, rapprochement of the Protestants with Catholicism foundered on different concepts of ecclesiology and the principle of justification. In the same year, the Schmalkaldic League called its own council, and posited several precepts of faith, Luther was present, but too ill to attend the meetings. Catholic and Lutheran adherents seemed further apart than ever, in only a few towns and cities were Lutherans, by 1548, political disagreements overlapped with religious issues, making any kind of agreement seem remote. In 1548 Charles declared an interreligio imperialis through which he sought to find common ground. The 1551–52 sessions convened by Pope Julius III at the Catholic Council of Trent restated and reaffirmed Catholic teaching, the Council was an important part in the inter-ecclesiastical reform of the Catholic Church and further advanced the Catholic Reformation. Catholic and Protestant ideology seemed further apart than ever, Charles interim solution satisfied no one.
He ordered a general Diet in Augsburg at which the states would discuss the religious problem. He himself did not attend, and delegated authority to his brother, Ferdinand, to act and settle disputes of territory, religion, at the conference, Ferdinand cajoled and threatened the various representatives into agreement on three important principles. Cuius regio, eius religio, Ecclesiastical reservation, and the Declaration of Ferdinand, the principle of Cuius regio, eius religio provided for internal religious unity within a state, The religion of the prince became the religion of the state and all its inhabitants. Cuius regio, eius religio went against earlier Catholic teaching, which held that the kings should faithfully obey the pope and this obedience was thought to produce greater fruits of cooperation and less political infighting and fewer church divisions. The phrase cuius regio, eius religio was coined in 1582 by the legist Joachim Stephani of the University of Greifswald, the second principle covered the special status of the ecclesiastical states, called the ecclesiastical reservation, or reservatum ecclesiasticum.
If a prince-bishop or prince-abbot changed his religion, he would have to relinquish his rule, Ferdinand inserted this at the last minute, on his own authority. First, Ferdinand had rushed the article on ecclesiastical reservation through the debate, it had not undergone the scrutiny and discussion that attended the acceptance of Cuius regio, its wording did not cover all, or even most, potential legal scenarios
The Nicene Creed is a Symbol of faith widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene /ˈnaɪsiːn/ because it was adopted in the city of Nicaea by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, the Anglican and many Protestant denominations generally use the singular form, but sometimes use the plural. The Apostles Creed is used in the Latin West, on Sundays and some other days, one or other of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily. The Nicene Creed is part of the profession of faith required of those important functions within the Catholic Church. In the Byzantine Rite, the Nicene Creed is sung or recited at the Divine Liturgy, immediately preceding the Anaphora, Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed can stand for the revised version of Constantinople or the Latin version or various other versions. Icon/Symbol of the Faith is the designation for the revised version of Constantinople 381 in the Orthodox churches.
Profession of Faith of the 318 Fathers refers specifically to the version of Nicaea 325, profession of Faith of the 150 Fathers refers specifically to the version of Constantinople 381. In musical settings, particularly when sung in Latin, this Creed is usually referred to by its first word, the purpose of a creed is to provide a doctrinal statement of correct belief, or orthodoxy. For that reason a creed was called in Greek a σύμβολον, a word that meant half of an object which. The Greek word passed through Latin symbolum into English symbol, which took on the meaning of an outward sign of something. The Nicene Creed was adopted in the face of the Arian controversy, whose leader, Arius objected to Alexanders apparent carelessness in blurring the distinction of nature between the Father and the Son by his emphasis on eternal generation. Alexander accused Arius of denying the divinity of the Son and of being too Jewish, both Arius and Alexander rejected Gnosticism and Sabellian formulae. The Nicene Creed was created as a result of the adoption of the doctrine of Arius far outside Alexandria.
The Nicene Creed of 325 explicitly affirms the co-essential divinity of the Son, the 381 version speaks of the Holy Spirit as worshipped and glorified with the Father and the Son. The Athanasian Creed describes in much detail the relationship between Father and Holy Spirit. The Apostles Creed makes no statements about the divinity of the Son and the Holy Spirit, but, in the view of many who use it. The original Nicene Creed was first adopted in 325 at the First Council of Nicaea, at that time, the text ended with the words We believe in the Holy Spirit, after which various anathemas against Arian propositions were added
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the tradition which it denotes has always been diverse. The movement was first called Calvinism by Lutherans who opposed it, early influential Reformed theologians include Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B, Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, and Gordon Clark were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I, Timothy J. Keller, John Piper, David Wells, and Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of polity, most are presbyterian or congregationalist. Calvinism is largely represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions, the biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 80 million members in 211 member denominations around the world.
There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship, Calvinism is named after John Calvin. It was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552 and it was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name what they perceived to be heresy after its founder. Nevertheless, the term first came out of Lutheran circles, Calvin denounced the designation himself, They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism. It is not hard to guess where such a deadly hatred comes from that they hold against me, despite its negative connotation, this designation became increasingly popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later. Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvins own words—renewed accordingly with the order of gospel. Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two groups and Calvinists.
However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition, some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lords Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the presence of Christ in the Lords supper. Each of these understood salvation to be by grace alone. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther
Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe
Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe was the final sovereign of the Principality of Lippe. Succeeding to the throne in 1905 he had been governing the state since 1904 as regent and he was born as Count Leopold of Lippe-Biesterfeld in Oberkassel, the son of Ernest, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld and Countess Karoline of Wartensleben. Leopold belonged to the Lippe-Biesterfeld line of the House of Lippe which was the most senior line of the house after the reigning Lippe-Detmold line. He served as an officer in the German Army until 1894, since 1895 Lippe had been ruled by a regent due to the incapacity of Prince Alexander. Leopolds father had acted as regent since 1897 and following his death on 26 September 1904 Leopold assumed the regency, as a result, the Diet of Lippe appointed a high commission to consider the matter. The regency issue was ongoing when Prince Alexander died on 13 January 1905. Leopold was confirmed as Prince of Lippe and Alexanders successor on 25 October 1905 following a court ruling, on 3 June 1911 while out motoring Leopold and his brother Prince Julius were attacked by a gang of Italian laborers who hurled a shower of missiles at the princes.
Though Leopold escaped unhurt his brother received a head wound, during World War I Leopold upgraded the titles of the various lines of the House of Lippe. One of the members to benefit from the granting of titles was Leopolds nephew Count Bernhard of Biesterfeld who would go on to become the Prince Consort of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. On 24 February 1916 Bernhard and his brother were upgraded to the title Prince of Lippe-Biesterfeld with the style Serene Highness, following the end of his rule the Principality of Lippe was transformed into a Free state in the new Weimar Republic. After the rise of Nazism in Germany all three of his sons by his first wife became members of the party and his eldest son the Hereditary Prince Ernst is reported to have been the first German prince to join the party when he signed up in May 1928. In addition to being pro Nazis both Hereditary Prince Ernst and Prince Chlodwig had contracted unequal marriages, thus when Leopold died in Detmold his three eldest sons were all disinherited and his youngest son Armin became head of the princely house.
Leopold was married to Princess Bertha of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld on 16 August 1901 in Rotenburg, Hereditary Prince of Lippe married first Charlotte Ricken. From this marriage he had one son
Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of about 73,400. It was the capital of the small Principality of Lippe from 1468 until 1918, today it is the administrative center of the district of Lippe and of the Regierungsbezirk Detmold. The Church of Lippe has its administration located in Detmold. The Reformed Redeemer Church is the venue of the state superintendent of the Lippe church. About 5 kilometres to the southwest of Detmold is the Grotenburg hill with a circular rampart. The monument commemorates the so-called Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, a battle in 9 AD which may or may not have been close to the present location of Detmold. In this encounter, Germanic tribes led by Hermann defeated Roman legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus, Detmold was first mentioned as Theotmalli in 783, the year of a battle between the Saxons and Charlemagnes forces nearby. This was an event in the Saxon Wars, in 1005 a Tietmelli or Theotmalli region is referred to in documents.
In 1263, Bernard III of Lippe fortified the settlement at the crossing of the route from Paderborn to Lemgo over the Werre River with stone walls. Its population was reported in 1305 as 305, market rights granted in 1265 led to rapid economic development. Its defenses were strengthened after severe damage had been inflicted on the town during the conflict with Soest in 1447. A major fire in 1547 destroyed more than 70 houses, in 1550, Detmold became the permanent residence of Count Simon III of Lippe. Today, Prince of Lippe is the owner of Detmold Castle, street lighting was introduced in 1809, with oil-fired lanterns. By 1835, the town had become the most populous in Lippe and it grew to 12,000 in 1900 and over 30,000 in 1950. From 1919 to 1947, Detmold was the capital of the Free State of Lippe, with the administrative reform of 1970,25 nearby villages were incorporated into the city. Donoper Teich Hasselbachteich Vogelpark Heiligenkirchen The town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts, amongst the honorary citizens of Detmold, besides politicians are scientists and artists who have served in Detmold.
The best-known are the builder of the Hermannsdenkmal, Ernst von Bandel, Reich Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, and Reich President, Paul von Hindenburg
Evangelical Church in Germany
In 2015, the EKD had a membership of 22,271,000 members, or 27. 1% of the German population. It constitutes one of the largest national Protestant bodies in the world, behind the Church of England, there had been successful royal efforts at unity in various German states, beginning with Prussia and several minor German states in 1817. These unions resulted in the first united and uniting churches, a new development within Protestantism which spread to parts of the world. This utterly failed, with the Confessing Church and the German Christians-led Reichskirche opposing each other, other Protestant churches aligned themselves with one of these groups, or stayed neutral in this church strife. In 1948, the Evangelical Church in Germany was organized in the aftermath of World War II to function as a new organization for German Protestant churches. As a result of tensions between West and East Germany, the churches in East Germany broke away from the EKD in 1969. In 1991, following German reunification, the East German churches rejoined the EKD, as for church governance, the Lutheran churches typically practise an episcopal polity, while the Reformed and the United ones a mixture of presbyterian and congregationalist polities.
Most member churches are led by a bishop, only one member church, the Evangelical Reformed Church, is not restricted to a certain territory. In some ways, the member churches resemble dioceses of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. Literally, evangelisch means of the Gospel, denoting a Protestant Reformation emphasis on sola scriptura, dr. Martin Luther encouraged this term alongside Christian. From the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 to the end of the First World War and this changed somewhat with growing religious freedom in the 19th century, especially in the republican states of Bremen, Frankfurt, Lübeck, and Hamburg. The greatest change came after the German Revolution, with the formation of the Weimar Republic, the Peoples Church Union quickly split along territorial lines after the churches relationship with the new governments improved. It was realised that one mainstream Protestant church for all of Germany was impossible, the churches met in Dresden in 1919 and created a plan for federation, and this plan was adopted in 1921 at Stuttgart.
Then in 1922 the 28 territorially defined Protestant churches founded the German Evangelical Church Confederation, at the time, the federation was the largest Protestant church federation in Europe with around 40 million members. In July 1933, the German Evangelical Church was formed under the influence of the German Christians, the Confessing Church arose in resistance to the Nazi regimes ideology. The National Socialists had much influence over the decisions of the first National Synod, in 1948, freed from the German Christians influence, the Lutheran and United churches came together as the Evangelical Church in Germany at the Conference of Eisenach. In June 1991, following German reunification, the BEK merged with the EKD, a modern English translation, would be regional church. This turned the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union into an umbrella, being itself a member of EKD but covering some regional church bodies