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Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. It is Presbyterian, having no head of faith or leadership group, adheres to the Bible and Westminster Confession, it is a member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches. The Church of Scotland traces its roots back to the beginnings of Christianity in Scotland, but its identity is principally shaped by the Reformation of 1560. According to the Church of Scotland, in December 2013 its membership was 398,389, or about 7.5% of the total population, dropping to 380,164 by the end of 2014 and 336,000 by 2017. and further dropping to 325,695 by yearend 2018 representing about 6% of the Scottish population. According to the 2018 Household survey 22% of the Scottish population in 2018 reported belonging to the Church of Scotland. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission.

Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practised Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship". While the Church of Scotland traces its roots back to the earliest Christians in Scotland, its identity was principally shaped by the Scottish Reformation of 1560.

At that point, many in the church in Scotland broke with Rome, in a process of Protestant reform led, among others, by John Knox. It reformed its doctrines and government, drawing on the principles of John Calvin which Knox had been exposed to while living in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1560, an assembly of some nobles and burgesses, as well as several churchmen, claiming in defiance of the Queen to be a Scottish Parliament, abolished papal jurisdiction and approved the Scots Confession, but did not accept many of the principles laid out in Knox's First Book of Discipline, which argued, among other things, that all of the assets of the old church should pass to the new; the 1560 Reformation Settlement was not ratified by the crown, as Mary I, a Catholic, refused to do so, the question of church government remained unresolved. In 1572 the acts of 1560 were approved by the young James VI, but the Concordat of Leith allowed the crown to appoint bishops with the church's approval. John Knox himself had no clear views on the office of bishop, preferring to see them renamed as'superintendents', a translation of the Greek.

Melville and his supporters enjoyed some temporary successes—most notably in the Golden Act of 1592, which gave parliamentary approval to Presbyterian courts. James VI, who succeeded to the English throne in 1603, believed that Presbyterianism was incompatible with monarchy, declaring "No bishop, no king" and by skillful manipulation of both church and state reintroduced parliamentary and diocesan episcopacy. By the time he died in 1625, the Church of Scotland had a full panel of archbishops. General Assemblies met only at places approved by the Crown. Charles I inherited a settlement in Scotland based on a balanced compromise between Calvinist doctrine and episcopal practice. Lacking the political judgement of his father, he began to upset this by moving into more dangerous areas. Disapproving of the'plainness' of the Scottish service he, together with his Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, sought to introduce the kind of liturgical practice in use in England; the centrepiece of this new strategy was the Prayer Book of 1637, a modified version of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.

Although this was devised by a panel of Scottish bishops, Charles' insistence that it be drawn up in secret and adopted sight-unseen led to widespread discontent. When the Prayer Book was introduced at St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh in mid-1637 it caused an outbreak of rioting, starting with Jenny Geddes, spread across Scotland. In early 1638 the National Covenant was signed by large numbers of Scots, protesting at the introduction of the Prayer Book and other liturgical innovations that had not first been tested and approved by free Parliaments and General Assemblies of the Church. In November 1638, the General Assembly in Glasgow, the first to meet for twenty years, not only declared the Prayer Book unlawful, but went on to abolish the office of bishop itself; the Church of Scotland was established on a Presbyterian basis. Charles' attempt at resistance to these developments led to the outbreak of the Bishops' Wars. In the ensuing civil wars, the Scots Covenanters at one point made common cause with the English parliamentarians—resulting in the Westminster Confession of Faith being agreed by both.

This document remains the subordinate standard of the Church of

Futures (album)

Futures is the fifth studio album by American rock band Jimmy Eat World, released on October 19, 2004, through Interscope Records. Futures was led by the successful single "Pain", followed by "Work" and "Futures"; the album has sold 620,000 units in the United States. The band entered the studio with Mark Trombino, producer of the band's previous three studio albums, Static Prevails and Bleed American. Disagreements, led to Trombino's departure from the project and Gil Norton became the producer."Kill" references the Heatmiser song "Half Right", which the band would cover for their Stay on My Side Tonight EP. In 2010, vocalist and guitarist Jim Adkins commented on Trombino's departure stating: "Pain" was released to radio on September 14, 2004. Futures was released on October 2004 by Interscope. A deluxe edition of the album was released showcasing the album's songs in demo form. "Work" was released to radio on December 7, 2004. "Futures" was released to radio on May 10, 2005. Futures was well received by music critics upon its release.

On the review aggregating website Metacritic, the album obtained an average score of 73, based on 22 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews."Tim Sendra at AllMusic stated "Futures will most not be the sensation that Bleed American was -- it is too dark and inwardly focused for that." Sendra, noted that the album shows a sound progression that fans should accept. Brian Hiatt of Entertainment Weekly opined that "if Jimmy are in the middle of a long ride, Futures retains just enough tunefulness to keep us from jumping out of the car." At The Guardian, Betty Clarke noted "singer-songwriter Jim Adkins jumps neck-deep into heartbreak. His lyrics are his strength."Futures was ranked at number 44 in Kerrang!'s "50 Albums You Need to Hear Before You Die" list. All songs composed by Jimmy Eat World. Deluxe edition and bonus tracksThe CD was issued as regular and deluxe editions, with the latter containing a bonus CD with the same track listing as the regular album, but carrying demo versions of the songs, which were recorded in Jimmy Eat World's home recording studio.

In addition, there were several bonus tracks scattered among import and vinyl versions of the album: Jim Adkins - vocals, lead guitar Rick Burch - bass guitar, backing vocals Zach Lind - drums Tom Linton - rhythm guitar, vocals Gil Norton - production David Schiffman - engineering Rich Costey - Mixing, additional engineering Jake Davies - additional engineering, digital editing Jason Grossman - recording assistant Steven Rhodes - recording assistant Claudius Mittendorfer - mixing assistant Dan Leffler - engineering assistant Ross Petersen - engineering assistant David Campbell - string arrangement on "Drugs Or Me" Ted Jensen - mastering Christopher Wray-McCann - front cover photography Kevin Scanlon - photography Ben Allgood - art direction Liz Phair - backing vocals on "Work" Citations Sources Futures at YouTube Album review at USA Today

Mikhail Kulagin

Mikhail Andreyevich Kulagin is a Russian professional basketball player for CSKA Moscow of the VTB United League and the EuroLeague. He is a 1.92 m tall point guard-shooting guard. After playing with the youth clubs of CSKA Moscow, Kulagin has played professionally with the Russian clubs Triumph Lyubertsy, Rossiya Novogorsk, CSKA Moscow. Kulagin was a member of the junior national teams of Russia. With Russia's junior national teams, he played at the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship, the 2012 FIBA Europe Under-18 Championship, where he was a member of the All-Tournament Team, the 2013 FIBA Under-19 World Championship, the 2014 FIBA Europe Under-20 Championship. Kulagin has been a member of the senior Russian national basketball team. With Russia, he played at the EuroBasket 2017, his older brother, Dmitry Kulagin, is a professional basketball player. Mikhail Kulagin at draftexpress.com Mikhail Kulagin at eurobasket.com Mikhail Kulagin at euroleague.net Mikhail Kulagin at fiba.com Mikhail Kulagin at fibaeurope.com