Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR located on the Crimean Peninsula. It was created on October 18, 1921 as the Crimean Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of the Russian SFSR, it was renamed the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on December 5, 1936 by the VIII Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of the USSR. Crimea was under de facto control of Nazi Germany from September 1942 to October 1943, administratively incorporated into Reichskommissariat Ukraine as Teilbezirk Taurien. Alfred Frauenfeld was appointed as General Commissar. In 1944, under the pretext of alleged collaboration of the Crimean Tatars with the Nazi occupation regime, the Soviet government on orders of Joseph Stalin and Lavrentiy Beria deported the Crimean Tatar people from Crimea. Actual collaboration in the military sense had been rather limited, with a recorded 9,225 Crimean Tatars serving in anti-Soviet Tatar Legions and other German formed battalions, but there was in fact a high degree of co-operation between the occupation government and the local administration.
The constitutional rights of the forcibly-resettled Tatars were restored with a decree dated September 5, 1967, but they were not allowed to return until the last days of the Soviet Union. The Crimean ASSR was converted into the Crimean Oblast of the RSFSR on June 30, 1945 by the decree of the both presidiums of the Supreme Soviet of USSR and the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR, the Crimean Oblast was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954; the ASSR was re-established on February 12, 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR following a referendum held on January 20, 1991, it became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, part of the newly independent state of Ukraine, effective May 6, 1992. With the establishment of the autonomous republic in 1921, Crimea was divided into seven okrugs, which in turn were divided into 20 raions: Dzhankoy Yevpatoriya Kerch Sevastopol Simferopol Feodosiya YaltaIn November 1923, the okrugs were abolished and 15 raions were created instead, but in 1924, five of these were abolished.
On 30 October 1930, the remaining ten raions were reorganized into 16 new ones, four cities under direct republican control. In 1935, 10 new raions were added and one abolished. In 1937, one more raion was established; some of the raions had national status for Crimean Tatars, Jews and Ukrainians. By the beginning of World War II, all of these raions had lost their national status. Central Executive CommitteeNovember 7, 1921 – August 1924 Yuri Gaven August 1924 – January 28, 1928 Veli Ibraimov January 28, 1928 – February 20, 1931 Memet Kubayev February 20, 1931 – September 9, 1937 Ilyas Tarkhan September 9, 1937 – July 21, 1938 Abdul-Celil MenbariyevSupreme SovietJuly 21, 1938 – May 18, 1944 Abdul-Celil Menbariyev May 18, 1944 – June 30, 1945 N. Sachiova March 22, 1991 – May 9, 1994 Mykola Bahrov November 16, 1920 – February 20, 1921 Bela Kun February 20, 1921 – November 7, 1921 Mikhail Poliakov November 11, 1921 – May 16, 1924 Sakhib-Garey Said-Galiyev May 16, 1924 – May 1924 I. Goncharov May 1924 – March 21, 1926 Osman Deren-Ayerly March 21, 1926 – May 1929 Emir Shugu May 1929 – September 16, 1937 Abduraim Samedinov 1937 – April 5, 1942 Memet Ibraimov April 5, 1942 – May 18, 1944 Ismail Seyfullayev May 18, 1944 – June 30, 1945 Aleksandr Kabanov March 22, 1991 – May 20, 1993 Vitaliy Kurashik Chekauntil April 1921 Mikhail Vikhman April 1921 – June 1921 Smirnov June 20, 1921 – 1921 Fyodor Fomin November 11, 1921 – February 1922 Aleksandr RotenbergCrimea GPUFebruary 1922 – September 11, 1922 Aleksandr Rotenberg September 11, 1922 – April 25, 1923 Stanislav RedensMerged GPUApril 25, 1923 – June 9, 1924 Stanislav Redens May 20, 1924 – July 29, 1925 Sergei Szwarz 1925 Aleksandr Toropkin October 1926 – April 26, 1928 Ivan Apeter OGPUApril 26, 1928 – December 1929 Grigoriy Rapoport January 23, 1930 – July 10, 1934 Eduard Salins Narkom of State SecurityFebruary 26, 1941 – July 31, 1941 Major Grigoriy Karanadze October 5, 1943 – July 5, 1945 Commissar of the 3rd rank Pyotr Fokin Crimea Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine List of Chairmen of the Executive Committee of Crimea
Cheboksary is the capital city of Chuvashia, Russia and a port on the Volga River. Population: 453,721 ; the city stands on the shore of the Cheboksary Reservoir. Its area is 250.9 square kilometers. The satellite city of Novocheboksarsk is located about 6 kilometers east of Cheboksary, it was first mentioned in written sources in 1469, when Russian soldiers passed here on their way to the Khanate of Kazan. According to archaeological excavations, the area had been populated earlier; the site hosted a Bulgarian city of Veda Suvar, which appeared after Mongols defeated major Volga Bulgarian cities in the 13th century. During Khanate period the town is believed by some to have had a Turkic name Çabaqsar and that the current Russian and English names originate from it. However, in maps by European travelers it was marked as Veda-Suar. Shupashcar, the Chuvash name means the "fortress of the Chuvash". In 1555, the Russians established a settlement here. In 1625, there were 458 soldiers quartered in Cheboksary, in 1646 there were 661 males living in the settlement.
At the end of the 17th century, Cheboksary was regarded as a major commercial city of the Volga region, in 1781 it was granted town status within Kazan Governorate. In the beginning of the 19th century the population was about 5500, the town had a sawmill and several small manufactures. Cheboksary was noted for its twenty-five churches and four monasteries, Cheboksary bells were known in London and Paris. In the 16th and the first half of the 17th century the Vvedensky cathedral, four monasteries and eighth churches had been built, in the 18th century the stone buildings of treasury and archive, magistracy and ten churches. In 1880, here were counted 783 houses, 91 stores, 3 schools, 2 hospitals, a bank. In the beginning of the 20th century, 5,100 people lived in Cheboksary. In 1965, the population was 163,000. Cheboksary is the capital of the republic. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements and two rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Cheboksary—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Cheboksary is incorporated as Cheboksary Urban Okrug. For administrative purposes, Cheboksary is divided into three city districts: Kalininsky and Moskovsky; the population of Cheboksary consists of the two following ethnic groups. Mixed marriages are quite common. Like many cities of Russia, Cheboksary possesses many cultural opportunities. There is an opera-ballet theater, a philharmonic orchestra, Chuvash State Puppet Theater and numerous theaters. However, a popular gathering place for the locals is the completed zaliv, beautifully situated in the middle of the city. There people gather to stroll, visit cafes, socialize. Cheboksary has beautiful boardwalks and beaches along the Volga River, where people swim in the summer. There are a number of heated pools, health clubs, museums. Cheboksary hosted a language festival in 1996. Cheboksary hosts athletics meetings and racewalking events, including the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup, the 2015 European Team Championships Super League, the 2016 Russian athletics and masters athletics championships.
The 2016 IAAF World Race Walking Team Championships were moved from Cheboksary to Rome as part of IAAF sanctions against doping in Russia. Educational institutions include the Chuvash State University, Chuvash State Agriculture Academy, the Chuvash State Pedagogical University, the Cheboksary Cooperative Technical School. Cheboksary Physics and Mathematics School Cheboksary Cooperative Institute Cheboksary is located near a hydro-electric power station generating up to 1,404 MW, with a reservoir of 2,274 square kilometers. Cheboksary is the location of the headquarters of the Concern Tractor Plants, Russia's leading machine building company and one of the largest heavy mechanical engineering companies in the world. Public transportation within Cheboksary is among the best in Russia. An extensive system of trolleybuses and minibuses covers the city, providing quick, convenient access to all parts of the city. For those who prefer taxis, there are several taxi agencies available, but the favorite means of transportation among locals are so-called "Gypsy" cabs.
In Russia, anybody who owns a car is a taxi. This can be a convenient way to get around but it is potentially dangerous. Official taxis cost less than 6 dollars for travel between most points within the city; because the Volga River runs through Chuvashia, Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours that travel along the major cities up and down the Volga. To the south, Rostov-on-Don, the Caspian Sea, Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, it is possible to take cargo from Chuvash riverports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk and ports situated on the Danube river. However, the river is frozen from December to April; the Cheboksary Airport (IATA CSY, ICAO UW
A grain is a small, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant; the two main types of commercial grain crops are legumes. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits and tubers; this durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, milled for flour or pressed for oil. Thus, major global commodity markets exist for maize, soybeans and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. Grains and cereal are synonymous with the fruits of the grass family. In agronomy and commerce, seeds or fruits from other plant families are called grains if they resemble caryopses. For example, amaranth is sold as "grain amaranth", amaranth products may be described as "whole grains"; the pre-Hispanic civilizations of the Andes had grain-based food systems but, at the higher elevations, none of the grains was a cereal.
All three grains native to the Andes are broad-leafed plants rather than grasses such as corn and wheat. All cereal crops are members of the grass family. Cereal grains contain a substantial amount of a carbohydrate that provides dietary energy. Finger millet fonio foxtail millet Japanese millet Coix lacryma-jobi var. Ma-yuen kodo millet maize millet pearl millet proso millet sorghum barley oats rice rye spelt teff triticale wheat wild rice Starchy grains from broadleaf plant families: amaranth buckwheat chia quinoa kañiwa kiwicha Pulses or grain legumes, members of the pea family, have a higher protein content than most other plant foods, at around 20%, while soybeans have as much as 35%; as is the case with all other whole plant foods, pulses contain carbohydrate and fat. Common pulses include: chickpeas common beans common peas fava beans lentils lima beans lupins mung beans peanuts pigeon peas runner beans soybeans Oilseed grains are grown for the extraction of their edible oil. Vegetable oils provide some essential fatty acids.
They are used as fuel and lubricants. Black mustard India mustard rapeseed safflower sunflower seed flax seed hemp seed poppy seed Because grains are small and dry, they can be stored and transported more than can other kinds of food crops such as fresh fruits and tubers; the development of grain agriculture allowed excess food to be produced and stored which could have led to the creation of the first permanent settlements and the division of society into classes. Those who handle grain at grain facilities may encounter numerous occupational hazards and exposures. Risks include grain entrapment, where workers are submerged in the grain and unable to remove themselves.
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1990 a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic comprised sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group; the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia became industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR.
By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives; the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "Union Republic is a sovereign state that has united in the Union" and "each Union Republic shall retain the right to secede from the USSR". On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers, established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin, supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would become the presidency of the Russian Federation; the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords; the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States as a loose confederation.
On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation, with President Yeltsin re-establishing the sovereign and independent state. With the lowering at 12 midnight of the red flag with hammer and sickle design of the now former USSR from the towers of the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics, which by that time was the only functioning chamber of the parliamentary Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR; the 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik communists established the Soviet state on 7 November 1917 after the interim Russian Provisional Government, most led by opposing democratic socialist Alexander Kerensky, which governed the new Russian Republic after the overthrow of the Russian Empire government of the Romanov imperial dynasty of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, was now itself overthrown during the following October Revolution, the second of t
In geography, a confluence occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river. Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences. Hydrology studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion and scour pools; the water flows and their consequences are studied with mathematical models. Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms as well; the United States Geological Survey gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with acid mine drainage combines with a stream with near-neutral pH water. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals and biologic content – algae." Lynch notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they blend completely.
Hydrodynamic behaviour of flow in a confluence can be divided into six distinct features which are called confluence flow zones. These include Stagnation zone Flow deflection zone Flow separation zone / recirculation zone Maximum velocity zone Flow recovery zone Shear layers Since rivers serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a tripoint. Various examples are found in the list below. A number of major cities, such as Chongqing, St. Louis, Khartoum, arose at confluences. Within a city, a confluence forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in Koblenz and Winnipeg. Cities often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and Pittsburgh. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in Mannheim. A confluence lies in the shared floodplain of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at Manaus, described below.
One other way that confluences may be employed by humans is as a sacred place in a religion. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the Iron Age in northwest Europe, watery locations were sacred sources and confluences. Pre-Christian Slavic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites. In Hinduism, the confluence of two sacred rivers is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to Mayanism consider their city's confluence to be sacred. At Lokoja, the Benue River flows into the Niger. At Kazungula in Zambia, the Chobe River flows into the Zambezi; the confluence defines the tripoint of Zambia and Namibia. The land border between Botswana and Zimbabwe to the east reaches the Zambezi at this confluence, so there is a second tripoint only 150 meters downstream from the first. See Kazungula and Quadripoint, Gallery below for image; the Sudanese capital of Khartoum is located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile, the beginning of the Nile.
82 km north of Basra in Iraq at the town of Al-Qurnah is the confluence of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, forming the Shatt al-Arab. At Devprayag in India, the Ganges River originates at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda. Near Allahabad, the Yamuna flows into the Ganges. In Hinduism, this is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Hindu belief the site is held to be a triple confluence, the third river being the metaphysical Sarasvati. Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, is where the Gombak River flows into the Klang River at the site of the Jamek Mosque; the Kolam Biru, a pool with elaborate fountains, has been installed at the apex of the confluence. The Nam Khan River flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos; the Jialing flows into the Yangtze at Chongqing in China. The confluence forms a focal point in the city, marked by Chaotianmen Square, built in 1998. In the Far East, the Amur forms the international boundary between Russia; the Ussuri, which demarcates the border, flows into the Amur at a point midway between Fuyuan in China and Khabarovsk in Russia.
The apex of the confluence is located in a rural area, part of China, where a commemorative park, Dongji Square, has been built.
The Kama is a river 1,805 kilometres long in Russia. It is the largest one in discharge. At their confluence, in fact, the Kama is larger than the Volga, it starts in the Udmurt Republic, near Kuliga, flowing northwest for 200 kilometres, turning northeast near Loyno for another 200 kilometres turning south and west in Perm Krai, flowing again through the Udmurt Republic and through the Republic of Tatarstan, where it meets the Volga. Before the advent of railroads, important portages connected the Kama with the basins of the Northern Dvina and the Pechora. In the early 19th-century the Northern Ekaterininsky Canal connected the upper Kama with the Vychegda River, but was abandoned after just a few years due to low use; the Kama featured in the 2013 Russian film The Geographer Drank His Globe Away, in the climactic rapids scene. The Kama is dammed at several locations: At Perm, by the dam of the Kama Hydroelectric Station, forming the Kama Reservoir. Media related to Kama River at Wikimedia Commons Naberezhnye Chelny and the Kama River
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly