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The Cibao referred as "El Cibao", is a region of the Dominican Republic located at the northern part of the country. As of 2009 the Cibao has a population of 5,622,378 making it the most populous region in the country; the word Cibao, from Taino Ciba-o, meaning'rocky land'. Cibao was a native name for the island, although the Spanish used it during the Spanish conquest to refer to the rich and fertile valley between the Central and Septentrional mountain ranges. El Cibao occupies the northern part of the Dominican territory. To the north and east of the region lies the Atlantic Ocean; the Cordillera Central mountain range is located within El Cibao, containing the highest peak in all of the Caribbean, Pico Duarte. Two of the largest rivers of the country are located inside this region: the Yaque del Norte, the largest river of the Dominican Republic, the Yuna river. Both of these rivers contain several chains of dams used to provide the region with water for irrigation and hydroelectric energy.

Rice and cacao are the most important crops grown in the area. The central mountain range has important mining activity, its main mineral resources include gold and nickel, among others. The largest gold mine in the Americas and second largest in the world, the Pueblo Viejo mine, is located in the Cibao region; the internationally known Barrick Gold and Falconbridge are the companies in charge of the extraction of these ores. The valley is not only a geographical unit, but a cultural and linguistic unit; the Cibao region is considered to be the cultural heartland of the Dominican Republic. The typical accent spoken in the Cibao region is a mixture of two dialects: that of the 16th- and 17th-century Portuguese colonists in the Cibao valley, of the 18th-century Canarian settlers. Merengue music, played using the güira and accordion, was originated in El Cibao; the original folk type of merengue is known as perico ripiao or típico, played to this day by local musical groups, as a variation of the merengue, with a faster pace.

During Late January and through February, several carnivals are held within the region. The most popular of these festivals belongs to the province of La Vega, dates back to the first European settlements, it began as a religious activity celebrating the pre-Lent season, the carnival's theme revolves around the victory of good over evil. Many important Dominican patriots were of Cibaeño origin. Among the most important are local generals José Desiderio Valverde and José Antonio Salcedo, who were responsible for the restoration of the Republic in the decades of the 1800s. During the Trujillo dictatorship, the Mirabal sisters arranged clandestine organizations to rebel against the fascist dictatorship; the sisters were brutally murdered in 1960, remain today as some of the biggest martyrs on behalf of the Dominican nation. The bulk of the population is concentrated in the center of the region; the city of Santiago de los Caballeros constitutes the regional center and main focus of development of the area

Ministry of Human Rights (Brazil)

The Ministry of Women and Human Rights, former Ministry of Human Rights and Secretariat for Human Rights of the Presidency of the Republic is an office attached to the Presidency of Brazil. Its purpose is to implement and protect human rights, civic rights, the rights of children, women, the elderly, the disabled; the Secretariat was created on 7 April 1997, during the first administration of Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Called the National Human Rights Secretariat, it was attached to the Ministry of Justice. On 1 January 1999, responsibility for the Secretariat was transferred to the President's office. On May 28, 2002, it was renamed Special Secretariat for Human Rights, it assumed its current name on March 2010, when it became an essential office of the Presidency. MMFDH is headed by the Minister of Women and Human Rights, a ministerial-level position; the incumbent is Damares Alves, in office since January 1st, 2019. Her predecessor was Gustavo do Vale, who headed the Ministry between February 19, 2018, January 1st, 2019.

MMFDH operates as the Brazilian Federal Central Authority under the terms of article 6 of the 1993 Hague Adoption Convention. Besides this, the secretariat acts as the central authority under the terms of article 6 of the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. In this respect, it functions as a conduit between other countries' central authorities and the various Regional Federal Tribunals in Brazil which deal with international child abduction cases. In this sense, it is the equivalent of the US Department of State's Office of Children's Issues and the UK's Office of the Official Solicitor. Any application for the return of an abducted minor from Brazil must be directed to the central authority of the country from which the child was abducted; this central authority will contact SDH, which will analyze and verify all the information and decide whether it complies with the requirements provided for under the Convention. Since the Secretariat has only an administrative and informational remit, it maintains a list of private lawyers that it recommends for Hague Convention cases.

These lawyers, however, do not respond to requests for assistance from abroad and they have been singularly unsuccessful in having children returned to their home countries. The Secretariat is required under its remit to liaise with the Federal Police of the Ministry of Justice and with Interpol, to locate and return minors who are reported as missing. However, reports from the parents of abducted children say that this is done and that the office that deals with these matters is chaotic. According to Decree No. 3951/01, SDH has informational competence. It cannot decide cases involving parental kidnapping and return and visitation schedules for abducted children.. The neutrality of MMFDH and its respect for international law has come under increased international focus and scrutiny because of growing concerns over International child abduction in Brazil. In the case of Sean Goldman, a child abducted from the US to Brazil in 2004 and held by his mother's family against the wishes of his father Special Secretary Paulo Vannuchi intervened publicly, claiming that the child should remain in Brazil though this amounted to kidnapping and was against the terms of the Hague Convention.

In a speech to the Brazilian parliament in April 2009, he claimed that if the child were allowed to visit his father in the US, he might end up being'kidnapped' though the child had been abducted to Brazil in the first place. International outrage and a public campaign damaged the image of SDH and the Brazilian judiciary and Sean Goldman was returned to his father in December 2009 only after the US government withdrew trade benefits from Brazil; the Special Secretary for Human Rights, in what some have labeled a damage-limitation exercise, visited the US Department of State for a full week in November 2009 to review longstanding cases involving the abduction of US children. During this trip and Brazilian Embassy officials met with the parents of children kidnapped and taken to Brazil, NGOs, members of the US Congress and a federal judge who works on Hague Convention cases; the secretary explained in detail resolutions made by the Brazilian Supreme Court and SDH's outreach and education campaign to address Brazilian judges’ lack of familiarity with the Convention and the supreme court's resolutions.


Mukaiyama aldol addition

The Mukaiyama aldol addition is an organic reaction and a type of aldol reaction between a silyl enol ether and an aldehyde or formate. The reaction was discovered by Teruaki Mukaiyama in 1973, his choice of reactants allows for a crossed aldol reaction between an aldehyde and a ketone or a different aldehyde without self-condensation of the aldehyde. For this reason the reaction is used extensively in organic synthesis; the Mukaiyama aldol addition is a Lewis acid mediated addition of enol silanes to carbonyl compounds. In this reaction compounds with various organic groups can be used. A basic version without the presence of chiral catalysts is shown below. A racemic mix of enantiomers is built. If Z- or E-enol silanes are used in this reaction a mixture of four products occurs, yielding two racemates. Whether the anti-diastereomer or the syn-diastereomer is built depends on reaction conditions and Lewis acids; the archetypical reaction is that of the silyl enol ether of cyclohexanone with benzaldehyde.

At room temperature it produces a diastereomeric mixture of threo and erythro β-hydroxyketone as well as 6% of the exocyclic enone condensation product. In its original scope the Lewis acid was used in stoichiometric amounts but catalytic systems exist as well; the reaction is optimized for asymmetric synthesis. Below, the reaction mechanism is shown with R2 = H: In the cited example the Lewis acid TiCl4 is used. First, the Lewis acid activates the aldehyde component followed by carbon-carbon bond formation between the enol silane and the activated aldehyde. With the loss of a chlorosilane the compound 1 is built; the desired product, a racemate of 2 and 3, is obtained by aqueous work-up. A typical reaction involving two ketones is that between acetophenone as the enol and acetone: Ketone reactions of this type require higher reaction temperatures. For this work Mukaiyama was inspired by earlier work done by Georg Wittig in 1966 on crossed aldol reactions with lithiated imines. Competing work with lithium enolate aldol reactions was published in 1973 by Herbert O. House.

Mukaiyama employed in his rendition of taxol total synthesis two aldol additions, one with a ketene silyl acetal and excess magnesium bromide: and a second one with an amine chiral ligand and a triflate salt catalyst: Utilization of chiral Lewis acid complexes and Lewis bases in asymmetric catalytic processes is the fastest-growing area in the usage of the Mukaiyama aldol reaction

Ward No. 110, Kolkata Municipal Corporation

The councilor of this ward is Mr Arup Chakraborty. His ward office is located at:- Briji,Gazipukur,Garia,Kolkata 700084. Ward No. 110, Kolkata Municipal Corporation is an administrative division of Kolkata Municipal Corporation in Borough No. 11, covering part of Garia neighbourhood in South Kolkata in the Indian state of West Bengal. The establishment and evolution of Kolkata Municipal Corporation followed a long process starting from around the middle of the 19th century; the Municipal Consolidation Act of 1888 and certain steps taken thereafter saw the addition of peripheral areas in the eastern and southern parts of the city to the corporation area. In 1888, there were 75 commissioners, 50 of whom were elected, 15 appointed by the government and 10 nominated from bodies like Chambers of Commerce, Trades Associations and the Port Commissioners; the Calcutta Municipal Act of 1923 brought about important changes. The adjacent municipalities of Cossipore, Chitpore and Garden Reach, as well as the New Dock Extension area, were amalgamated with Kolkata.

Garden Reach was taken out. Post-independence developments saw the introduction of adult franchise in municipal elections in 1962; the number of wards increased from 75 to 100. Tollygunge was merged with Kolkata in 1953; the Calcutta Municipal Corporation Act 1980, which came into effect in 1984, extended the boundaries of Kolkata by including South Suburban, Garden Reach and Jadavpur municipalities in Kolkata. With the addition of Joka to Kolkata, the number of wards rose to 144. Ward No. 110 is bordered on the north by Eastern Metropolitan EM Bypass link. The ward is served by Patuli police station of Kolkata Police. Patuli Women police station has jurisdiction over all police districts under the jurisdiction of South Suburban Division i.e. Netaji Nagar, Kasba, Regent Park, Bansdroni and Patuli; as per the 2011 Census of India, Ward No. 110, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, had a total population of 27,470, of which 13,681 were males and 13,789 were females. Population below 6 years was 1,894; the total number of literates in Ward No. 110 was 23,363.

Kolkata is the second most literate district in West Bengal. The literacy rate of Kolkata district has increased from 53.0% in 1951 to 86.3% in the 2011 census. See – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate Census data about mother tongue and religion is not available at the ward level. For district level information see Kolkata district. According to the District Census Handbook Kolkata 2011, 141 wards of Kolkata Municipal Corporation formed Kolkata district.. The ward forms a city municipal corporation council electoral constituency and is a part of Jadavpur. Source: DNA West Bengal Municipal Election Results, 28 April 2015 Kolkata/Southern fringes travel guide from Wikivoyage


Montrest is a house on Lane Gate Road outside Nelsonville, New York, United States. It was built after the Civil War as a summer residence by Aaron Healy, a successful New York leather dealer, to take advantage of panoramic views of the Hudson River and surrounding mountains of the Highlands, he divided the estate between his two sons, in the early 20th century Montrest, the upper house, became the family's primary residence. In 1982 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Montrest property has been expanded over the years by the Healy family to 160 acres straddling Lane Gate, a dirt road climbing into the hills of Philipstown above the village of Nelsonville. The land slopes downward, revealing views of the Hudson, Bull Hill and Storm King Mountain to the west. There are a number of buildings on the property; the main house is a two-and-a-half-story frame building sided in white shingles. It has four intersecting gables on top, a projecting three-story bay with gabled roof on the west side and a two-bay one-story eastern wing.

The ground level of the front has a full veranda with porte-cochere. Downhill a cluster of buildings centers on the farm superintendent's cottage, a one-and-a-half-story frame structure on stone foundation in a similar Gothic style to the main house, its gabled roof is crossed on its eastern side by a extension. Small octagonal windows are in the apex of rear gables; the main entrance is located underneath a cusped arch gable with protruding dormer. Two pointed arch windows form a gabled dormer on the west side, a porch with scalloped frieze is attached to the northwest corner. To the cottage's west is a stone-and-frame greenhouse and potting shed, it is not in use but was built for an expansion of farming operations at the turn of the 20th century. To the south are some old barns. At the intersection of Lane Gate and the main driveway is the carriage house/stable complex, it is a one-and-a-half -story board-and-batten-sided house on a stone foundation with gabled asphalt roof pierced centrally by a brick chimney.

The second story has three small eyebrow windows below the roof overhang. Two extensions project from the west. On the east of Lane Gate is a tenant house, a two-story L-shaped frame building with a raised stone basement sided in shingles as well. A veranda wraps around the front, supported by four piers with decorative corner brackets. To the east is a clapboard-sided, gable-roofed asphalt-shingled garage. Healy commissioned the estate the following year. In 1885 he divided the property between his sons Augustus and Frank, with Augustus taking the lower half and building a house called Breeze Lawn, no longer extant. Around 1900 Frank Healy had several buildings on Montrest expanded by architect Alfred Raymond to support increased farm operations; the greenhouse and tenant house, as well as a chicken coop and corn crib, were built then. By the 1930s automobiles had displaced horse travel, the carriage house was remodeled accordingly, with some additions to allow it to be used as a residence. In 1947 the main house underwent major renovations to allow the Healy family to make it their full-time residence.

Among other changes, an indoor laundry room was converted to a two-car storage space. Libby Healy, great-granddaughter of Aaron, still lives in the house, she has added to the property and acquired conservation easements on neighboring parcels in the hope that some of the hiking trails on them will be able to be reopened to the public

Wirtgen Group

Wirtgen Group is an internationally operating German company in the construction industry. The company's core business is the development and production of machinery for road construction and maintenance. Wirtgen Group employs around 8,500 people around the world and his annual turnover is around 3 billions €, it has local manufacturing plants in Brazil and India, 55 distribution and service offices and over 150 authorized dealers around the globe. In November 1961 Reinhard Wirtgen founded a small contracting business in Windhagen, starting with small haulage jobs and specializing in road construction machinery with concrete breakers. Wirtgen expanded his fleet to 100 milling machines and 150 workers operating all over Germany. Reinhard Wirtgen progressed the product portfolio from hot milling to cold milling machines by the end of the 70s, which increased the economic efficiency of the milling process; the international development of the company began when Reinhard Wirtgen set up the first subsidiaries outside of Germany.

Reinhard Wirtgen systematically expanded his product portfolio at the production plant to four product divisions. In 1981, Wirtgen built the first surface miners for opencast mining and routing operations in hard rock. From 1987 onwards, Wirtgen introduced cold recycling as an economical method of road rehabilitation. Two years he incorporated the slipform paver division into his company to offer solutions for the construction of concrete roads and poured-in-place concrete profiles. Jürgen Wirtgen and Stefan Wirtgen took over the management of the company in 1997; the expansion of the corporate group began with the integration of the road paver manufacturer Vögele. Hamm, a roller manufacturer, was integrated into Wirtgen Group in 1999. High investments in the three production plants resulted in the expansion of production capacities and efficiency, as well as a strong presence for the corporate group on a global scale. In 2006 Wirtgen Group consolidated two business lines: "Road Technologies" and "Mineral Technologies".

The second line was established with the incorporation of Kleemann, a German manufacturer of mobile and stationary processing plants. In 2014, the manufacturer of asphalt mixing plants Benninghoven was integrated into the company. In 2017, Wirtgen Group entered into a definitive agreement with John Deere to be purchased for $5.2 Billion. Wirtgen GmbH is located in Windhagen in Rheinland-Pfalz, it is the youngest and largest subcompany of the corporation. Wirtgen GmbH produces road milling machines and cold recyclers, as well as Surface miners for open cast mining operations. Joseph Vögele AG is based in Ludwigshafen am Rhein in Rheinland-Pfalz; the company is the world market leader for asphalt pavers and belongs to Wirtgen Group since 1996. HAMM AG, founded in Tirschenreuth in Bayern, is specialized in compaction technology, it is part of Wirtgen Group since 2000 and it manufactures road and soil compactors. Located in Göppingen in Baden-Württemberg, KLEEMANN GmbH manufactures screening plants.

It is part of Wirtgen Group since 2006. BENNINGHOVEN GmbH & Co. KG, located in Wittlich in Rheinland-Pfalz, is one of the largest recycling and asphalt mixing plant manufacturer in Germany; the company belongs to Wirtgen Group since 2014. Ciber Equipamentos Rodoviários is Wirtgen Group's local production facility for Latin America and completes the comprehensive product range with its own brand; the brand headquarter is located in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, in the city of Porto Alegre. CIBER manufactures hot mix asphalt pavers on five production lines, it produces a model from the WIRTGEN cold milling machine line and a HAMM roller, each of which are adapted to the requirements of the local market. The local production facility for China is established near Beijing; the production range includes selected models of WIRTGEN cold milling machines, VÖGELE road pavers and HAMM rollers. Around 380 employees work in an area of 200.000 m². The new head office of WIRTGEN INDIA is located in the vicinity of Pune, an industrial center in the northwest of India.

672 employees work in the 129,100m² production area, assembling HAMM of two models single-drum <model 311> and mutli-drum <model HD99> compactors, KLEEMANN screens. & Vogele Pavers