click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cichlid

Cichlids are fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Cichliformes. Cichlids were traditionally classed in a suborder, along with the wrasses, in the order Perciformes but molecular studies have contradicted this grouping; the closest living relatives of cichlids are the convict blennies and both families are classified in the 5th edition of Fishes of the World as the two families in the Cichliformes, part of the subseries Ovalentaria. This family is both diverse. At least 1,650 species have been scientifically described, making it one of the largest vertebrate families. New species are discovered annually, many species remain undescribed; the actual number of species is therefore unknown, with estimates varying between 2,000 and 3,000. Many cichlids tilapia, are important food fishes, while others, such as the Cichla species, are valued game fish; the family includes many popular freshwater aquarium fish kept by hobbyists, including the angelfish and discus. Cichlids have the largest number of endangered species among vertebrate families, most in the haplochromine group.

Cichlids are well known for having evolved into many related but morphologically diverse species within large lakes Tanganyika, Victoria and Edward. Their diversity in the African Great Lakes is important for the study of speciation in evolution. Many cichlids introduced into waters outside of their natural range have become nuisances. All cichlids have some form of parental care for their eggs and fry; that parental care may come in the form of guarding the eggs and fry or it may come in the form of mouthbrooding. Cichlids span a wide range of body sizes, from species as small as 2.5 cm in length to much larger species approaching 1 m in length. As a group, cichlids exhibit a similar diversity of body shapes, ranging from laterally compressed species to species that are cylindrical and elongated. However, cichlids tend to be of medium size, ovate in shape, laterally compressed, similar to the North American sunfishes in morphology and ecology. Cichlids share a single key trait: the fusion of the lower pharyngeal bones into a single tooth-bearing structure.

A complex set of muscles allows the upper and lower pharyngeal bones to be used as a second set of jaws for processing food, allowing a division of labor between the "true jaws" and the "pharyngeal jaws". Cichlids are efficient and highly specialized feeders that capture and process a wide variety of food items; this is assumed to be one reason. The features that distinguish them from the other families in Labroidei include: A single nostril on each side of the forehead, instead of two No bony shelf below the orbit of the eye Division of the lateral line organ into two sections, one on the upper half of the flank and a second along the midline of the flank from about halfway along the body to the base of the tail A distinctively shaped otolith The small intestine's left-side exit from the stomach instead of its right side as in other Labroidei Kullander recognizes eight subfamilies of cichlids: the Astronotinae, Cichlinae, Geophaginae, Heterochromidinae, Pseudocrenilabrinae, Retroculinae.

A ninth subfamily, was recognized by Sparks and Smith. Cichlid taxonomy is still debated, classification of genera cannot yet be definitively given. A comprehensive system of assigning species to monophyletic genera is still lacking, there is not complete agreement on what genera should be recognized in this family; as an example of the classification problems, Kullander placed the African genus Heterochromis phylogenetically within Neotropical cichlids, although papers concluded otherwise. Other problems center upon the identity of the putative common ancestor for the Lake Victoria superflock, the ancestral lineages of Tanganyikan cichlids. Comparisons between a morphologically-based phylogeny and analyses of gene loci produce differences at the genus level. There remains a consensus. In cichlid taxonomy, dentition was used as a classifying characteristic. However, this was complicated by the fact that in many cichlids, tooth shape changes with age, due to wear, cannot be relied upon. Genome sequencing and other technologies transformed cichlid taxonomy.

Cichlids are one of the largest vertebrate families in the world. They are most diverse in South America. Africa alone is estimated to host at least 1,600 species. Central America and Mexico have about 120 species, as far north as the Rio Grande in southern Texas. Madagascar has its own distinctive species, only distantly related to those on the African mainland. Native cichlids are absent in Asia, except for 9 species in Israel and Syria, two in Iran, three in India and Sri Lanka. If disregarding Trinidad and Tobago, the three species from the genus Nandopsis are the only cichlids from the Antilles in the Caribbean Cuba and Hispaniola

Ebonics (word)

Ebonics is a term, intended to refer to the language of all people descended from enslaved Black Africans in West Africa, the Caribbean, North America. Since the 1996 controversy over its use by the Oakland School Board, the term Ebonics has been used to refer to the sociolect African American English, a dialect distinctively different from Standard American English; the word Ebonics was coined in 1973 by African American social psychologist Robert Williams in a discussion with linguist Ernie Smith that took place in a conference on "Cognitive and Language Development of the Black Child", held in St. Louis, Missouri, his intention was to give a name to the language of African Americans that acknowledged the linguistic consequence of the slave trade and avoided the negative connotations of other terms like "Nonstandard Negro English": We need to define what we speak. We need to give a clear definition to our language... We know that phonics refers to speech sounds or the science of sounds. Thus, we are talking about the science of black speech sounds or language.

In 1975, the term appeared in Ebonics: The True Language of Black Folks, a book edited and cowritten by Williams: A two-year-old term created by a group of black scholars, Ebonics may be defined as "the linguistic and paralinguistic features which on a concentric continuum represent the communicative competence of the West African and United States slave descendants of African origin. It includes the various idioms, argots and social dialects of black people" those who have adapted to colonial circumstances. Ebonics derives its form from ebony and phonics and refers to the study of the language of black people in all its cultural uniqueness. Other writers have since emphasized how the term represents a view of the language of Black people as African rather than European; the term was not popular among those who agreed with the reason for coining it. Within Williams' book, the term Black English is far more used than the term Ebonics. John Baugh has stated, it may: 1. Be "an international construct, including the linguistic consequences of the African slave trade".

Refer to the languages of the African diaspora as a whole. It "is the equivalent of black English and is considered to be a dialect of English", or 4, it "is the antonym of black English and is considered to be a language other than English". Ebonics remained a little-known term until 1996, it does not appear in the 1989 second edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, nor was it adopted by linguists. The term became known in the United States due to a controversy over a decision by the Oakland School Board to denote and recognize the primary language of African-American youths attending school, to thereby acquire budgeted funds to facilitate the teaching of standard English. Thereafter, the term Ebonics became popularized, though as little more than a synonym for African American English differing in the emphasis on its claimed African roots and independence from English; the term is linked with the nationally discussed controversy over the decision by the Oakland School Board, which adopted a resolution to teach children "standard American English" through a specific program of respect for students' home language and tutoring in the "code switching" required to use both standard English and Ebonics.

While the term is avoided by most linguists, it is used elsewhere for ridiculing AAE when this is parodied as drastically differing from Standard American English. African American linguist John McWhorter argues that the use of the term does more to hinder black academic achievement than to help it, in that considering AAE to be a different language from English serves only to widen the perceived divide between whites and blacks in the United States. Walt Wolfram, a long-time researcher into AAE, points out that discussion of this variety of English "gets politicized and trivialized by the term'Ebonics.'" Code-switching Dialects of North American English Hebronics Multicultural London English Southern American English Stereotypes of African Americans Baugh, John. Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic pride and racial prejudice. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512046-9. Blackshire-Belay, Carol Aisha, "The location of Ebonics within the framework of the Afrocological paradigm", Journal of Black Studies, 27: 5–23, doi:10.1177/002193479602700101 Green, Lisa J. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-89138-8 McWhorter, John H..

Losing the Race: Self-Sabotage in Black America. New York: The Free Press. O'Neil, Wayne, "If Ebonics isn't a language tell me, what is?", in Perry, Theresa. What is Ebonics (African American Vernacul

Gareth Smith

Gareth Smith is a former English cricketer. Smith was a right handed batsman, he was born at County Durham. Smith made his first-class debut for Northamptonshire against the touring Indians in 1986, his County Championship debut for the county came against Derbyshire in the same season. From 1986 to 1989, he represented the county in 9 first-class matches, the last of which came against Essex, his debut in List A cricket came for Northamptonshire. His debut match in that format come against Somerset in 1987, with his second and final List A match for Northamptonshire coming against Sussex two years later. In 1990, he joined Warwickshire, he played a single first-class match for the county, to be the last in his career, against Sussex. In his career total of 10 first-class matches, he scored 90 runs at a batting average of 10.00, with a high score of 30. In the field he took 3 catches and with the ball he took 21 wickets at a bowling average of 30.14, with a single five wicket haul which gave him best figures of 6/72.

He played 3 List A matches for Warwickshire during the 1990 season against Essex and Sussex. In 1992, he represented Bedfordshire, his debut in the Minor Counties Championship for the county came against Lincolnshire. During the 1992 season, he represented the county in 5 Championship matches, the last of which came against Staffordshire. Smith played a single MCCA Knockout Trophy match in 1992 for Bedfordshire against Suffolk, his next appearance in List A cricket came for the Durham Cricket Board in the 1999 NatWest Trophy against Oxfordshire. From 1999 to 2001, he represented the Board in 7 one-day matches, the last of which came against Hertfordshire in the 2001 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy. In his career total of 12 List A matches, he scored 25 runs at an average of 8.33, with a high score of 9*. With the ball he took 14 wickets an average of 25.42, with best figures of 2/20. Gareth Smith at Cricinfo Gareth Smith at CricketArchive

Presidio of San Francisco

The Presidio of San Francisco is a park and former U. S. Army military fort on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Francisco, is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, it had been a fortified location since September 17, 1776, when New Spain established the presidio to gain a foothold in Alta California and the San Francisco Bay. It passed to Mexico, which in turn passed it to the United States in 1848; as part of a 1989 military reduction program under the Base Realignment and Closure process, Congress voted to end the Presidio's status as an active military installation of the U. S. Army. On October 1, 1994, it was transferred to the National Park Service, ending 219 years of military use and beginning its next phase of mixed commercial and public use. In 1996, the United States Congress created the Presidio Trust to oversee and manage the interior 80% of the park's lands, with the National Park Service managing the coastal 20%. In a first-of-its-kind structure, Congress mandated that the Presidio Trust make the Presidio financially self-sufficient by 2013.

The Presidio achieved the goal in 2005, eight years ahead of the scheduled deadline. The park is characterized by many wooded areas and scenic vistas overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay, the Pacific Ocean, it was recognized as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and as a National Historic Landmark in 1962. The visitor centers are operated by the National Park Service: Presidio Visitor Center: offers changing exhibits about the Presidio, information about sights and activities in the park, a bookstore; the Presidio Transit Center is located adjacent to this visitor center and is served by the PresidiGo Shuttle and Muni bus routes. Battery Chamberlin: seacoast defense museum and artillery display at Baker Beach built in 1904. Fort Point: 1861 brick and granite fortification located under the Golden Gate Bridge; the visitor center, open on Friday and Sunday, offers video orientations, guided tours, self-guiding materials, a bookstore. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Center: This center offers hands-on marine-life exhibits, is located in a historic Coast Guard Station at the west end of Crissy Field.

The building was used by the Coast Guard from 1890 to 1990. Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion: opened May 2012 for the 75th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge, the Pavilion is the first visitor center in the history of the Golden Gate Bridge, it is located just east of the southern end of the bridge. Hidden Presidio Outdoor Track: begins at Julius Kahn Playground and encircles the valley just below it.75 miles of dirt trails, wooden stairs, various altitudes. To view track course see Crissy Field Center is an urban environmental education center with programs for schools, public workshops, after-school programs, summer camps, more; the Center is operated by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy and overlooks a restored tidal marsh. The facilities include interactive environmental exhibits, a media lab, resource library, arts workshop, science lab, gathering room, teaching kitchen, café and bookstore; the landscape of Crissy Field was designed by George Hargreaves. The project restored a functioning and sustaining tidal wetland as a habitat for flora and fauna, which were not in evidence on the site.

It restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a culturally significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing 1 1⁄2-mile San Francisco shore to a broader number of Presidio residents and visitors. A major planned component of the Presidio's park attractions is the Tunnel Tops project, which would construct a 14-acre park on top of the tunneled portions of Doyle Drive; the park would contain several meadows and walking trails, along with viewpoints for major landmarks such as the Golden Gate Bridge. Negotiations between Caltrans, the San Francisco County Transportation Authority, the Presidio Trust to finalize the land transfer for the park lasted from 2015 to 2018; the budget for the park is $100 million, funded with public funds from the Presidio Trust along with private contributions. Construction for the park is planned to start in October 2018 and the park is slated to be open for public use in 2021.

Pre-1776: The area was Ohlone land. 1776: Spanish Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led 193 soldiers and children on a trek from present day Tubac, Arizona, to San Francisco Bay. September 17, 1776: The Presidio began as a Spanish garrison to defend Spain's claim to San Francisco Bay and to support Mission Dolores. 1794: Castillo de San Joaquin, an artillery emplacement was built above present-day Fort Point, San Francisco, complete with iron or bronze cannon. Six cannons may be seen in the Presidio today. 1776–1821: The Presidio was a simple fort made of adobe and wood. It was damaged by earthquakes or heavy rains. In 1783, its company was only 33 men. Presidio soldiers' duties were to support Mission Dolores by controlling Indian workers in the Mission, farming and hunting in order to supply themselves and their families. Support from Spanish authorities in Mexico was limited. 1821: Mexico became independent of Spain. The Presidio received less support from Mexico. Residents of Alta California, which included the Presidio, debated separating from Mexico.

1827, January: Minor earthquake in San Francisco, some build

Prince Paul of W├╝rttemberg

Prince Paul of Württemberg was the fourth child and second son of King Frederick I and his wife, Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Through an illegitimate daughter, Paul is the great-great-great-great-grandfather of British Prime Minister Boris Johnson. Paul was born in St. Petersburg during a period when his father, not yet the ruler of Württemberg, was made governor of Old Finland by Catherine the Great in Russia; the couple had traveled to Russia to visit Frederick's sister Sophie, married to the heir to the Russian throne, the Tsesarevich Paul. Prince Paul's parents separated shortly after his birth; the marriage was unhappy, there were allegations of abusive treatment of his mother. His mother was never returned to Württemberg, she died in exile in Koluvere, Estonia, in 1788. In 1797, Frederick married Charlotte, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom, who supervised the education of Paul and his two surviving siblings and Catharina. Charlotte regarded Paul as "a comical boy and, in my partial eyes, his manners are like Adolphus."As Paul grew up, her opinion changed.

During the visit of the Allied sovereigns to London in 1814, along with many other princes, was taken to visit the Ascot races by the Prince Regent. He got the Prince of Orange blind drunk. "For thirteen years he has done nothing but offend his father with the improprieties of his conduct", his stepmother wrote. On 28 September 1805 in Ludwigsburg, Paul married Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen, second daughter of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen who became Duke of Saxe-Altenburg in 1826, they had five children: Friederike Charlotte Marie. Paul Friedrich Pauline Friederike Marie. Through Pauline, Paul is an ancestor of the present Belgian, Dutch, Luxembourg and Swedish royal families. August. Shortly before his marriage, Paul had an actress named Friederike Margrethe Porth. Friederike was the daughter of his wife Caroline. Paul and Friederike had a daughter baptized Adelheid Pauline Karoline called Karoline, marrying as Karoline von Rottenburg. So far it has not been discovered. On 16 February 1836, in Augsburg, Karoline married Freiherr Karl von Pfeffel.

Karoline and Karl had at least one son Hubert, Baron von Pfeffel, born in Munich on 8 December 1843, who married Hélène Arnous-Rivière, born on 14 January 1862. Hubert and Hélène had one daughter, Marie Louise, Baroness von Pfeffel, born in Paris on 15 August 1882, married Stanley F. Williams of Bromley, Kent. Marie and Stanley's daughter Irene Williams married Osman Wilfred Kemal, alias Wilfred Johnson, born in 1909 at Bournemouth, Dorset. Osman was the son of Ali Kemal Bey, sometime Interior Minister of Turkey, by his first wife Winifred Brun. Irene and Wilfred's son, Stanley Patrick Johnson, married firstly Charlotte Fawcett, daughter of Sir James Fawcett, they had four children. Wilfred married Jennifer Kidd and had two further children. Charlotte married American academic Nicholas Wahl; the four children born to Stanley and Charlotte are: Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, former Mayor of London and former UK Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.

Rachel Johnson, a journalist, married to Ivo Dawnay, the communications director of the National Trust, has three children. In 1815 Paul moved from his home in Stuttgart to Paris, leaving his wife and two sons, but taking his daughters with him. There he led a modest life, but was in the company of intellectuals such as Georges Cuvier. Paul's family did not approve of this and ordered him to return to Württemberg. While in Paris, he fathered two more illegitimate daughters by two different mistresses. Shortly after the death of his wife in 1847, Paul went to England with his long-term mistress Magdalena Fausta Angela de Creus y Ximenes or Madeleine Creux, the widow of Sir Sandford Whittingham KCB, they were married in the Parish Church of St Nicholas, Sussex, on 26 April 1848, she died in Paris, 27 December 1852. Their daughter Pauline Madeleine Ximenes, born in Paris 3 March 1825, was created Countess von Helfenstein in 1841. So far it has not been disclosed who had conferred upon her the aristocratic title of "von Rottenbu

Kamal Miller

Kamal Anthony Miller is a Canadian soccer player who plays as a defender for Orlando City in Major League Soccer and the Canadian national team. Miller played four years of college soccer at Syracuse University between 2015 and 2018. During his time at Syracuse, Miller earned both All-South Region honors. While at college, Miller played for USL PDL sides K-W United FC and Reading United AC. On January 11, 2019, Miller was selected 27th overall in the 2019 MLS SuperDraft by Orlando City, he signed with the club on March 1, 2019 and made his professional debut appearance the following day, starting in Orlando's season opener, a 2–2 draw with New York City FC. As part of Orlando's end-of-season roster decisions it was announced Miller had his contract option for the 2020 season exercised. Miller was capped at youth level for competing at the 2017 CONCACAF U20 Championship. On March 18, 2019, he received his first senior call-up for Canada for their final CONCACAF Nations League qualifying game against French Guiana.

In June 2019, Miller was selected in Canada's 2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup squad and made his senior international debut on June 23, entering as a 61st minute substitute in Canada's final group stage match, a 7–0 win over Cuba. As of October 6, 2019 As of January 16, 2020 Kamal Miller at Major League Soccer Kamal Miller at Soccerway Kamal Miller at National-Football-Teams.com