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Cimabue

Cimabue known as Cenni di Pepo or Cenni di Pepi, was an Italian painter and designer of mosaics from Florence. Although influenced by Byzantine models, Cimabue is regarded as one of the first great Italian painters to break from the Italo-Byzantine style. While medieval art was scenes and forms that appeared flat and stylized, Cimabue's figures were depicted with more advanced lifelike proportions and shading than other artists of his time. According to Italian painter and historian Giorgio Vasari, Cimabue was the teacher of Giotto, the first great artist of the Italian Proto-Renaissance. However, many scholars today tend to discount Vasari's claim by citing earlier sources that suggest otherwise. Little is known about Cimabue's early life. One source that recounts his career is Vasari's Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects, but its accuracy is uncertain, he was died in Pisa. Hayden Maginnis speculates that he could have trained in Florence under masters who were culturally connected to Byzantine art.

Italian art historian Pietro Toesca attributed the Crucifixion in the church of San Domenico in Arezzo to Cimabue, dating around 1270, making it the earliest known attributed work that departs from the Byzantine style. Cimabue's Christ is bent, the clothes have the golden striations that were introduced by Coppo di Marcovaldo. Around 1272, Cimabue is documented as being present in Rome, a little he made another Crucifix for the Florentine church of Santa Croce. Now restored, having been damaged by the 1966 Arno River flood, the work was larger and more advanced than the one in Arezzo, with traces of naturalism inspired by the works of Nicola Pisano. According to Vasari, while travelling from Florence to Vespignano, came upon the 10-year-old Giotto drawing his sheep with a rough rock upon a smooth stone, he asked if Giotto would like to come and stay with him, which the child accepted with his father's permission. Vasari elaborates that during Giotto's apprenticeship, he painted a fly on the nose of a portrait Cimabue was working on.

Many scholars now discount Vasari's claim that he took Giotto as his pupil, citing earlier sources that suggest otherwise. Around 1280, Cimabue painted the Maestà displayed in the church of San Francesco at Pisa, but now at the Louvre; this work established a style, followed subsequently by numerous artists, including Duccio di Buoninsegna in his Rucellai Madonna as well as Giotto. Other works from the period, which were said to have influenced Giotto, include a Flagellation, mosaics for the Baptistery of Florence, the Maestà at the Santa Maria dei Servi in Bologna and the Madonna in the Pinacoteca of Castelfiorentino. A workshop painting assignable to a later period, is the Maestà with Saints Francis and Dominic housed in the Uffizi. During the pontificate of Pope Nicholas IV, the first Franciscan pope, Cimabue worked in Assisi. At Assisi, in the transept of the Lower Basilica of San Francesco, he created a fresco named Madonna with Child Enthroned, Four Angels and St Francis; the left portion of this fresco is lost.

Cimabue was subsequently commissioned to decorate the apse and the transept of the Upper Basilica of Assisi, in the same period of time that Roman artists were decorating the nave. The cycle he created there comprises scenes from the Gospels, the lives of the Virgin Mary, St Peter and St Paul; the paintings are now in poor condition because of oxidation of the brighter colours that were used by the artist. The Maestà of Santa Trinita, dated to c. 1290–1300, painted for the church of Santa Trinita in Florence, is now in the Uffizi Gallery. The softer expression of the characters suggests that it was influenced by Giotto, by already active as a painter. Cimabue spent the last period of his life, 1301 to 1302, in Pisa. There, he was commissioned to finish a mosaic of Christ Enthroned begun by Maestro Francesco, in the apse of the city's cathedral. Cimabue was to create the part of the mosaic depicting St John the Evangelist, which remains the sole surviving work documented as being by the artist.

Cimabue died around 1302. According to Vasari, quoting a contemporary of Cimabue, "Cimabue of Florence was a painter who lived during the author's own time, a nobler man than anyone knew but he was as a result so haughty and proud that if someone pointed out to him any mistake or defect in his work, or if he had noted any himself... he would destroy the work, no matter how precious it might be." The nickname Cimabue translates as "bull-head" but possibly as "one who crushes the views of others", from the Latin word cimare, meaning "top", "shear", "blunt". The conclusion for the second meaning is drawn from similar commentaries on Dante, known "for being contemptuous of criticism". History has long regarded Cimabue as the last of an era, overshadowed by the Italian Renaissance; as early as 1543, Vasari wrote of Cimabue, "Cimabue was, in one sense, the principal cause of the renewal of painting," with the qualification that, "Giotto eclipsed Cimabue's fame just as a great light eclipses a much smaller one."In Canto XI of his Purgatorio, Dante laments Cimabue's quick loss of public interest in the face of Giotto's revolution in art: On 27 October 2019, Christ Mocked, disco

Mueang Phuket District

Mueang Phuket District is the capital district of Phuket Province, Thailand. Phuket town itself is in the district's northeast; the district encompasses the southern part of the island of Phuket. The western and southern coast consists of several used beaches, from the northwest counter-clockwise: Karon, Kata Noi, Nai Han and Friendship Beach along Chalong Bay; the beaches are separated from each other by rocky capes, most notably Phromthep Cape at the southernmost tip of the island. Named Thung Kha, it was renamed Mueang Phuket on 14 November 1938; the most important of the 29 Buddhist temples of Phuket is Wat Chalong. It is dedicated to two venerated monks, Luang Pho Chaem and Luang Pho Chuang, with their knowledge of herbal medicine, helped those injured in a tin miners rebellion in 1876; the district is divided into eight sub-districts. The town of Phuket covers tambons Talad Yai and Talad Nuea. Chalong and Ko Kaeo have a tambon administrative organizations. Phuket travel guide from Wikivoyage amphoe.com Wat Chalong Video

Achtergracht

The Achtergracht is a short canal in Amsterdam, located between Frederiksplein and the Amstel, parallel to the Prinsengracht. The Achtergracht is located in the eastern part of the Grachtengordel; the original Achtergracht was connected the Reguliersgracht with the Amstel. The canal can be seen on the map of the city that city architect Daniël Stalpaert made in 1662, named Achter Graft. Three bridges were laid over the canal; the first was in the eastern quay of the Reguliersgracht, a second in Utrechtsestraat and a third in the western quay of the Amstel. In 1870 most of the canal was filled with the first two bridges becoming redundant; the filled-in part now forms the north side of the Frederiksplein. At the last extension of the canal belt east of the Amstel in the direction of the IJ, the Nieuwe Achtergracht was constructed as an extension of the Achtergracht; the façade walls along both the odd-numbered side and the even-numbered side consist entirely of municipal or national monuments. At numbers 2-26 Achtergracht there are examples of warehouses.

They are called The Sun, January to December. This is an example of a warehouse row, which are found on the Brouwersgracht or the Prinsengracht. A folk tale has circulated for centuries about the origin of the names of the so-called Calendar warehouses on the Achtergracht. Indeed, there are 13 properties. A skipper who had his ships on the Achtergracht always had problems with his ships being released at night, he saw that this was being done by elves playing. He captured one and the elf promised the skipper that she would give him 20 gold pieces if he let her go; the skipper let the elf got his reward. With this he built the warehouses, he named the thirteenth storehouse after the elf. Her name was Sun and this name is still on the thirteenth warehouse. Spliethoff charter office named one of its cargo ships the MV Achtergracht; the ship was launched in 1989. Canals of Amsterdam