U.S. Route 287
U. S. Route 287 is a north–south United States highway, it is 1,791 miles long. It serves as the major truck route between Fort Worth and Amarillo and between Fort Collins and Laramie, Wyoming; the highway is broken into two segments by Yellowstone National Park, where an unnumbered park road serves as a connector. The highway's northern terminus is in Choteau, Montana, 100 miles south of the Canadian border, at an intersection with US 89, its southern terminus is in Port Arthur, Texas at an intersection with State Highway 87, five miles up the Sabine River from the Gulf of Mexico. It intersects its parent route US 87 twice, overlapping it from Amarillo to Dumas and crossing it in Denver, Colorado. US 287 is the shortest route between Dallas-Fort Worth. US 287 originates at its southern terminus in Port Arthur as a branch of SH 87. From Port Arthur, US 287 runs concurrently with US 69 and US 96 to Lumberton, where US 96 diverges to the northeast and the co-signed US 287/US 69 continues northwesterly until US 287 and US 69 diverge in Woodville.
Continuing northwesterly, US 287 merges with Interstate 45 in Corsicana and follows the Interstate to Ennis, where it branches off and continues through Waxahachie, crossing I-35E and continuing north through Tarrant County, where it encounters and merges with three different Interstates. From Fort Worth, US 287 continues north to Wichita Falls and continues just south of the Oklahoma border before entering the Texas Panhandle. A section of US 287, between Midlothian and Waxahachie, was dedicated as the Chris Kyle Memorial Highway, in honor of fallen SEAL Chris Kyle, whose hometown was Midlothian; the highway continues through Amarillo, where it intersects I-40, runs north to Kerrick and crosses into neighboring Oklahoma. In Oklahoma, US 287 remains within Cimarron County, located at the end of the Panhandle. After crossing the state line north of Kerrick, the highway intersects SH 171 at its southern terminus. US 287 continues northwesterly, crossing the Beaver River, toward the county seat.
On the east side of town, the highway runs concurrently with US 56, US 64, US 412, SH 3. These five highways enter the traffic circle in downtown Boise City. US 287 emerges from the north side of the circle, as well as US 385 and SH 3; these three highways head north to the Colorado state line. SH 3 ends there, while US US 385 continue onward into Colorado. From Oklahoma, US 287 and US 385 enter into a rural part of Colorado, they continue in a north/northwest direction through the state. The two highways pass through the town of Campo, make an interchange with US 160 on the outskirts of Springfield. In Lamar and Carlton, the highways make an interchange with US 50. Here US 385 heads east on US 50, US 287/US 50 continue to the north. Just outside the town the highways make a sharp turn toward the west, the road heading north is SH 196. South of Wiley, US 50 heads west. East of Eads, US 287 turns toward the west again merging with SH 96. In Eads, SH 96 continues toward the west. Near Kit Carson, US 287 again turns toward the west and merges with US 40.
Near Limon, the two highways make two interchanges with I-70 before passing through Limon. The two highways merge with I-70. Near the outskirts of Denver US 36 merges with the group of highways making the road, I-70/US 287/US 36/US 40. Just past E-470, I-70 and US 36 split to follow a more northerly course, while US 287 and US 40 continue west into Downtown Denver on Colfax Avenue; the I-25, US 6, US 87, US 85 interchange marks US 287's second junction with its parent route, US 87. Shortly thereafter, at a cloverleaf interchange with Federal Boulevard, SH 88 runs south, US 40 continues west on Colfax, US 287 turns toward the north on Federal Boulevard. After crossing US 36, US 287 turns west onto 120th Avenue where it overlaps SH 128. Just before meeting US 36 again in Broomfield, US 287 bends back to the north, leaving SH 128 which continues west through an interchange with SH 121 and US 36. At Baseline Road in Lafayette, SH 7 joins US 287 for about a mile, before SH 7 splits to the west on Arapahoe Avenue towards Boulder.
It intersects SH 119 as it enters Longmont on Main Street, it intersects SH 66 at the north edge of town. The road bypasses Berthoud en route to Loveland, where US 287 splits into the pair of one-way streets Lincoln Avenue and Cleveland Avenue, it divides the Loveland cemetery. This is the only cemetery in the US with a US Highway dividing it. Continuing north, US 287 passes through Fort Collins on College Avenue, merging with SH 14 at Jefferson Street. On the edge of the mountains at Ted's Place, SH 14 splits and heads west into Poudre Canyon, while US 287 continues north into Wyoming; the section of US 287 between Fort Collins and Laramie, carries heavy truck traffic and is regarded as quite dangerous. US 287 enters Wyoming through a pass between the Laramie Mountains to the east and the Medicine Bow Mountains to the west. In Laramie, US 287 crosses I-80 and merges with US 30 and the two highways continue to head north. After passing Medicine Bow, these highways turn west-southwest and return to I-80 near Walcott, where they merge with the interstate west until Rawlins.
US heads into the town. US 287 merges with Wyoming Highway 76, WYO 82, WYO 30 for a short distance just outside Rawlins, though WYO 76 ends when US 287 branches to the northwest as a stand-alone highway, it is po
Oklahoma State Highway 3
State Highway 3 abbreviated as SH-3 or OK-3, is a highway maintained by the U. S. state of Oklahoma. Traveling diagonally through Oklahoma, from the Panhandle to the far southeastern corner of the state, SH-3 is the longest state highway in the Oklahoma road system, at a total length of 615 miles via SH-3E. Highway 3 begins at the Colorado state line 19 mi north of Oklahoma. At this terminus, it is concurrent with US-287/US-385, it remains concurrent with the two U. S. Routes until reaching Boise City, where it encounters a traffic circle which contains five other highways. After the circle, US-385 splits off, SH-3 overlaps US-287, US-56, US-64, US-412, though US-56 and US-287 both split off within the next 8 miles. In Guymon, US-64 splits off. At Elmwood, US-270 joins US-412, coming from a concurrency with State Highway 23. SH-3 remains concurrent with US-270 through Watonga. In Seiling, US-183 leaves the concurrency but is replaced by U. S. Highway 281. SH-33 joins the roadbed 20 miles later. In Watonga, SH-33 and SH-3 split off from US-270 and US-281.
Highways 3 and 33 remain concurrent for 28 more miles, until Kingfisher, where SH-3 joins U. S. Highway 81, it will stay concurrent with US-81 through the town of Okarche. Three miles after Okarche, SH-3 leaves US-81; this marks the first point. Beginning at the split from US-81, Highway 3 becomes a major artery in the Oklahoma City highway system known as the Northwest Expressway because it is a diagonal route and because it serves the northwestern part of the metro area, it skirts the northern limits of El Reno before entering the Oklahoma City limits. The often-congested Northwest Expressway passes through the suburb of Warr Acres and passes close to Lake Hefner. At the intersection with the Lake Hefner Parkway, SH-3 again re-enters a concurrency; the Lake Hefner Parkway ends shortly after, SH-3 becomes concurrent with Interstate 44 through the western side of the city. Near Will Rogers World Airport, Highway 3 transfers to I-240 along the southern side of the city. After I-240 ends, SH-3 is transferred onto I-40.
In Shawnee, SH-3 splits into two highways, SH-3E and SH-3W. SH-3W splits off I-40 onto U. S. Highway 177, along with US-270, at I-40 milemarker 181, it continues along with US-270 and 177 through the west side of Shawnee, continues south of that city until Tecumseh, where US-270 splits off. South of Asher, Oklahoma, SH-3W leaves veers southeast toward Ada. SH-3E, the longer of the two split routes, was the original routing of Highway 3 before the two highways were split, it remains on I-40 for five miles. When it does split off, it soon joins SH-18, it follows a route closer to the center of Shawnee. After leaving Shawnee, it heads southeast toward Seminole. Here, it meets US-377/SH-99. SH-3E merges onto this highway, they will remain concurrent until after they reach Ada. In Ada, SH-3E and SH-3W are become SH-3 once again. SH-3 becomes part of the Richardson Loop, a freeway around the west and south sides of Ada. Throughout the Richardson Loop, it overlaps US-377 / SH-99 at different times; the highway becomes two-lane once again and heads southeast to the town of Coalgate, where begins an 18-mile concurrency with U.
S. Highway 75, lasting through Atoka. In Atoka, US-75 splits off to join U. S. Highway 69. Two miles west of Antlers, the highway has an interchange with the Indian Nation Turnpike, in Antlers it intersects U. S. Highway 271. After reaching the town of Broken Bow, Oklahoma, it turns southward and overlaps US-259 and US-70. Near Idabel, the highway splits off after being with US-259 for 13 mi. Twenty-eight miles it becomes Highway 32 as it crosses the state line into Arkansas; the current SH-3 was designated on 15 May 1939. The original highway included all of current SH-3 up to Antlers, where it terminated at US-271, it was extended to the Arkansas state line on 4 August 1952. SH-3 ended there concurrent with US-70 and SH-7, near Arkansas. On 7 January 1963, the highway was given its own alignment from near Idabel to Arkansas, taking over that of SH-21, eliminated at that time. From the highway's commissioning to 1976, there was only one fork of SH-3 between Shawnee and Ada, the path of current SH-3E.
SH-3W and SH-3E were created on 4 October 1976. Other than minor realignments, the highway remains the same today. In the early 1980s, Governor George Nigh was able to obtain $97.1 million to upgrade the highway between Oklahoma City and Colorado, despite opponents labeling the project "the highway to nowhere". House Concurrent Resolution 1067 labeled the highway as "Governor George Nigh's Northwest Passage." ODOT named the highway on 2 February 1981. SH-3's concurrency with Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City is an example of a wrong-way concurrency – I-44 West is SH-3 East and vice versa. SH-3's concurrency with US-70 is a wrong-way concurrency, as US-70 is signed as going west and SH-3 as going east; the SH-3 bypass around Atoka is named the Cecil B. "Bud" Greathouse Bypass. It was designated by ODOT on 4 October 1982. SH-3 had one lettered spur, SH-3A, which continued the alignment of the Northwest Expressway for two more miles before ending at Interstate 44 near Penn Square Mall, it was known as SH-66A, a spur off U.
S. Highway 66; the combined effect of US-66 being decommissioned and "3A" being a more logical name for an extension of Highway 3 led to the name change. State Highway 3A was decommissioned in 2009. SH-3 at OKHighways.com SH-3E at O
Boise City, Oklahoma
Boise City is a city in and the county seat of Cimarron County, United States. The population was 1,266 at the 2010 census, a decline of 14.6 percent from 1,483 in 2000. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the origin of the town name is unclear. Boise City was founded in 1908 by developers J. E. Stanley, A. J. Kline, W. T. Douglas and who published and distributed brochures promoting the town as an elegant, tree-lined city with paved streets, numerous businesses, railroad service, an artesian well, they sold 3,000 lots to buyers who discovered, on their arrival, that none of the information in the brochure was true. In addition to using false publicity, the three men did not have title to the lots. Stanley and Kline were sent to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary. Stanley and Kline served two-year terms in the penitentiary. Douglas died of tuberculosis before beginning his sentence; the town took shape and incorporated on July 20, 1925. The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture says that the origin of the town name is unclear, but offers three possibilities: a Captain Boice, a hero in the Civil War, the town of Boise, Idaho or the Boise Cattle Company, which ran cattle in the area.
It was speculated in Ken Burns' documentary, The Dust Bowl, that the town name was chosen as part of the original land scam to infer a false image of the town, as "boisé" is French for "wooded". Boise City's prosperity in the 1930s, like that of Cimarron County was affected by its location at the heart of the Dust Bowl region. Boise City was the location of an unusual event during World War II when it was mistakenly bombed by a friendly U. S. bomber crew during training. The bombing occurred on July 5, 1943, at 12:30 a.m. by a B‑17 Flying Fortress Bomber. This occurred because pilots performing target practice became disoriented and mistook the lights around the town square as their target. No one was killed in the attack. For the 50th anniversary of the incident, the crew of the bomber was invited back to Boise City, but all members declined; the former radio operator did, send an audio tape, played at the celebration. Boise City is located at 36°43′48″N 102°30′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all land.
The Boise City Airport, which serves all of the county, is located four miles north of Boise City. Boise City experiences a semi-arid climate with mild, dry winters and long, wetter summers. There is a large degree of diurnal temperature variation year-round. According to weather data tallied between July 1, 1985 and June 30, 2015 for every location in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's official climate database, Boise City, Oklahoma, is the snowiest place in the state of Oklahoma with an average of 30.8 inches of snow per year. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,483 people, 610 households, 400 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,180.6 people per square mile. There were 752 housing units at an average density of 598.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.7% White, 0.2% African American, 1.7% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 13.4% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.0% of the population.
There were 610 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 21.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,071, the median income for a family was $35,761. Males had a median income of $23,088 versus $17,679 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,821. About 14.7% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.0% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over.
The local economy is based on ranching and the production of oil and natural gas. Actress Vera Miles LORAN-C transmitter Boise National Register of Historic Places listings in Cimarron County, Oklahoma Egan, Timothy; the worst hard time: the untold story of those who survived the great American dust bowl. Boston: Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-34697-X. OCLC 58788898. Boise City Public Schools The Boise City News, local newspaper Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Boise City
Oklahoma Organic Act
An Organic Act is a generic name for a statute used by the United States Congress to describe a territory, in anticipation of being admitted to the Union as a state. Because of Oklahoma's unique history, an explanation of the Oklahoma Organic Act needs a historic perspective. In general, the Oklahoma Organic Act may be viewed as one of a series of legislative acts, from the time of Reconstruction, enacted by Congress in preparation for the creation of a unified State of Oklahoma; the Organic Act created Oklahoma Territory, Indian Territory that were Organized incorporated territories of the United States out of the old "unorganized" Indian Territory. The Oklahoma Organic Act was one of several acts whose intent was the assimilation of the tribes in Oklahoma and Indian Territories through the elimination of tribal reservations and the elimination of the tribes' communal ownership of property. "Indian removal" was a nineteenth-century policy of the US Government to relocate aboriginal natives living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river.
The Indian Removal Act, a specific implementation of the Removal Policy, was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. The Act transformed most of the current state of Oklahoma into an Indian Territory, where southern aboriginal natives were relocated; the Trail of Tears is a name given to the forced relocation of the Choctaw Nation in 1831. In 1834, Congress created the first Indian Territory, with the Five Civilized Tribes occupying the land that became the State of Oklahoma, excluding its panhandle. See: Indian Territory in the American Civil War Several members of the Five Civilized Tribes owned slaves and had sympathies with the Confederacy. All of the Five Civilized Tribes signed treaties placing themselves "under the protection of the Confederate States of America"During the Civil War, Congress passed a statute concerning the Abrogation of treaties with Indian Tribes, which states: Whenever the tribal organization of any Indian tribe is in actual hostility to the United States, the President is authorized, by proclamation, to declare all treaties with such tribe abrogated by such tribe if in his opinion the same can be done with good faith and legal and national obligations.
As part of the Reconstruction effort following the Civil War, a "Southern Treaty Commission" was formed to meet with Indian tribes to negotiate new treaties. A result of these "Reconstruction Treaties" with various tribes was that the land allocated to the Five Civilized tribes was reduced to the eastern part of the territory, making room for relocation of other Indian tribes. Other aboriginal people, such as the Apache, Delaware, Kiowa and Arapaho Tribes and the Osage Nation were forced to relocate to the Territories; the Southern Treaty Commission formulated the 1866 Treaty of Washington with the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations which contained the following provisions: Abolished slavery agreed to legislation that Congress and the President "may deem necessary for the better administration of justice and the protection of the rights of person and property within the Indian territory.". Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes received $300,000, selling tribal lands west of 98 west longitude to the United States General amnesty for siding with Confederate States of America Tribes grant right of way for rail roads authorized by Congress.
Within each county, a quarter section of land shall be held in trust for the establishment of seats of justice therein, as many quarter-sections as the said legislative councils may deem proper for the permanent endowment of schools Provides for each man and child to receive 160 acres of land as an allotment. A Land patent, or "first-title deed" shall be issued as evidence of allotment, "issued by the President of the United States, countersigned by the chief executive officer of the nation in which the land lies" All treaties and parts of treaties inconsistent herewith be, the same are hereby, declared null and void. Under the Cherokee Reconstruction Treaty of 1866, the Osage Nation began the process of purchasing 1,570,059 acres in the Cherokee Outlet from the Cherokee Nation; the Osage Reservation was part of Oklahoma Territory under the Oklahoma Organic Act of 1890 and was made a semiautonomous district by the Enabling Act of 1906. With the passage of the Osage Allotment Act of June 28, 1906, each member of the tribe received an average allotmen
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Black Mesa (Oklahoma)
Black Mesa is a mesa in the U. S. states of Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma. It extends from Mesa de Maya, Colorado southeasterly 28 miles along the north bank of the Cimarron River, crossing the northeast corner of New Mexico to end at the confluence of the Cimarron River and Carrizo Creek near Kenton in the Oklahoma panhandle, its highest elevation is 5,705 feet in Colorado. The highest point of Black Mesa within New Mexico is 5,239 feet. In northwestern Cimarron County, Black Mesa reaches 4,973 feet, the highest point in the state of Oklahoma; the plateau that formed at the top of the mesa has been known as a "geological wonder" of North America. There is abundant wildlife in this shortgrass prairie environment, including mountain lions and the Texas horned lizard; the plateau has been home to Plains Indians. In the late-nineteenth and early twentieth century the area was a hideout for outlaws such as William Coe and Black Jack Ketchum; the outlaws built a fort known as the Robbers' Roost. The stone fort housed a blacksmith shop, gun ports, a piano.
The present-day Oklahoma Panhandle area, considered a no man's land, lacked law enforcement agencies and hence the outlaws found it safe to hide in the region. However, as new settlers arrived in the area for copper and coal mining and for cattle ranching activities by grazing cattle in the mesa region, law enforcement became more effective, the outlaws were brought under control. In more recent times, at least one person has claimed to have been abducted by extraterrestrial aliens at Black Mesa; the Mesa is situated in the Cimarron County in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The Black Mesa plateau there is part of the shortgrass prairie; some features include the Old Maid Rock, Devil's Tombstone. The mesa's base includes a 200 feet escarpment, parallel with the Dry Cimarron River's north bank, its highest elevation is 5,705 feet in Colorado. The highest point of Black Mesa within New Mexico is 5,239 feet. In northwestern Cimarron County, Black Mesa reaches 4,975 feet, the highest point in the state of Oklahoma.
A hiking trail of 4.2 miles leads from the preserve to the summit which rises about 800 feet above the level of the surrounding plains, a round trip requires four hours minimum. The mesa's highest point within Oklahoma is marked by a granite obelisk, a visitors' log. Black Mesa is not only the highest point in Oklahoma but it is the driest and coldest place in the state; the visual and map view appearance of Black Mesa is as an "inverted valley" because erosion has removed the soft sedimentary strata from either side of the resistant Raton basalt of the lava which had occupied and filled a river valley. The mesa is capped by erosion-resistant basaltic lava formed by a volcanic eruption 3 to 5 million years ago; the lava erupted from a vent in the Raton-Clayton volcanic field in northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado. The volcanic cap to the mesa is 600 feet thick, 55 miles long and from 0.5 miles to 8 miles wide, 65 miles to the north-northwest of Oklahoma. The erupting lava filled a stream channel in the Pliocene age Ogallala Formation.
During the years since the eruption, the adjacent rock of the Ogallala and older formations have been removed leaving the valley-filling basalt perched atop a long ridge. Strata exposed along the mesa below the basalt and Ogallala include the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone and the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Beginning in 1935, geologists and paleontologists have searched the mesa's outcroppings, finding dinosaur fossils in the Jurassic and Triassic strata. A large quantity of dinosaur bones has been recovered from the Black Mesa locale. Clear fossil physical evidence, a distinct line of footprints believed to have been made by an allosaurus, has been found juxtaposed with the Carrizo Creek, which runs around the modern-day northern edge of the mesa; the mesa lies in the protected area known as the Black Mesa Nature Preserve, established in 1991, covering 1,600 acres. The preserve protects 60% of the area of the mesa peak; the peak is accessible along an 8-mile-long trail. Apart from the nature reserve, there is the Black Mesa State Park encompassing 549 acres, with a 200 acres lake known as the Lake Carl G. Etling.
The park is a recreational area with many facilities for camping and many other outdoor activities. The park is about 15 miles away from the peak; the flora and fauna reported from Black Mesa are unique to the Mesa. They are of "wildwest" type with arid grasslands and rocky buttes; the flora and fauna found here are not found anywhere else in the US, as they are adapted to the harshest climatic conditions. Black Mesa Nature Preserve in particular covers around 60% of the flat portion of the mesa in Oklahoma. Wildlife reported in the park and the reserve are golden eagles, piñon jays, red-tailed hawks, mule deer, part from a bird area for bird watchers; the vegetation of the preserve is shortgrass prairie with scattered juniper trees and Cholla cactus. The summit plateau is vegetatively classified as a "Bluestem-grama shortgrass community"; the preserve contains 23 plant species listed by the state as "rare". The indigenous top predator is the mountain lion; the more omnivorous American black bear is present, along with a variety of prey species including bighorn sheep, mule deer, pronghorn.
Eight native species o
U.S. Route 385
U. S. Route 385 is a spur of U. S. Route 85 that runs for 1,206 miles from Deadwood, South Dakota to Big Bend National Park in Texas. US 385 is designated as a part of the La Entrada al Pacifico trade corridor from Interstate 10 in Fort Stockton to Interstate 20 in Odessa; the section from Fort Stockton to McCamey is concurrent to US 67. From McCamey, the route proceeds to Crane in Crane County. From Crane to Odessa, US 385 meets up with U. S. Highway 62 in Seminole and continues northward to Brownfield, where US 385 continues northward towards Levelland and crosses by Texas State Highway 86 in Dimmitt, Texas & U. S. Highway 84 in Texas. From Littlefield, US 385 continues northward until it crosses Interstate 40 and goes in a half circle to Hartley, Texas where US 385 joins U. S. Highway 87. US 385 and US 87 follow a northwest track until the two meet U. S. Highway 54 and split, with US 385 continuing northward until it exits Texas at the Oklahoma border. On rural US 385, Speed limit is 75 mph in all counties going south of Gaines County starting between Seminole and Andrews down to US 90 in Marathon.
In Oklahoma, US-385 runs through Cimarron County at the end of the Oklahoma panhandle. Fourteen miles north of the border, it joins with US-56, US-64, US-412; the three highways run northeast into Boise City. In the middle of town, the highways come to a traffic circle surrounding the Cimarron County Courthouse; the traffic circle serves seven highways: U. S. Routes 56, 64, 287, 385 and 412, State Highways 3 and 325; every numbered highway in the county except one meets at this traffic circle. After leaving the circle, US-385 heads northward, overlapping US-287 and SH-3, the state's longest state highway. SH-3 ends at the state line; the section of US-385 that overlaps SH-3 is signed as Governor George Nigh's Northwest Passage, after the governor of Oklahoma responsible for improvements to the corridor. U. S. 385 passes north–south through the easternmost counties of Colorado. It enters Colorado south of Campo on an overlap with U. S. Route 287; the overlap continues north until Lamar. At Lamar, the route turns east on an overlap with U.
S. Route 50 and this overlap ends in Granada; the highway turns north at Granada and meets Interstate 70 at Burlington and Interstate 76 at Julesburg. The highway leaves Colorado northwest of Julesburg. U. S. 385 passes north–south through the Nebraska Panhandle. It enters Nebraska south of Chappell and overlaps U. S. Route 30 between Chappell and Sidney. At Sidney, it turns north, meeting U. S. Route 26 at Bridgeport, it goes through Alliance before intersecting U. S. Route 20 at Chadron, it exits the state northwest of Chadron. Throughout its entire length in Nebraska, US 385 is known as the Gold Rush Byway, one of nine scenic byways in the state. U. S. 385 enters South Dakota south of Oelrichs. It is overlapped with U. S. Route 18 between Oelrichs and Hot Springs, it enters Wind Cave National Park before turning west to go through Pringle. At Custer, it begins an overlap with U. S. Route 16, it turns northwesterly and ends at an intersection with U. S. Route 85 at Deadwood; the South Dakota section of U.
S. 385, with the exception of concurrencies with U. S. 18 and U. S. 16 and a gap at Wind Cave National Park, is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-235. Today's US 385 is the second route to bear the number; the original route became part of US 87. This US 385 designation was decommissioned around 1935; the current US 385 first appeared in 1959. The route continued along US 287 north of Lamar, splitting in Kit Carson to follow US 40 east to meet up with the present-day alignment in Cheyenne Wells. In South Dakota, in 2009, the South Dakota Department of Transportation designated US 16/US 385 between Custer and Hill City, which passes by the Crazy Horse Memorial, now being carved in the Black Hills; this segment of US 385 is a part of the George Hearst Memorial Highway. Texas The north entrance to Big Bend National Park south-southeast of Marathon US 90 in Marathon; the highways travel concurrently to east of Marathon. US 285 in Fort Stockton; the highways travel concurrently through Fort Stockton.
I‑10 / US 67 in Fort Stockton. I-10/US 385 travels concurrently to east-southeast of Fort Stockton. US 67/US 385 travels concurrently to McCamey. I‑20 in Odessa US 62 / US 180 in Seminole. US 62/US 385 travels concurrently to Brownfield. US 82 / US 380 in Brownfield; the highways travel concurrently through Brownfield. US 84 in Littlefield US 70 in Springlake US 60 in Hereford I‑40 in Vega US 87 in Hartley; the highways travel concurrently to Dalhart. US 54 in Dalhart Oklahoma US 56 / US 64 / US 412 southwest of Boise City; the highways travel concurrently to Boise City. US 287 north of Boise City; the highways travel concurrently to Colorado. Colorado US 160 south of Springfield US 50 / US 287 in Lamar. US 50/US 385 travels concurrently to Granada. US 50 / US 400 in Granada US 40 in Cheyenne Wells; the highways travel concurrently to east of Cheyenne Wells. I‑70 in Burlington US 24 in Burlington; the highways travel concurrently through Burlington. US 36 east of Idalia; the highways travel concurrently to northeast of Idalia.
US 34 in Wray US 6 in Holyoke I‑76 in Julesburg US 138 in Julesburg. The highways travel concurrently to west-southwest of Julesburg. Nebraska US 30 in Chappell; the highways travel concurrently to Sidney. US 26 in Bridgeport; the highways travel concurrently to Northport. US 20 in Chadron; the highways travel concurrently to west of Chadron. South Dakota US 18 in Oelrichs; the highways travel c