SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cimbri

The Cimbri were an ancient tribe. They are believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland, but Celtic influences have been suggested. Together with the Teutones and the Ambrones, they fought the Roman Republic between 113 and 101 BC; the Cimbri were successful at the Battle of Arausio, in which a large Roman army was routed, after which they raided large areas in Gaul and Hispania. In 101 BC, during an attempted invasion of Italy, the Cimbri were decisively defeated by Gaius Marius, their king, was killed; some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War. The origin of the name Cimbri is unknown. One etymology is PIE *tḱim-ro- "inhabitant", from tḱoi-m- "home", itself a derivation from tḱei- "live"; the name has been related to the word kimme meaning "rim", i.e. "the people of the coast". Since Antiquity, the name has been related to that of the Cimmerians. Himmerland is thought to preserve their name. Alternatively, Latin c- represents an attempt to render the unfamiliar Proto-Germanic h = due to Celtic-speaking interpreters.

Because of the similarity of the names, the Cimbri have been at times associated with Cymry, the Welsh name for themselves. However, Cymry is derived from Brittonic *Kombrogi, meaning "compatriots", is linguistically unrelated to Cimbri; the Cimbri are believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland. Though Celtic origins have been suggested, this is controversial. Archaeologists have not found any clear indications of a mass migration from Jutland in the early Iron Age; the Gundestrup Cauldron, deposited in a bog in Himmerland in the 2nd or 1st century BC, shows that there was some sort of contact with southeastern Europe, but it is uncertain if this contact can be associated with the Cimbrian expedition. Advocates for a northern homeland point to Greek and Roman sources that associate the Cimbri with the Jutland peninsula. According to the Res gestae of Augustus, the Cimbri were still found in the area around the turn of the 1st century AD: My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri, to which, up to that time, no Roman had penetrated either by land or by sea, the Cimbri and Charydes and Semnones and other peoples of the Germans of that same region through their envoys sought my friendship and that of the Roman people.

The contemporary Greek geographer Strabo testified that the Cimbri still existed as a Germanic tribe in the "Cimbric peninsula": As for the Cimbri, some things that are told about them are incorrect and others are improbable. For instance, one could not accept such a reason for their having become a wandering and piratical folk as this that while they were dwelling on a Peninsula they were driven out of their habitations by a great flood-tide, and the assertion that an excessive flood-tide once occurred looks like a fabrication, for when the ocean is affected in this way it is subject to increases and diminutions, but these are regulated and periodical. On the map of Ptolemy, the "Kimbroi" are placed on the northernmost part of the peninsula of Jutland. I.e. in the modern landscape of Himmerland south of Limfjorden. Some time before 100 BC many of the Cimbri, as well as the Ambrones migrated south-east. After several unsuccessful battles with the Boii and other Celtic tribes, they appeared ca 113 BC in Noricum, where they invaded the lands of one of Rome's allies, the Taurisci.

On the request of the Roman consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, sent to defend the Taurisci, they retreated, only to find themselves deceived and attacked at the Battle of Noreia, where they defeated the Romans. Only a storm, which separated the combatants, saved the Roman forces from complete annihilation. Now the road to Italy was open, they came into frequent conflict with the Romans, who came out the losers. In Commentarii de Bello Gallico the Aduaticii—Belgians of Cimbrian origin—repeatedly sided with Rome's enemies. In 109 BC, they defeated a Roman army under the consul Marcus Junius Silanus, the commander of Gallia Narbonensis. In 107 BC they defeated another Roman army under the consul Gaius Cassius Longinus, killed at the Battle of Burdigala against the Tigurini, who were allies of the Cimbri, it was not until 105 BC. At the Rhône, the Cimbri clashed with the Roman armies. Discord between the Roman commanders, the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and the consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus, hindered Roman coordination and so the Cimbri succeeded in first defeat

Rockpalast Live (Harry Chapin DVD)

Rockpalast Live is a DVD of Harry Chapin performing on German music television show Rockpalast on April 12, 1977. "Shooting Star" "W*O*L*D" "Mr. Tanner" "Dance Band on the Titanic" "Taxi" "Six-String Orchestra" "Corey's Coming" "Blues Man" "Mail Order Annie" "30,000 Pounds of Bananas" "Cat's in the Cradle" "Circle" "Odd Job Man" "I Wanna Learn a Love Song"

Ramón Xirau

Ramón Xirau Subías was a Spanish-born Mexican poet and literary critic. In 1939, as the Spanish civil war was coming to an end, Xirau emigrated to Mexico where he obtained Mexican citizenship in 1955, he obtained a Master's Degree in philosophy at the UNAM and an honorary doctorate from the Universidad de las Américas. He was the National System of Researchers. At the UNAM he taught at the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature and did research at the Institute of Philosophy Research, he was a member of the Colegio Nacional since 1973. Xirau received the Legion of Honour from France and the Isabel la Católica from Spain awards as well as the Creu de Sant Jordi from the Generalitat of Catalonia for his works in essay and academics in Spanish and Catalan literature, he received the Elías Sourasky and the Premio Universidad Nacional awards at the UNAM. Professor Xirau is known in the English speaking world as the co-author of The Nature of Man along with Erich Fromm. Palabra y Silencio, Siglo XXI ISBN 968-231-887-4 Tiempo Vivido: Acerca de Estar, Siglo XXI ISBN 968-231-888-2 Entre la Poesía y el Conocimiento: Antología de Ensayos Críticos Sobre Poetas y Poesía Iberoamericanos, Fondo de Cultura Económica ISBN 968-16-6444-2 Introducción a la Historia de la Filsofía, UNAM ISBN 968-368-036-4 Genio y Figura de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz,El Colegio Nacional ISBN 978-607-724-320-5