IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats, film projectors and theaters known for having large screens with a tall aspect ratio and steep stadium seating. Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, William C. Shaw were the co-founders of what would be named the IMAX Corporation, they developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada. Unlike conventional projectors, the film runs horizontally so that the image width is greater than the width of the film; when IMAX was introduced, it was a radical change in the movie-going experience. Viewers were treated to the scene of a curved giant screen more than seven stories tall and steep stadium seating that made for a visually immersive experience, along with a sound system, far superior to the audio at typical theaters in the years prior to the advent of THX; some IMAX theaters have a dome screen geometry which can give the viewer an more immersive feel. Over the decades since its introduction, IMAX evolved to include "3D" stereoscopic films, introduced in January 1998, began to proliferate with a transition away from analog film into the digital era.
Beginning in May of 1991, a visceral dimension of the movie experience was added by having the audience's seats mounted on a full-motion platform as an amusement park ride in IMAX ride film theaters. Switching to digital projection, introduced in July 2008, came at a steep cost in image quality, with 2K projectors having an order of magnitude less resolution. Maintaining the same 7-story giant screen size would only make this loss more noticeable, so many new theaters were being built with smaller screen sizes, yet being marketed with the same brand name of "IMAX"; these newer theaters with the much lower resolution and much smaller screens were soon being referred to by the derogatory name "LieMAX" because the company did not make this major distinction clear to the public, going so far as to build the smallest "IMAX" screen having 10 times less area than the largest while persisting with the exact same brand name. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres, some have been shot in IMAX.
By late 2017, 1,302 IMAX theatre systems were installed in 1,203 commercial multiplexes, 13 commercial destinations, 86 institutional settings in 75 countries, with less than a quarter of these having the capability to show 70mm film at the resolution of the large format as conceived. The IMAX film standard uses 70 mm film run through the projector horizontally; this technique produces an area, nine times larger than the 35 mm format, three times larger than 70 mm film, run conventionally through the projector in a vertical orientation. The desire to increase the visual impact of film has a long history. In 1929, Fox introduced Fox Grandeur, the first 70 mm film format, but it fell from use. In the 1950s, the potential of 35 mm film to provide wider projected images was explored in the processes of CinemaScope and VistaVision, following multi-projector systems such as Cinerama. While impressive, Cinerama was difficult to install. During Expo 67 in Montreal, the National Film Board of Canada's In the Labyrinth and Ferguson's Man and the Polar Regions both used multi-projector, multi-screen systems.
Each encountered technical difficulties that led them to found a company called "Multiscreen", with a goal of developing a simpler approach. The single-projector/single-camera system they settled upon was designed and built by Shaw based upon a novel "Rolling Loop" film-transport technology purchased from Peter Ronald Wright Jones, a machine shop worker from Brisbane, Australia. Film projectors do not continuously flow the film in front of the bulb, but instead "stutter" the film travel so that each frame can be illuminated in a momentarily paused flicker; this requires a mechanical apparatus to stagger the travel of the film strip. The older technology of running 70 mm film vertically through the projector used only five sprocket perforations on the sides of each frame, however the IMAX method used fifteen perforations per frame; the previous mechanism was inadequate to handle this mechanical staggering, three time larger, so Jones's invention was necessary for the novel IMAX projector method with its horizontal film feed.
As it became clear that a single, large-screen image had more impact than multiple smaller ones and was a more viable product direction, Multiscreen changed its name to IMAX. Cofounder Graeme Ferguson explained how the name IMAX originated: "... the incorporation date September, 1967.... Came a year or two later. We first called the company Multiscreen Corporation because that, in fact, was what people knew us as.... After about a year, our attorney informed us that we could never trademark Multivision, it was too generic. It was a descriptive word; the words that you can copyright are words like Xerox or Coca-Cola. If the name is descriptive, you can't trademark it. So we were sitting at lunch one day in a Hungarian restaurant in Montreal and we worked out a name on a place mat on which we wrote all the possible names we could think of. We kept working with the idea of maximum image. We turned it around and came up with IMAX." The name change happened more than two years because a key patent filed on January 16, 1970, was assigned under the original name Multiscreen Corporation, Limited.
IMAX Chief Administration O
Pinecroft known as the Powel Crosley, Jr. Estate is located at 2366 Kipling Avenue in the Mount Airy neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, it is significant both as a Tudor Revival estate designed by Dwight James Baum, for its association with the life of Powel Crosley, Jr. builder of the Crosley car and owner of the Cincinnati Reds. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 17, 2008, it is the 25th property listed as a featured property of the week in a program of the National Park Service that began in July, 2008. National Register of Historic Places listings in Ohio Official website
Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
The Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States, opening in 1875, just 14 months after the Philadelphia Zoo opened on July 1, 1874. It is located in the Avondale neighborhood of Ohio, it began with 64.5 acres in the middle of the city, but has spread into the neighboring blocks and several reserves in Cincinnati's outer suburbs. It was appointed as a National Historic Landmark in 1987; the zoo houses over 3,000 plant species. In addition, the zoo has conducted several breeding programs in its history, was the first to breed California sea lions. In 1986, the Lindner Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife was created to further the zoo's goal of conservation; the zoo is known for being the home of Martha, the last living passenger pigeon, to Incas, the last living Carolina parakeet. The zoo is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. A 2014 ranking of the nations's best zoos by USA Today based on data provided by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums lists the Cincinnati Zoo among the best in the country.
In 1872, three years before the zoo's creation, Andrew Erkenbrecher and several other residents created the Society for the Acclimatization of Birds in Cincinnati to acquire insect-eating birds to control a severe outbreak of caterpillars. A collection of 1,000 birds imported from Europe in 1872 was housed in Burnet Woods before being released. In 1873, members of the Society of Acclimatization began discussing the idea of starting a zoo and founded The Zoological Society of Cincinnati. One year the Zoological Society of Cincinnati purchased a 99-year lease on sixty-five acres in the cow pasture known as Blakely Woods; the Cincinnati Zoological Gardens opened its doors on September 18, 1875. Architect James W. McLaughlin, who constructed the zoo's first buildings, designed the earliest completed zoological exhibits in the United States; the zoo began with eight monkeys, two grizzly bears, three white-tailed deer, six raccoons, two elk, a buffalo, a laughing hyena, a tiger, an American alligator, a circus elephant, over four hundred birds, including a talking crow.
The first guide book about the Cincinnati Zoo was written in 1876 in German. The founders of the zoo, including its first general manager, were German immigrants and the city had quite a large German-speaking population; the first English-language edition was published in 1893. In its first 20 years, the zoo experienced many financial difficulties, despite selling 22 acres to pay off debt in 1886, it went into receivership in 1898. In order to prevent the zoo from being liquidated, the stockholders chose to give up their interests of the $225,000 they invested. For the next two years, the zoo was run under the Cincinnati Zoological Company as a business. In 1901, the Cincinnati Traction Company, purchased the zoo, hoping to use it as a way to market itself to potential customers, they operated the zoo until 1917, when the Cincinnati Zoological Park Association, funded by donations from philanthropists Mary Emery and Anna Sinton Taft and a wave of public desire to purchase the increasing popular zoo, took over management.
In 1932, the city started to run it through the Board of Park Commissioners. This marked the zoo's transition from its period of financial insecurity to its modern state of stable growth and fiscal stability. In addition to its live animal exhibits, the zoo houses refreshments stands, a dance hall, roads and picnic grounds. Between 1920 and 1972, the Cincinnati Summer Opera performed in an open-air pavilion and were broadcast by NBC radio. In 1987, parts of the zoo were designated as a National Historic Landmark, the Cincinnati Zoo Historic Structures, due to their significant architecture featured in the Elephant House, the Reptile House, the Passenger Pigeon Memorial. Animals at the zoo have held several records, including the longest living alligator in captivity at the time, the fastest cheetah in captivity, the largest Komodo dragon; the zoo was the first in the United States to put an aye-aye on display, after losing its last aye-aye in 1993, it acquired another in 2011: a 6-year old transferred from the Duke Lemur Center in North Carolina.
The zoo is one of only a dozen in North America to house and breed bonobos, an endangered species of the great apes. The Cincinnati Zoo has been active in breeding animals to help save species, starting as early as 1880 with the first hatching of a trumpeter swan in a zoo, as well as four passenger pigeons; this was followed in 1882 with the first American bison born in captivity. In 1986, the zoo established the Carl H. Lindner Jr. Family Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife for the purpose of using science and technology to understand and propagate endangered flora and fauna and facilitate the conservation of global biodiversity, its Frozen Zoo plays a major role. In it are stored over 2,500 specimens representing 60 animal and 65 plant species. Terri Roth is CREW's Director. In the 2010s the zoo built the largest animal exhibit in its history. Phases I and II, completed in 2010, added an exhibit for cranes and expanded the Cheetah Encounter yard so that the cheetahs had a 40% larger running space.
Phase III opened on June 29, 2013 and included a wider vista that offers visitors an opportunity to see African lions, white lions, servals, a bat-eared fox, African wild dogs, a new cheetah exhibit. A new Base Camp Café, said to be the greenest restaurant
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, lawyer and public speaker. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U. S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, as the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election, the first woman nominated by a major party. Born in Chicago and raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married future president Bill Clinton in 1975. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Families, she was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year. As First Lady of Arkansas, she led a task force whose recommendations helped reform Arkansas's public schools.
As First Lady of the United States, Clinton advocated for healthcare reform. Her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal, which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage. In 2000, Clinton was elected as the first female Senator from New York, she was reelected to the Senate in 2006. Running for president in 2008, she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate, but lost the Democratic nomination to Barack Obama. During her tenure as U. S. Secretary of State in the Obama Administration from 2009 to 2013, Clinton responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya, she helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and a regime of international sanctions against Iran in an effort to force curtailment of that country's nuclear program. Upon leaving her Cabinet position after Obama's first term, she wrote her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements. Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016.
She received the most votes and primary delegates in the 2016 Democratic primaries and formally accepted her party's nomination for President of the United States on July 28, 2016, with vice presidential running mate Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine. She lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the Electoral College, despite winning a plurality of the popular vote, she received more than 65 million votes, the 3rd-highest count in a U. S. presidential election, behind Obama's victories in 2008 and 2012. Following her loss, she wrote her third memoir, What Happened, launched Onward Together, a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups. Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 1947, at Edgewater Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois, she was raised in a United Methodist family. When she was three years old, her family moved to the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, her father, Hugh Rodham, was of English and Welsh descent, managed a small but successful textile business, which he had founded.
Her mother, Dorothy Howell, was a homemaker of Dutch, French Canadian and Welsh descent. Clinton has two younger brothers and Tony; as a child, Rodham was a favorite student among her teachers at the public schools that she attended in Park Ridge. She earned numerous badges as a Brownie and a Girl Scout, she has told a story of being inspired by U. S. efforts during the Space Race and sending a letter to NASA around 1961 asking what she could do to become an astronaut, only to be informed that women were not being accepted into the program. She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in the student council, the school newspaper and was selected for the National Honor Society, she was elected class vice president for her junior year, but lost the election for class president for her senior year against two boys, one of whom told her that "you are stupid if you think a girl can be elected president". For her senior year and other students were transferred to the new Maine South High School, where she was a National Merit Finalist and was voted, "most to succeed".
She graduated in 1965 in the top five percent of her class. Rodham's mother wanted her to have an independent, professional career, her father, otherwise a traditionalist, felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender, she was raised in a politically conservative household, she helped canvass Chicago's South Side at age 13 after the close 1960 U. S. presidential election. She saw evidence of electoral fraud against Republican candidate Richard Nixon, volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the U. S. presidential election of 1964. Rodham's early political development was shaped by her high school history teacher, who introduced her to Goldwater's The Conscience of a Conservative and by her Methodist youth minister, with whom she saw and afterwards met, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. at a 1962 speech in Chicago's Orchestra Hall. In 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College. During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans.
As the leader of this "Rockefeller Republican"-oriented group, she supported the elections of moderate Republicans John Lind
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. In 2009, official US troops were withdrawn, but American soldiers continued to remain on the ground fighting in Iraq, hired by defence contractors and private military companies; the U. S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U. S. President George W. Bush following the unrelated September 11 terrorist attacks. In October 2002, President Bush obtained congressional approval from a Democrat-led Senate and Republican-led House authorizing war-making powers.
The Iraq war began on 19 March 2003, when the U. S. joined by the U. K. and several coalition allies, launched a "awe" bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were overwhelmed as U. S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U. S. and coalition forces. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by al-Qaeda in Iraq; the United States responded with a troop surge in 2007, a build up of 170,000 troops. The surge in troops gave greater security to Iraq’s government and military, was a success; the winding down of U. S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U. S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011. However, with no stay-behind agreement or advisers left in Iraq, a new power vacuum was created and led to the rise of ISIS.
Nine months after President Trump was elected, U. S.-backed forces captured Raqqa. The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, viewed by the U. S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction and that there was concern about an active WMD program, that the Iraqi government posed a threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Select U. S. officials accused Saddam of harbouring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. Hundreds of chemical weapons were found in Iraq, which were determined to be produced before the 1991 Gulf War, intelligence officials determined they were "so old they couldn't be used as designed." From 2004 to 2011, US troops and American-trained Iraqi troops encountered, on six reported occasions were wounded by, chemical weapons from years earlier in Saddam Hussein's rule. 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs were discovered.
The rationale of U. S. pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism both domestically and internationally. From 2009 to 2011, the UK conducted a broad inquiry into its decision to go to war chaired by Sir John Chilcot; the Chilcot Report, published in 2016, concluded military action may have been necessary but was not the last resort at the time and that the consequences of invasion were underestimated. In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014; the al-Maliki government enacted policies that were seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies; the Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths.
The majority of deaths occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007. Strong international opposition to the Saddam Hussein regime began after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990; the international community condemned the invasion, in 1991 a military coalition led by the United States launched the Gulf War to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Following the Gulf War, the US and its allies tried to keep Saddam in check with a policy of containment; this policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council. The inspections were carried out by the United Nations Special Commission. UNSCOM, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, worked to ensure that Iraq destroyed its chemical and nuclear weapons and facilities. In the decade following the Gulf War, the United Nations passed 16 Security Council resolutions calling for the complete elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. Member states communicated their frustration over the years that Iraq was impeding the work of the special commission and failing to take its disarmament obligations.
Iraqi officials harass
Queensgate is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. It sits in the valley of Downtown Cincinnati and has been dominated by industrial and commercial warehouses for most of its history. Cincinnati's nickname of "Porkopolis" started here with hog slaughtering in the early 19th century. Queensgate was known as part of the West End, Cincinnati; the Metropolitan Master Plan of 1948, a City Plan for Cincinnati, called for slum clearance and urban renewal. Beginning in 1960, large tracts of the historic West End were razed; the Queensgate I project came out of the 1948 Metropolitan Master Plan. It kickstarted urban renewal in the West End neighborhood, led to the creation of a commercial/industrial complex, known as the neighborhood of Queensgate; the population was only 142 at the 2010 census. Queensgate is home of the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal. From 1884 to 1970, the Cincinnati Reds played at three separate parks at the intersection of Findlay Street and Western Avenue in Queensgate—the last 57½ of those years at Crosley Field.
The former site of home plate of Crosley Field has been painted in an alley