Cindy Sherman

Cynthia Morris Sherman is an American artist whose work consists of photographic self-portraits, depicting herself in many different contexts and as various imagined characters. Her breakthrough work is considered to be "Complete Untitled Film Stills," a series of 70 black-and-white photographs of herself in many of the roles of women in performance media. In the 1980s, Sherman used color film and large prints, focused more on costume and facial expression. In 1995, Sherman was the recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship. In 2013 she received an honorary doctorate degree from the Royal College of London. Sherman was born on January 19, 1954, in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, the youngest of the five children of Dorothy and Charles Sherman. Shortly after her birth, her family moved to the township of Long Island, her father worked as an engineer for Grumman Aircraft. Her mother taught reading to children with learning difficulties. In 1972, Sherman enrolled in the visual arts department at Buffalo State College, where she began painting.

During this time, she began to explore the ideas which became a hallmark of her work: She dressed herself as different characters, cobbled together from thrift-store clothing. Frustrated with what she saw as the limitations of painting as a medium of art, she abandoned it and took up photography. "here was nothing more to say ", she recalled. "I was meticulously copying other art, I realized I could just use a camera and put my time into an idea instead." Sherman has said about this time: "One of the reasons I started photographing myself was that in the spring one of my teachers would take the class out to a place near Buffalo where there were waterfalls and everybody romps around without clothes on and takes pictures of each other. I thought, ‘Oh, I don't want to do this, but if we're going to have to go to the woods I better deal with it early.’ Luckily we never had to do that." She spent the remainder of her college education focused on photography. Though Sherman had failed a required photography class as a freshman, she repeated the course with Barbara Jo Revelle, whom she credited with introducing her to conceptual art and other contemporary forms.

At college she met Robert Longo, a fellow artist who encouraged her to record her process of "dolling up" for parties. This was the beginning of her Untitled Film Still series. In 1974, together with Longo, Charles Clough and Nancy Dwyer, she created Hallwalls, an arts center intended as a space that would accommodate artists from diverse backgrounds. Sherman was exposed to the contemporary art exhibited at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, the two Buffalo campuses of the SUNY school system, Media Studies Buffalo, the Center for Exploratory and Perceptual Arts, Artpark, in nearby Lewiston, N. Y, it was in Buffalo that Sherman encountered the photo-based conceptual works of artists Hannah Wilke, Eleanor Antin, Adrian Piper. Along with artists like Laurie Simmons, Louise Lawler, Barbara Kruger, Sherman is considered to be part of the Pictures Generation. Sherman works in series photographing herself in a range of costumes. To create her photographs, Sherman shoots alone in her studio, assuming multiple roles as author, make-up artist, wardrobe mistress, model.

Bus Riders is a series of photographs that feature the artist as a variety of meticulously observed characters. The photographs were shot in 1976 for the Bus Authority for display on a bus. Sherman used costumes and make-up, including blackface, to transform her identity for each image, the cutout characters were lined up along the bus's advertising strip. Margo Jefferson on the bus riders series: "a series of 15 black-and-white photographs from 1976 in which she impersonates black and white bus riders, they are male and female and aging. But the blacks are all the same color, the color of traditional blackface makeup, they all have nearly the same features, while Ms. Sherman is able to give the white characters she impersonates a real range of skin tones and facial features; this didn't look like irony to me. It looked like a stale visual myth, still in good working order." Other early works Play of Selves. In her landmark photograph series Untitled Film Stills, Sherman appears as B-movie and film noir actresses.

When asked if she considers herself to be acting in her photographs, Sherman said, “I never thought I was acting. When I became involved with close-ups I needed more information in the expression. I couldn't depend on atmosphere. I wanted the story to come from the face. Somehow the acting just happened.” Many of Sherman's photo series, like the 1981 Centerfolds, call attention to stereotypes of women in films and magazines. When talking about one of her centerfold pictures Sherman stated, "In content I wanted a man opening up the magazine look at it with an expectation of something lascivious and feel like the violator that they would be looking at this woman, a victim. I didn't think of them as victims at the time... I'm trying to make someone feel bad for having a certain expectation", she explained to The New York Times in 1990, "I feel. When I look at the pictures, I never see myself. Sometimes I disappear." She describes her process as intuitive, that she responds to elements of a setting such as light, mood and costume, will continue to change external elements until she finds what she wants.

She has said of her process, "I think of becoming a dif


Enaliornis is a genus of hesperornithine birds which lived in the early Late Cretaceous, making them the oldest known hesperornithines. Fossils have been found near England. Due to its lack of certain hesperornithid apomorphies, they were much more "conventional" birds and were held to be Gaviiformes. Based on the remnants that have been studied, it has not been determined if these birds had teeth like the others from this order. However, they were believed to not have well-developed wings. Like other hesperornithines, they had lobed feet for swimming, rather than webbed feet. Enaliornis was named Pelagornis by Seeley in 1866, but that name was preoccupied by a Miocene bird related to the pelicans. Three species have been described: the small Enaliornis sedgwicki, the medium-sized Enaliornis seeleyi, the large Enaliornis barretti; the size of the largest of the three species was comparable to a large pigeon. Together, they are the only birds assigned to the family Enaliornithidae; the presumed hesperornithine Potamornis from the Late Cretaceous Lance Formation of Buck Creek may be related to this group.

Brands, Sheila. "Taxon: Genus †Enaliornis". Project: The Taxonomicon. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 12 Jun 2012. Harrison, C. J. O.. A.. "Wyleyia: a new bird humerus from the Lower Cretaceous of England". Palaeontology. 16: 721–728. Archived from the original on 2012-02-06. Perrins, Christopher. Harrison, C. J. O.. Birds: Their Lifes, Their Ways, Their World. Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 166. ISBN 0895770652

Third generation of video game consoles

In the history of computer and video games, the third generation began on July 15, 1983, with the Japanese release of two systems: the Nintendo Family Computer and the Sega SG-1000. When the Famicom was released outside of Japan it was remodelled and marketed as the Nintendo Entertainment System; this generation marked the end of the North American video game crash, a shift in the dominance of home video game manufacturers from the United States to Japan. Handheld consoles were not a major part of this generation, although the Game & Watch line from Nintendo had started in 1980 and the Milton Bradley Microvision came out in 1979 though both are considered second generation hardware. Improvements in technology gave this generations consoles improved graphical and sound capabilities; the number of simultaneous colours on screen and the palette size both increased which, coupled with larger resolutions and more sprites on screen, meant that developers could create scenes with more detail. Five channel audio became common giving consoles the ability to produce a greater variation and range of sound.

A notable innovation of this generation was the inclusion of cartridges with on-board memory and batteries to allow users to save their progress in a game, with Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda introducing the technology to the market. This innovation allowed for much more expansive gaming worlds and in-depth story telling, since users could now save their progress rather than having to start each gaming session at the beginning. By the next generation, the capability to save games became ubiquitous, at first saving on the game cartridge itself, when the industry changed to read-only optical disks, on memory cards, hard disk drives, cloud storage; the best-selling console of this generation was the NES/Famicom from Nintendo, followed by the Sega Master System, the Atari 7800. Although the previous generation of consoles had used 8-bit processors, it was at the end of the third generation that home consoles were first labeled and marketed by their "bits"; this came into fashion as fourth generation 16-bit systems like the Sega Genesis were marketed in order to differentiate between the generations.

In Japan and North America, this generation was dominated by the Famicom/NES, while the Master System dominated the European and Brazilian markets. The end of the third generation was marked by the emergence of 16-bit systems of the fourth generation and with the discontinuation of the Famicom on September 25, 2003; the Family Computer became popular in Japan during this era, crowding out the other consoles in this generation. The Famicom's Western counterpart, the Nintendo Entertainment System, dominated the gaming market in North America, thanks in part to its restrictive licensing agreements with developers; this marked a shift in the dominance of home video games from the United States to Japan, to the point that Computer Gaming World described the "Nintendo craze" as a "non-event" for American video game designers as "virtually all the work to date has been done in Japan." The company had an estimated 65% of 1987 hardware sales in the console market. The popularity of the Japanese consoles grew so that in 1988 Epyx stated that, in contrast to a video game-hardware industry in 1984 that the company had described as "dead", the market for Nintendo cartridges was larger than for all home-computer software.

Nintendo sold seven million NES systems in 1988 as many as the number of Commodore 64s sold in its first five years. Compute! reported that Nintendo's popularity caused most computer-game companies to have poor sales during Christmas that year, resulting in serious financial problems for some, after more than a decade making computer games, in 1989 Epyx converted to console cartridges. By 1990 30% of American households owned the NES, compared to 23% for all personal computers, peer pressure to have a console was so great that the children of computer-game developers demanded them despite parents' refusal and the presence of state-of-the-art computers and software at home; as Computer Gaming World reported in 1992, "The kids who don't have access to videogames are as culturally isolated as the kids in our own generation whose parents refused to buy a TV". Sega was Nintendo's main competitor during the era in terms of market share for console units sold. Unlike the NES, Sega's SG-1000, which preceded Sega's more commercially successful Master System had little to differentiate itself from earlier consoles such as the ColecoVision and contemporary computers such as the MSX, despite the lack of hardware scrolling, the SG-1000 was able to pull off advanced scrolling effects, including parallax scrolling in Orguss and sprite-scaling in Zoom 909.

In 1985, Sega's Master System incorporated hardware scrolling, alongside an increased colour palette, greater memory, pseudo-3D effects, stereoscopic 3-D, gaining a clear hardware advantage over the NES. However, the NES continued to dominate the North American and Japanese markets, while the Master System would gain more dominance in the emerging European and South American markets; this era contributed many influential aspects to the history of the development of video games. The third generation saw the release of many of the first console role-playing video games. Editing and censorship of video games was used in localizing Japanese games to North America. During this era, many of the most famous video game franchises of all time were founded that outlived the third generation and continued through releases on consoles; some examp