click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jo Appleby

Jo Appleby is an English soprano from Thornton, Lancashire. She is a former member of operatic pop group Amici Forever. Appleby was born in Blackpool, she began studying opera, aged nineteen, at the Royal Northern College of Music, four years she gained an honours degree. She won a scholarship from the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company before embarking on an operatic career, she spent four years performing with the Glyndebourne Festival Opera and Touring Opera Company, as well as singing at venues such as the Royal Albert Hall and the Royal Festival Hall. In 2002 she was signed by Sony BMG as an original member of the opera group Amici Forever, she toured with the group until September 2006. Since leaving the group she has toured Australia and New Zealand as a soloist with The Morriston Orpheus Male voice choir. In 2007, she was involved in a concert tour of the United Kingdom, the "It's Magic" Christmas concert, she married Andrew Rees. Jo Appleby at Sussex Symphony Orchestra

Semi-submersible naval vessel

A semi-submersible naval vessel is a hybrid warship, that combines the properties of a surface ship and submarine by using water ballast to immerse and minimize its above-waterline profile, thereby improving its stealth characteristics when in hostile waters. The USS Monitor was an antecedent to such craft with its low-profile gun turret. Russian and North Korean semi-submersible naval vessels evolved from torpedo boats and special forces boats that could submerge to perform their missions; the US Navy SEALs use such vessels for clandestine special forces actions. Efforts to embody advantageous surface-ship characteristics into submarines have not been adopted. USS Monitor was an iron-hulled, steam-powered warship—built during the American Civil War—as the first ironclad warship commissioned by the Union Navy; the Monitor is noted for its role in the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, when it fought indecisively against the casemate ironclad, CSS Virginia. The novel design of the ship, distinguished by its revolving turret and low profile, was duplicated and established the monitor type of warship for use in shallow coastal waters.

Its low-freeboard deck—only 18 inches above the water—with a single gun turret gave it the appearance of a "cheesebox on a raft", according to observers of the time. The designer, John Ericsson, had deliberately minimized the observable surface of the vessel and the area that it presented as a target; the Monitor was not designed to be semi-submersible, however. Examples of true semi-submersible naval vessels were developed in the Russian Empire, North Korea and the United States; the Imperial Russian Navy developed semi-submersible vessels—starting with the Keta—which were designed to be torpedo boats with low visibility for coastal protection against enemy warships. Keta was built in 1904 in St. Petersburg, powered by a 14-horsepower motor, displacing 8 tons, with a length of 7 metres, it saw service in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War to protect the coast in the Far East. Keta was followed by other designs, "Variant D" and "Type F". According to the Covert Shores Naval Warfare Blog, North Korea's Korean People's Navy developed semi-submersible for infiltration of agents and use by special forces.

These derived from high-speed surface craft, sometimes disguised as fishing vessels. The I-SILC model was the first semi-submersible, which could submerge to snorkel depth to power its combustion engine. Approaching its insertion point, the vessel operates as a planing power boat; this evolved into two models of Taedong semi-submersibles, the B and C models, which were exported to Vietnam and Iran. The Taedong–C is a semi-submersible variant of the IPS-16 Peykaap torpedo boat. North Korean semi-submersibles have been intercepted while making incursions into South Korean waters. In 2002, North Korea delivered five Taedong semi-submersible vessels to the Iranian Navy as part of an arms shipment that included other types of gunboats and patrol boats. In 2014, the United States Naval Special Warfare Command unveiled its SEAL Insertion and Neutralization craft and built as a Combatant Craft Heavy; the craft is can carry crew and payload internally. At that time there were two units operational, with a third one ordered for delivery in 2018.

The SEALION is a semi-submersible with a planing hull for surface running and ballast tanks to run with a reduced profile. Its dimensions are 80 feet long, 14.5 feet abeam, 9.5 feet from keel to cabin roof. It is powered by two ten-cylinder, 1,500-horsepower diesel engines, its aft payload bay is configured to accommodate either two inflatable boats, one special forces modified jet ski, or eight seats. As a related development, the hybridization of submarines to acquire certain surface ship attributes has included the augmentation of firepower and surface speed. Cruiser submarines combined of the stealth of a submarine with the endurance and firepower of a surface ship, they were designed to attack merchant marine shipping with heavy deck guns, as well as torpedoes. They were slower to dive and offered a bigger sonar signature than conventional submarines. Examples are: The 1916 German Type U 139 submarine, which mounted two 15-centimetre SK L/45 deck guns and two 8.8-centimetre SK L/30 deck guns.

The 1923 HMS X1, which mounted two 5.2-inch guns in 2 twin turrets. The 1934 French submarine Surcouf, which mounted two 203-millimetre naval guns; the 1939 Soviet K-class submarines, which mounted two 100-millimetre naval guns. Before the advent of nuclear power, submarines were slower on the surface than surface ships and slower underwater. Therefore, efforts were made to increase submarine surface speeds on a par with ships, such as: The 1916 British K-class submarine was equipped with steam turbines to provide sufficient surface-running speed to accompany the battle fleet as a reconnaissance vessel, but proved to be unsuccessful; the 1930s Soviet Pravda class embodied the hull contours of a destroyer for high speed on the surface, but proved to be underpowered. The 1960s Soviet Project 1231 was a concept for a missile boat that would travel with hydrofoils on the surface and dive to avoid observation, never built; the 2010 French SMX-25 was a submarine design concept by defence company, DCNS, with surface ship characteristics, which would allow high surface speed for more rapid deployment to the combat zone and submerging to attack.

Heavy-lift ships, which submerge to allow their cargo

General Achievement Test

The General Achievement Test is a test of general knowledge and skills in written communication, mathematics and technology, the arts and social sciences taken by all Victorian students prior to completing their VCE. It consists of two writing tests and 70 multiple choice questions on science, technology and humanities; the first writing test is an informative piece based on information given, while the second is an opinionative to be based on statements provided. At the end of the year the student will receive a statement of marks showing their numerical score for each section as well as a standardised study score out of 50 for each section. Although the GAT is not a part of the graduation requirements and does not count towards a student's final VCE results or ATAR, the GAT plays an important role in checking that a school's assessments and examinations have been assessed. Therefore, if a student is enrolled in Units 3 and 4 of any VCE study, they must sit the GAT unless exempted by the VCAA.

Year 12 Western Australian students sat the GAT for a short period. This test was introduced into Western Australia as a trial to provide schools with feedback on the standard of assessment used for the new WACE courses; the GAT in Western Australia is no longer used. The GAT in Victoria, as of 2008, has been taken into consideration for the middle band for courses by Monash University if a student misses out on the course because their ATAR score is just below the cut-off score. In 2009, a student-organised movement headed by Andrew Onorato and Lucas Shipsides and fuelled by Facebook brought the GAT to the attention of the national press, by suggesting that students make as many references to actor George Clooney as possible in their answers; this became known as'Project Clooney'09'. Over 8,000 students are believed to have participated in the statewide prank/meme. After this level of participation was observed, it became customary, as a form of parody/protest, to incorporate GAT catch phrases, or GATchphrases in the test in following years.

Each year, an event is started on Facebook that gains popularity and is promoted to be used by students state-wide. Recent years have included Nic Nat in the GAT, Schapelle Corby and The Cat in the Hat in the GAT. In late April 2016 a poll was held on the VCE Discussion Space Facebook group to choose the "Gatchphrase" for that year. Over 1,500 votes were cast, with the theme of Shannon Noll was robbed of the 2003 Australian Idol title winning with over 1,000 votes. A public Facebook event page was created for the theme, by the date of the GAT it had an attendance of over 3,600 students. GAT on the VCAA website

Vernon Sport

Vernon Kingsley Sport was a member of the prestigious Tuskegee Airmen during World War II. In life he worked for the cause of affirmative action and donated much of his time to help those in need. Vernon Sport enlisted in the U. S. Army Air Corps after graduating from high school, he requested a posting at Moton Field in Tuskegee, the home field of the Tuskegee Airmen. Each time, he was turned down for lacking a college degree. In retrospect, "it was an exercise in determination, he continuously requested to try out for the airmen. He didn’t have a college education at that time, but he was well-read," Dr. Alfred Wyatt, Sport's son-in-law, would note later, he would prevail, rising to the rank of captain squad commander. After leaving the Air Corps, Sport would earn a bachelor's degree from Suffolk University and a master's degree from Goddard College. Sport moved to Massachusetts, where he worked in the state courts as an affirmative action officer, helping to ensure equal access for African-Americans.

He served on the boards of such notable organizations as the NAACP, the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society. His son-in-law would recount, "I think the experience of being with the Tuskegee Airmen prepared him to be a leader."Sport retired and moved to Conyers, Georgia in 1988, but that didn't stop him from helping others. He worked with an Atlanta-area charity, the Angels of Mercy, which provided food and support to homeless persons, for many years. In 2007, along with the other Tuskegee Airmen, would receive the Congressional Gold Medal for their service. Vernon Sport died in Conyers, Georgia on September 8, 2008, of complications from Alzheimer's Disease, he was survived by his wife, three sisters and four children

Arizona State Route 195

State Route 195 is a state highway serving the Yuma area. It begins in Yuma east of downtown, intersecting with Interstate 8 and follows a 22-mile route, first south and west, coming to an end at the intersection with Avenue E½ near San Luis. SR 195 exists as a divided highway, designed to be upgraded to a freeway in the future; the only connection from I-8 to the San Luis Port of Entry was US 95, which runs as a surface street through the downtown business districts of Yuma, San Luis and Somerton. The area has experienced significant population growth since the 2000 Census. In the period from 2000–2005, the city of Yuma grew in population by 9.3%, the city of San Luis grew by 41.3%, the town of Somerton grew by 38.6%, anticipation that the growth trend will continue has fueled concerns about increasing traffic congestion. Additionally, the Yuma Metropolitan Planning Organization has estimated that commercial truck traffic through the San Luis port to increase to over 12,000 daily by 2015. Planning for the construction of SR 195 was implemented in response to these concerns.

As of 1999, YMPO has secured an agreement with the state Department of Transportation to assist with funding for the project. In addition to addressing traffic concerns for the area, the highway will provide access for a proposed new port of entry east of San Luis. YMPO envisions these projects, along with potential expansion of cargo operations at the Yuma International Airport, as being parts of a concerted effort to increase the area's importance in regional and international trade and commerce. SR 195 was planned on November 15, 2002. Construction of the northern end of SR 195 began in late October 2007, was completed September 2009; the entire route is in Yuma County. Arizona Department of Transportation page, Yuma district