The cinema of the Soviet Union includes films produced by the constituent republics of the Soviet Union reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture and history, albeit they were all regulated by the central government in Moscow. Most prolific in their republican films, after the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, were Armenia, Georgia, and, to a lesser degree, Lithuania and Moldavia. At the same time, the nation's film industry, nationalized throughout most of the country's history, was guided by philosophies and laws propounded by the monopoly Soviet Communist Party which introduced a new view on the cinema, socialist realism, different from the one before or after the existence of the Soviet Union. Upon the establishment of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on November 7, 1917, what had been the Russian Empire began to come under the domination of a Soviet reorganization of all its institutions. From the outset, the leaders of this new state held that film would be the most ideal propaganda tool for the Soviet Union because of its widespread popularity among the established citizenry of the new land.
Vladimir Lenin viewed film as the most important medium for educating the masses in the ways and successes of communism. As a consequence Lenin issued the "Directives on the Film Business" on 17 January 1922, which instructed the People's Commissariat for Education to systemise the film business and numbering all films shown in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, extracting rent from all owned cinemas and subject them to censorship. Joseph Stalin also regarded cinema as of the prime importance. However, between World War I and the Russian Revolution, the Russian film industry and the infrastructure needed to support it had deteriorated to the point of unworkability; the majority of cinemas had been in the corridor between Moscow and Saint Petersburg, most were out of commission. Additionally, many of the performers, producers and other artists of pre-Soviet Russia had fled the country or were moving ahead of Red Army forces as they pushed further and further south into what remained of the Russian Empire.
Furthermore, the new government did not have the funds to spare for an extensive reworking of the system of filmmaking. Thus, they opted for project approval and censorship guidelines while leaving what remained of the industry in private hands; as this amounted to cinema houses, the first Soviet films consisted of recycled films of the Russian Empire and its imports, to the extent that these were not determined to be offensive to the new Soviet ideology. The first new film released in Soviet Russia did not fit this mold: this was Father Sergius, a religious film completed during the last weeks of the Russian Empire but not yet exhibited, it appeared on Soviet screens in 1918. Beyond this, the government was principally able to fund only short, educational films, the most famous of which were the agitki – propaganda films intended to "agitate", or energize and enthuse, the masses to participate in approved Soviet activities, deal with those who remained in opposition to the new order; these short films were simple visual aids and accompaniments to live lectures and speeches, were carried from city to city, town to town, village to village to educate the entire countryside reaching areas where film had not been seen.
Newsreels, as documentaries, were the other major form of earliest Soviet cinema. Dziga Vertov's newsreel series Kino-Pravda, the best known of these, lasted from 1922 to 1925 and had a propagandistic bent. Still, in 1921, there was not one functioning cinema in Moscow until late in the year, its rapid success, utilizing old Russian and imported feature films, jumpstarted the industry especially insofar as the government did not or directly regulate what was shown, by 1923 an additional 89 cinemas had opened. Despite high taxation of ticket sales and film rentals, there was an incentive for individuals to begin making feature film product again – there were places to show the films - albeit they now had to conform their subject matter to a Soviet world view. In this context, the directors and writers who were in support of the objectives of communism assumed quick dominance in the industry, as they were the ones who could most reliably and convincingly turn out films that would satisfy government censors.
New talent joined the experienced remainder, an artistic community assembled with the goal of defining "Soviet film" as something distinct and better from the output of "decadent capitalism". The leaders of this community viewed it essential to this goal to be free to experiment with the entire nature of film, a position which would result in several well-known creative efforts but would result in an unforeseen counter-reaction by the solidifying administrators of the government-controlled society. In 1924 Nikolai Lebedev wrote a book on the history of film he says is "the first Soviet attempt at systematization of the meager available sources for the general reader". Along with other articles written by Lebedev and published by Pravda and Kino. In the book he draws attention to the funding challenges that follow nationalization of Soviet cinema. In 1925 all film organizations merged to form Sovkino. Under Sovkino the film industry was given a t
Genevieve Bell is an Australian anthropologist best known for her work at the intersection of cultural practice and technological development. Professor Bell is the Director of the Autonomy and Assurance Institute, co-founded by the Australian National University and CSIRO’s Data61, a Distinguished Professor of the ANU College of Engineering and Computer Science, she holds the university's inaugural Florence Violet McKenzie Chair and is the first SRI International Engelbart Distinguished Fellow. Bell is a Senior Fellow at Intel, where she was a Vice President directing the company's Corporate Sensing & Insights group, she is published, holds 13 patents. Daughter of renowned Australian anthropologist, Diane Bell, Genevieve Bell was born in Sydney and raised in a range of Australian communities, including Melbourne, in several Aboriginal Communities in the Northern Territory. Bell attended university in the United States, where she graduated from Bryn Mawr College in 1990 with a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Philosophy in anthropology.
Bell went on to attend Stanford University in Palo Alto, for graduate studies. In 1993, she earned her Master's degree from Stanford, followed by a PhD in 1998, both in anthropology, her doctoral research focused on the Carlisle Indian Industrial School which operated in rural Pennsylvania in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. From 1996-1998, Bell taught anthropology and Native American Studies at Stanford University, in both the Department of Anthropology and Department of Anthropological Sciences, as well as in the Continuing Studies program, she was recruited from her faculty position by Intel Corporation in 1998 to help build out their nascent social-science research competency in the advanced research and development labs. She was based at one of the company's campuses in Hillsboro, where she worked as a cultural anthropologist studying how different cultures around the globe used technology, she and her colleagues helped re-orient Intel to a more market-inspired and experience-driven approach and she is credited with establishing User Experience as a recognised competency at Intel.
She started Intel's first User Experience Group as part of Intel's Digital Home Group. The company named her an Intel Fellow, their highest technical rank, in November 2008 for her work in the Digital Home Group, she rejoined the advanced research and development labs in 2010, when Intel made her the director of their newly forming User Experience Research group. This group was Intel's first integrated user experience research and development group. After steering that group to a range of successes inside and outside the company, she was made a Vice President in 2014 and Senior Fellow in 2016. Bell's impact has been recognised outside Intel. In 2010, she was named one of the Top 25 Women in Technology to Watch by AlwaysOn and as one of the 100 Most Creative People in Business by Fast Company. In 2012, Bell was inducted to the Women In Technology International Hall of Fame and in 2013, she was named Anita Borg’s Women of Vision in Leadership. In 2014, she was included in Elle Magazine's first list of influential women in technology and included in a new exhibit at London's Design Museum profiling 25 women from around the world.
Her first book, Divining a Digital Future: Mess and Mythology in Ubiquitous Computing, written in collaboration with Paul Dourish, is an exploration of the social and cultural aspects of ubiquitous computing, with a particular focus on the disciplinary and methodological issues that have shaped the ubiquitous computing research agenda. The book was published by MIT Press in 2011. Bell was a Thinker in Residence for South Australia from 2008-2010, her visiting appointment was intended to help guide government policy surrounding a new national broadband initiative. Bell conducted ethnographic research and developed new innovative research methods to identify barriers to adoption and drivers around broadband uptake, her final report, “Getting Connected, staying connected: exploring the role of new technology in Australian society” is available online. After 18 years as Intel’s resident anthropologist in Silicon Valley, Bell returned to Australia in 2017 as the first of five appointments under the ANU Vice-Chancellor Brian Schmidt's Entrepreneurial Fellows scheme.
She is a Distinguished Professor at the ANU College of Engineering and Computer Science, where she is focusing on "exploring how to bring together data science, design thinking and ethnography to drive new approaches in engineering. She is the university’s inaugural appointee of the Florence Violet McKenzie Chair, named in honour of Australia’s first female electrical engineer. In 2017, the ANU announced a major 10-year plan to drive the expansion of its program in engineering and computer science; the expansion in part was to be led by Bell as the Director of the newly founded Autonomy and Assurance Institute, to be known as the 3A Institute or 3Ai, co-founded by Australian National University and CSIRO’s Data61, Australia's largest data innovation network. The 3A Institute brings together a diverse team from a range of disciplines to tackle complex problems around artificial intelligence and technology and managing their impact on humanity. In October 2017, Bell presented the ABC's 2017 Boyer Lectures, interrogating what it means to be human, Australian, in a digital world.
Bell joins the list of prominent Australians selected each year by the ABC since 1959 to present the annual Boyer Lectures and stimulate a national conve
Emily Smith is a Scottish folk singer from Dumfries and Galloway. She went to school at Wallace Hall Academy and has a degree in Scottish music from The Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, she is married to New Zealand-born fiddle player and guitarist Jamie McClennan. Emily's childhood was spent dancing to music, rather than performing it, in her mother's dance school, she grew up assuming everyone knew how to do a highland fling and weekends were spent dancing at ceilidhs rather than nightclubs. Aged seven she started out on piano, but it wasn't until a solo with the school choir in her late teens that Emily discovered her singing voice. She moved to Glasgow in 1999 where she gained an Honours degree in Scottish Music from the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama. With principal study of Scots Song, she studied accordion and piano. A Day Like Today A Different Life Too Long Away Adoon Winding Nith with Jamie McClennan Traiveller's Joy Ten Years A Winters Night – EP Echoes Songs for Christmas Faultlines – Karine Polwart Darwin Song Project – Various Artists Transatlantic Sessions 4 Adoon Winding Nith – with Jamie McClennan Sweet Visitor – Nancy Kerr Unplugged – Smith & McClennan Recent TV appearances include: BBC Songs of Praise Transatlantic Sessions 4 Scotland's Hogmanay Live BBC Radio Scotland Young Traditional Musician Award Scots Trad Music Awards: Scots Singer of the Year Official website
The Southwest Corridor or Southwest Expressway was a project designed to bring an eight-lane highway into the City of Boston from a direction southwesterly of downtown. It was supposed to connect with Interstate 95 at Route 128; as designed, it would have followed the right of way of the former Penn Central/New Haven Railroad mainline running from Readville, north through Roslindale, Forest Hills and Jamaica Plain, where it would have met the also-cancelled I-695. The 50-foot-wide median for the uncompleted "Southwest Expressway" would have carried the southwest stretch of the MBTA Orange Line within it, replacing the Washington Street Elevated railway's 1901/1909-built elevated railbed. Another highway, the four-lane South End Bypass, was proposed to run along the railroad corridor between I-695 in Roxbury and I-90 near Back Bay; the Boston and Providence Railroad was chartered on June 22, 1831 to build a rail line between its two namesake cities. Construction began in late 1832, the B&P opened from Park Square, Boston to Canton in 1834.
Through Roxbury and Jamaica Plain, the railroad followed the valley of Stony Brook. The remaining section of the B&P main line from Canton to Providence opened the following year with the completion of the Canton Viaduct; the B&P, like many early railroads, was intended for intercity travel. Two additional stations in Jamaica Plain were added in 1842: Jamaica Plain at Green Street, Tollgate where the line crossed the Norfolk and Bristol Turnpike. Additional stations on the inner part of the line were soon added, including stops at Boylston Street in Jamaica Plain and Heath Street in Roxbury; the B&P began running Dedham Specials in June 1842, which made commuting from these intermediate stations possible. A second track from Boston to Roxbury was added in 1839 and extended to Readville in 1845. Commuter traffic on the B&P - which had numbered just 320 daily passengers from the eight stations north of Readville in 1849 - expanded thereafter; the railroad cut into the profits of the private turnpike.
A third track from Boston to Readville was added in 1873-74. Around 1885, Forest Hills became the outer terminus for some short-turn commuter service. In 1888, the Old Colony Railroad bought the B&P. Between the Boston terminal in Park Square and Forest Hills, the B&P mainline was at grade except for Hogg's Bridge, which carried Centre Street over the railroad; as traffic increased both on local streets and on the railroad, the numerous grade crossings became dangerous. On June 21, 1890, the Massachusetts General Court passed An Act to Promote the Abolition of Grade Crossings, which allowed town officials or a railroad company to petition the state superior court to create an independent commission to determine whether a grade crossing could and should be eliminated; the costs of such eliminations were to be paid 65% by the railroad, not more than 10% by the town, the remainder by the state. The small local cost provided towns incentive to petition for crossing eliminations to prevent public thoroughfares from being blocked by trains and to avoid deadly collisions.
In July 1890, local politicians began planning for a grade crossing elimination project on the busy B&P mainline through Roxbury and Jamaica Plain. The B&P began property acquisition for the project in 1891; the General Court legislated the grade crossing elimination from Massachusetts Avenue to Blakemore Street on June 16, 1892. The cost allocation was changed from the 1890 bill: 55% by the railroad, 31.5% by the state, 13.5% by the city. The project started in 1948 with Massachusetts Public Works director William F. Callahan's Master Highway Plan for Metropolitan Boston, went through several adjustments and was killed in 1973 by Governor Francis Sargent, following popular pressure. Governor Sargent declared a moratorium on all expressway construction within Route 128 in 1970 following the recommendation of a task force of private experts he appointed to study controversial highway plans. Having been witness to recent housing clearances for the Interstate 93 expressway and Massachusetts Turnpike, as well as similar projects in New York City and other cities, the population of the affected area was unwilling to repeat similar costs for another expressway.
The Route 128/I-93/I-95 interchange was nearly completed, leaving unused ramps north of the interchange and two unused bridges which were removed. In 1973, the state planned to build a 300-space parking garage - to be served by express buses to Boston and Logan Airport - on the stub end of I-95 just inside Route 128. However, the project was unpopular with residents in Milton. Two sections of the railroad embankment remain - one along Mindoro Street just north of Roxbury Crossing, the other behind the former Highland Brewery at New Heath Street. Numerous granite blocks were recycled in the Southwest Corridor Park and as walls in the Emerald Necklace park system. Much like what had been planned for the median of the unbuilt Southwest Expressway/I-95 right-of-way, part of the corridor was recycled into the new route for two tracks for the MBTA's Orange Line and three tracks for Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and the MBTA's Needham and Read
Hilbert's tenth problem is the tenth on the list of mathematical problems that the German mathematician David Hilbert posed in 1900. It is the challenge to provide a general algorithm which, for any given Diophantine equation, can decide whether the equation has a solution with all unknowns taking integer values. For example, the Diophantine equation 3 x 2 − 2 x y − y 2 z − 7 = 0 has an integer solution: x = 1, y = 2, z = − 2. By contrast, the Diophantine equation x 2 + y 2 + 1 = 0 has no such solution. Hilbert's tenth problem has been solved, it has a negative answer: such a general algorithm does not exist; this is the result of combined work of Martin Davis, Yuri Matiyasevich, Hilary Putnam and Julia Robinson which spans 21 years, with Matiyasevich completing the theorem in 1970. The theorem is now known as the MRDP theorem. Hilbert formulated the problem as follows:Given a Diophantine equation with any number of unknown quantities and with rational integral numerical coefficients: To devise a process according to which it can be determined in a finite number of operations whether the equation is solvable in rational integers.
The words "process" and "finite number of operations" have been taken to mean that Hilbert was asking for an algorithm. The term "rational integer" refers to the integers, negative or zero: 0, ±1, ±2.... So Hilbert was asking for a general algorithm to decide whether a given polynomial Diophantine equation with integer coefficients has a solution in integers. Hilbert's problem is not concerned with finding the solutions, it only asks. The answer to this question is negative, in the sense that no "process can be devised" for answering that question. In modern terms, Hilbert's 10th problem is an undecidable problem. Although it is unlikely that Hilbert had conceived of such a possibility, before going on to list the problems, he did presciently remark: "Occasionally it happens that we seek the solution under insufficient hypotheses or in an incorrect sense, for this reason do not succeed; the problem arises: to show the impossibility of the solution under the given hypotheses or in the sense contemplated."
Proving the 10th problem undecidable is a valid answer in Hilbert's terms, since it is a proof about "the impossibility of the solution". In a diophantine equation, there are two kinds of variables: the unknowns; the diophantine set consists of the parameter assignments for which the diophantine equation is solvable. A typical example is the linear diophantine equation in two unknowns, a 1 x 1 + a 2 x 2 = a 3,where the equation is solvable when the greatest common divisor of a 1, a 2 divides a 3; the values for a 1, a 2, a 3 that satisfy this restriction are a diophantine set and the equation above is its diophantine definition. Diophantine definitions can be provided by simultaneous systems of equations as well as by individual equations because the system p 1 = 0, …, p k = 0 is equivalent to the single equation p 1 2 + ⋯ + p k 2 = 0. Sets of natural numbers, of pairs of natural numbers that have Diophantine definitions are called Diophantine sets. In these terms, Hilbert's tenth problem asks whether there is an algorithm to determine if a given Diophantine set is non-empty.
The work on the problem has been in terms of solutions in natural numbers rather than arbitrary integers. The two problems are equivalent: any general algorithm that can decide whether a given Diophantine equation has an integer solution could be modified into an algorithm that decides whether a given Diophantine equation has a natural number solution, vice versa; this can be seen as follows: The requirement that solutions be natural numbers can be expressed with the help of Lagrange's four-square theorem: every natural number is the sum of the squares of four integers, so we replace every parameter with the sum of squares of four extra parameters. Since every integer can be written as the difference of two natural numbers, we can replace every parameter that ranges in integers with the difference of two parameters that range in natural numbers. A recursively enumerable set can be characterized as one for which there exists an algorithm that will halt when a member of the set is provided as input, but may continue indefinitely when the input is a non-member.
It was the development of computability theory that provided a precise expli
The Lanark Silver Bell is a horseracing trophy from Lanark, Scotland. It is understood to be one of the oldest sporting trophies in the world; the silver bell has traditionally been described as a gift of William the Lion, to the royal burgh of Lanark, in 1160. King William resided at Lanark Castle, taking part in local hunts and watching racing on the moors. However, the various hallmarks on the bell, by members of the Incorporation of Goldsmiths in Edinburgh, date from the late 16th and early 17th centuries; the Compendium of Scottish Silver states the date of the cup to be circa 1617, the makers to be Hugh Lindsay and Deacon Robert Dennistoun. The last Silver Bell race to be run at Lanark Racecourse was in 1977; the series started again in 2008 at the Hamilton Park Racecourse. The original bell is presumed to no longer exist, but the present one dates from the 17th century