Auguste and Louis Lumière
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas and Louis Jean, were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties; the Lumière brothers were born in Besançon, France, to Charles-Antoine Lumière and Jeanne Joséphine Costille Lumière, who were married in 1861 and moved to Besançon, setting up a small photographic portrait studio where Auguste and Louis were born. They moved to Lyon in 1870, where three daughters were born. Auguste and Louis both attended the largest technical school in Lyon, their father Charles-Antoine set up a small factory producing photographic plates, but with Louis and a young sister working from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. it teetered on the verge of bankruptcy, by 1882 it looked as if they would fail, but when Auguste returned from military service the boys designed the machines necessary to automate their father's plate production and devised a successful new photo plate,'etiquettes bleue', by 1884 the factory employed a dozen workers.
When their father retired in 1892 the brothers began to create moving pictures. They patented several significant processes leading up to their film camera, most notably film perforations as a means of advancing the film through the camera and projector; the original cinématographe had been patented by Léon Guillaume Bouly on 12 February 1892. The brothers patented their own version on 13 February 1895; the first footage to be recorded using it was recorded on 19 March 1895. This first film shows workers leaving the Lumière factory; the Lumière brothers saw film as a novelty and had withdrawn from the film business in 1905. They went on to develop the Lumière Autochrome. Louis died on 6 June 1948 and Auguste on 10 April 1954, they are buried in a family tomb in the New Guillotière Cemetery in Lyon. The Lumières held their first private screening of projected motion pictures in 1895; this first screening on 22 March 1895 took place in Paris, at the "Society for the Development of the National Industry", in front of an audience of 200 people – among which Léon Gaumont director of the company the Comptoir géneral de la photographie.
The main focus of this conference by Louis Lumière were the recent developments in the photograph industry the research on polychromy. It was much to Lumière's surprise that the moving black-and-white images retained more attention than the coloured stills photographs; the American Woodville Latham had screened works of film 2 months on 20 May 1895. The first public screening of films at which admission was charged was a program by the Skladanowsky brothers, held on 1 November 1895, in Berlin; the Lumières gave their first paid public screening on 28 December 1895, at Salon Indien du Grand Café in Paris. This history-making presentation featured 10 short films, including their first film, Sortie des Usines Lumière à Lyon; each film is 17 meters long, when hand cranked through a projector, runs 50 seconds. It is believed their first film was recorded that same year with Léon Bouly's cinématographe device, patented the previous year; the date of the recording of their first film is in dispute. In an interview with Georges Sadoul given in 1948, Louis Lumière tells that he shot the film in August 1894.
This is questioned by historians who consider that a functional Lumière camera didn't exist before the end of 1894, that their first film was recorded 19 March 1895, publicly projected 22 March at the Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale in Paris. The cinématographe — a three-in-one device that could record and project motion pictures — was further developed by the Lumières; the public debut at the Grand Café came a few months and consisted of the following 10 short films: La Sortie de l'Usine Lumière à Lyon, 46 seconds Le Jardinier, 49 seconds Le Débarquement du Congrès de Photographie à Lyon, 48 seconds La Voltige, 46 seconds La Pêche aux poissons rouges, 42 seconds Les Forgerons, 49 seconds Repas de bébé, 41 seconds Le Saut à la couverture, 41 seconds La Places des Cordeliers à Lyon, 44 seconds La Mer, 38 secondsThe Lumières went on tour with the cinématographe in 1896, visiting Brussels, London, New York City and Buenos Aires. In 1896, only a few months after the initial screenings in Europe, films by the Lumiere Brothers were shown in Egypt, first in the Tousson stock exchange in Alexandria on 5 November 1896 and in the Hamam Schneider in Cairo.
The moving images had an immediate and significant influence on popular culture with L'Arrivée d'un Train en Gare de la Ciotat and Carmaux, défournage du coke. Their actuality films
The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device; the Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video, by creating the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter. A process using roll film was first described in a patent application submitted in France and the U. S. by French inventor Louis Le Prince. The concept was used by U. S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1889, subsequently developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892. Dickson and his team at the Edison lab devised the Kinetograph, an innovative motion picture camera with rapid intermittent, or stop-and-go, film movement, to photograph movies for in-house experiments and commercial Kinetoscope presentations.
A prototype for the Kinetoscope was shown to a convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs on May 20, 1891. The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893. Instrumental to the birth of American movie culture, the Kinetoscope had a major impact in Europe. In 1895, Edison introduced the Kinetophone. Film projection, which Edison disdained as financially nonviable, soon superseded the Kinetoscope's individual exhibition model. Many of the projection systems developed by Edison's firm in years would use the Kinetoscope name. An encounter with the work and ideas of photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge appears to have spurred Edison to pursue the development of a motion picture system. On February 25, 1888, in Kaust, Muybridge gave a lecture that may have included a demonstration of his zoopraxiscope, a device that projected sequential images drawn around the edge of a glass disc, producing the illusion of motion.
The Edison facility was close by, the lecture was attended by both Edison and his company's official photographer, William Dickson. Two days Muybridge and Edison met at Edison's laboratory in West Orange. No such collaboration was undertaken, but in October 1888, Edison filed a preliminary claim, known as a caveat, with the U. S. Patent Office announcing his plans to create a device that would do "for the Eye what the phonograph does for the Ear", it is clear that it was intended as part of a complete audiovisual system: "we may see & hear a whole Opera as as if present". In March 1889, a second caveat was filed, in which the proposed motion picture device was given a name, derived from the Greek roots kineto- and scopos. Edison assigned Dickson, one of his most talented employees, to the job of making the Kinetoscope a reality. Edison would take full credit for the invention, but the historiographical consensus is that the title of creator can hardly go to one man: While Edison seems to have conceived the idea and initiated the experiments, Dickson performed the bulk of the experimentation, leading most modern scholars to assign Dickson with the major credit for turning the concept into a practical reality.
The Edison laboratory, worked as a collaborative organization. Laboratory assistants were assigned to work on many projects while Edison supervised and involved himself and participated to varying degrees. Dickson and his lead assistant, Charles Brown, made halting progress at first. Edison's original idea involved recording pinpoint photographs, 1/32 of an inch wide, directly on to a cylinder. An audio cylinder would provide synchronized sound, while the rotating images, hardly operatic in scale, were viewed through a microscope-like tube; when tests were made with images expanded to a mere 1/8 of an inch in width, the coarseness of the silver bromide emulsion used on the cylinder became unacceptably apparent. Around June 1889, the lab began working with sensitized celluloid sheets, supplied by John Carbutt, that could be wrapped around the cylinder, providing a far superior base for the recording of photographs; the first film made for the Kinetoscope, the first motion picture produced on photographic film in the United States, may have been shot at this time.
1, it shows an employee of the lab in an tongue-in-cheek display of physical dexterity. Attempts at synchronizing sound were soon left behind, while Dickson would experiment with disc-based exhibition designs; the project would soon head off in more productive directions impelled by a trip of Edison's to Europe and the Exposition Universelle in Paris, for which he departed August 2 or 3, 1889. During his two months abroad, Edison visited with scientist-photographer Étienne-Jules Marey, who had devised a "chronophotographic gun"—the first portable motion picture camera—which used a strip of flexible film designed to capture sequential images at twelve frames per second. Upon his return to the United States, Edison filed
The Autochrome Lumière is an early color photography process patented in 1903 by the Lumière brothers in France and first marketed in 1907. It was the principal color photography process in use before the advent of subtractive color film in the mid-1930s. Prior to the Lumiere brothers, Louis Ducos du Hauron utilized the separation technique to create colour images on paper with screen plates, producing natural colours through superimposition, which would become the foundation of all commercial colour photography. Descendents of photographer Antoine Lumiere, inventors Louis and Auguste Lumiere utilized Du Hauron's technique, improved upon by other inventors such as John Joly and James William McDonough, making it possible to print photographic images in colour; the most broadly used form of colour photography in the early twentieth century, autochrome was cherished for its aesthetic appeal and uniqueness, which have become its most recognizable characteristics. Autochrome is an additive color "mosaic screen plate" process.
The medium consists of a glass plate coated on one side with a random mosaic of microscopic grains of potato starch dyed red-orange and blue-violet. Lampblack fills the spaces between grains, a black-and-white panchromatic silver halide emulsion is coated on top of the filter layer. Unlike ordinary black-and-white plates, the Autochrome was loaded into the camera with the bare glass side facing the lens so that the light passed through the mosaic filter layer before reaching the emulsion; the use of an additional special orange-yellow filter in the camera was required to block ultraviolet light and restrain the effects of violet and blue light, parts of the spectrum to which the emulsion was overly sensitive. Because of the light loss due to all the filtering, Autochrome plates required much longer exposures than black-and-white plates and films, which meant that a tripod or other stand had to be used and that it was not practical to photograph moving subjects; the plate was reversal-processed into a positive transparency — that is, the plate was first developed into a negative image but not "fixed" the silver forming the negative image was chemically removed the remaining silver halide was exposed to light and developed, producing a positive image.
The luminance filter and the mosaic chrominance filter remained aligned and were distributed together, so that light was filtered in situ. Each starch grain remained in alignment with the corresponding microscopic area of silver halide emulsion coated over it; when the finished image was viewed by transmitted light, each bit of the silver image acted as a micro-filter, allowing more or less light to pass through the corresponding colored starch grain, recreating the original proportions of the three colors. At normal viewing distances, the light coming through the individual grains blended together in the eye, reconstructing the color of the light photographed through the filter grains. To create the Autochrome color filter mosaic, a thin glass plate was first coated with a transparent adhesive layer; the dyed starch grains were graded to between 5 and 10 micrometers in size and the three colors were intermingled in proportions which made the mixture appear gray to the unaided eye. They were spread onto the adhesive, creating a layer with 4,000,000 grains per square inch but only one grain thick.
The exact means by which significant gaps and overlapping grains were avoided still remains unclear. It was found that the application of extreme pressure would produce a mosaic that more efficiently transmitted light to the emulsion, because the grains would be flattened making them more transparent, pressed into more intimate contact with each other, reducing wasted space between them; as it was impractical to apply such pressure to the entire plate all at once, a steamroller approach was used which flattened only one small area at a time. Lampblack was used to block up the slight spaces; the plate was coated with shellac to protect the moisture-vulnerable grains and dyes from the water-based gelatin emulsion, coated onto the plate after the shellac had dried. The resulting finished plate was cut up into smaller plates of the desired size, which were packaged in boxes of four; each plate was accompanied by a thin piece of cardboard colored black on the side facing the emulsion. This was to be retained when loading and exposing the plate and served both to protect the delicate emulsion and to inhibit halation.
The 1906 U. S. patent describes the process more generally: the grains can be orange and green, or red and blue, optionally with black powder filling the gaps. Experimentations within the early twentieth century provided solutions to many issues, including the addition of screen plates, a yellow filter designed to balance the blue, adjustments to the size of the silver halide crystals to allow for a broader spectrum of colour and control over the frequency of light; because the presence of the mosaic color screen made the finished Autochrome image dark overall, bright light and special viewing arrangements were needed for satisfactory results. Stereoscopic Autochromes were popular, the combined color and depth proving to be a bewitching experience to early 20th Century eyes. Of a small size, they were most viewed in a small hand-held box-type stereoscope. Larger, non-stereoscopic plates were most displayed in a diascope, a folding case with the Autochrome image and a ground gl
Eadweard Muybridge was an English-American photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the first name Eadweard as the original Anglo-Saxon form of Edward, the surname Muybridge, believing it to be archaic. At age 20, he emigrated to America as a bookseller, first to New York, to San Francisco. Planning a return trip to Europe in 1860, he suffered serious head injuries in a stagecoach crash in Texas, he spent the next few years recuperating in England, where he took up professional photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process, secured at least two British patents for his inventions. He went back to San Francisco in 1867. In 1868 he exhibited large photographs of Yosemite Valley. In 1874 Muybridge shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wife's lover, but was acquitted in a jury trial on the grounds of justifiable homicide. In 1875 he travelled for more than a year in Central America on a photographic expedition.
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography. In the 1880s, he entered a productive period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, producing over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion, capturing what the human eye could not distinguish as separate movements. During his years, Muybridge gave many public lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences, returning to England and Europe to publicise his work, he edited and published compilations of his work, which influenced visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. He returned to his native England permanently in 1894. In 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.
Edward James Muggeridge was raised in England. Muggeridge changed his name several times, starting with "Muggridge". In 1855, in the United States, he used the surname "Muygridge". After he returned from Britain to the United States in 1867, he used the surname "Muybridge". In addition, he used, he used this as the name of his studio and gave it to his only son, Florado, as a middle name: Florado Helios Muybridge, born in 1874. While travelling in 1875 on a photography expedition in the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, the photographer advertised his works under the name "Eduardo Santiago Muybridge" in Guatemala. After an 1882 trip to England, he changed the spelling of his first name to "Eadweard", the Old English form of his name; the spelling was derived from the spelling of King Edward's Christian name as shown on the plinth of the Kingston coronation stone, re-erected in 1850 in his town, 100 yards from Muybridge's childhood family home. He used "Eadweard Muybridge" for the rest of his career, but his gravestone carries his name as "Eadweard Maybridge".
Muybridge was born in Kingston upon Thames, in the county of Surrey in England, on 9 April 1830 to John and Susanna Muggeridge. His father was a grain and coal merchant, with business spaces on the ground floor of their house adjacent to the River Thames at No. 30 High Street. The family lived in the rooms above. After his father died in 1843, his mother carried on the business, his cousin Norman Selfe, who grew up in Kingston upon Thames, moved to Australia and, following a family tradition, became a renowned engineer. His great grandparents were Robert Hannah Charman, who owned a farm, their oldest son John Muggeridge was Edward's grandfather. Several uncles and cousins, including Henry Muggeridge, were corn merchants in the City of London. All were born in Surrey. Edward's younger brother George, born in 1833, lived with their uncle Samuel in 1851, after the death of their father in 1843. Muybridge emigrated to the United States at the age of 20. Five years he moved to San Francisco in 1855, a few years after California became a state, while the city was still the "capital of the Gold Rush".
He started a career as a publisher's agent for the London Printing and Publishing Company, as a bookseller. At the time, the city was booming, with 40 bookstores, nearly 60 hotels, a dozen photography studios. In his life, he wrote about having spent time in New Orleans during his early years in the United States. By 1860, Muybridge was a successful bookseller, he left his bookshop in care of his brother, prepared to sail to England to buy more antiquarian books. However, Muybridge missed the boat and instead left San Francisco in July 1860 to travel by stagecoach over the southern route to St. Louis, by rail to New York City by ship to England. In central Texas, Muybridge suffered severe head injuries in a violent runaway stagecoach crash which injured every passenger on board, killed one of them. Muybridge was bodily ejected from the vehicle, hit his head on a rock or other hard object, he was taken 150 miles to Fort Smith, for treatment. He was kept there for three months, trying to recover from symptoms of double vision, confused thinking, impaired sense of taste and smell, other problems.
He went to New York City, where he continued in treatment for nearly a year before being able to sai
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Vitascope was an early film projector first demonstrated in 1895 by Charles Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat. They had made modifications to Jenkins patented Phantoscope, which cast images via film and electric light onto a wall or screen; the Vitascope is a large electrically-powered projector. The images being cast are taken by a kinetoscope mechanism onto gelatin film. Using an intermittent mechanism, the film negatives produced up to fifty frames per second; the shutter closes to reveal new images. This device can produce up to 3,000 negatives per minute. With the original Phantoscope and before he partnered with Armat, Jenkins displayed the earliest documented projection of a filmed motion picture in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana. Armat independently sold the Phantoscope to The Kinetoscope Company; the company realized that their Kinetoscope would soon be a thing of the past with the advancing proliferation of early cinematic engineering. By 1897, just two years after the Vitascope was first demonstrated, the technology was being nationally adopted.
Hawaii and Texas were among the first to incorporate the Vitascope into their picture shows. Vitascope was used as a trademark by Warner Brothers in 1930 for a widescreen process used for films such as Song of the Flame. Warner was trying to compete with other widescreen processes such as Magnascope, Natural Vision, Fox Grandeur. Thomas Edison was slow to develop a projection system at this time, since his company's single-user Kinetoscopes were profitable. However, films projected for large audiences could generate more profits since fewer machines were needed in proportion to the number of viewers. Thus, others sought to develop their own projection systems. One inventor who led the way was Charles Francis Jenkins. Jenkins was behind the earliest documented projection of a motion picture before an audience. Using film and electric light, the film of a vaudeville dancer was projected in Richmond, Indiana on June 6, 1894. Woodville Latham, with his sons, created the Eidoloscope projector, presented publicly in April 1895.
William Kennedy Dickson advised the Lathams on their machine, offering technical knowledge, a situation which led to Dickson leaving Edison's employment on April 2, 1895. Dickson formed the American Mutoscope Company in December 1895 with partners Herman Casler, Henry Norton Marvin and Elias Koopman; the company, which became the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, soon became a major competitor to the Edison Company. During the same period, C. Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat modified Jenkins' patented Phantoscope, it was publicly demonstrated in Atlanta in the Autumn of 1895 at the Cotton States Exposition. The two soon parted ways. Armat showed the Phantoscope to Raff and Gammon, owners of the Kinetoscope Company, who recognized its profit potential in the face of declining kinetoscope business, they negotiated with Armat to purchase rights to the Phantoscope and approached Edison for his approval. The Edison Manufacturing Company agreed to manufacture the machine and to produce films for it, but on the condition it be advertised as a new Edison invention named the Vitascope.
Edison skeptics argue. In addition, critics claim the Vitascope was nothing more than a repackaging of the phantoscope with slight modifications; the Vitascope's first theatrical exhibition was on April 23, 1896, at Koster and Bial's Music Hall in New York City. Other competitors soon displayed their own projection systems in American theaters, including the re-engineered Eidoloscope, which copied Vitascope innovations; the premiere of the Vitascope was a quick response to threat of losing a large amount of money to the Lumiere Cinematographe, which vaudeville managers were about to invest in. Though the Lumiere Cinematographe existed since 1895, it had not gained popularity in the US yet, as it had in the UK. People were going crazy for the Lumiere Cinematographe in London. Raff and Gammon recognized that they would get more money and positive exposure by releasing their technology ahead of the Lumiere Cinematographe in the United States. After the Vitascope made its infamous debut in Manhattan, the device was distributed across the nation including exhibitions in Boston, Atlantic City, Scranton, New Haven, New Orleans, New London, Buffalo, San Francisco, Asbury Park, Detroit, Los Angeles and more.
The Vitascope’s exhibition made its way across 25 cities in one summer. The Vitascope, along with many of the competing projectors, became a popular attraction in variety and vaudeville theaters in cities across the US. Motion pictures soon became starring attractions on the vaudeville bill. Exhibitors could exhibit films from the Edison inventory; the Edison Company developed its own projector known as the Projectoscope or Projecting Kinetoscope in November 1896, abandoned marketing the Vitascope. Thomas Edison and Thomas Armat profited while many investors defaulted ending up in the red in some cases. Investors lost money on the Vitascope due to. Raff and Gammon were in charge of franchising in the Canada, they would offer investors the opportunity to buy out the rights to use the Vitascope in their state. This created somewhat of a monopoly effect for a short-time and forced audiences to take whatever the exhibitor was giving them. Raff & G
The Institut Lumière is a French organisation, based in Lyon, for the promotion and preservation of aspects of French film making. The Institut Lumière is a museum that honours the contribution to filmmaking by Auguste and Louis Lumière - inventors of the cinématographe and fathers of the cinema, it was founded in 1982 by Bernard Chardère and Maurice Trarieux-Lumière, the grandson of Louis Lumière. Bertrand Tavernier is its president and Thierry Frémaux is its director; the museum is located in the Monplaisir quarter of Lyon. The film La Sortie de l'usine Lumière à Lyon, one of the earliest motion pictures made, was shot in the immediate vicinity of the Institut; the rehabilitation of the former Lumière factories was confided to the architect Pierre Colboc and the Chief architect of historic monuments Didier Repellin, associated with the agency dUCKS Scéno for the scenography of the cinema and the outer spaces. Place Ambroise-Courtois Official website