A cinematographer or director of photography is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography; the cinematographer selects the camera, film stock, filters, etc. to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Reed Morano who lensed Frozen River and Beyonce's Lemonade before winning an Emmy for directing The Handmaid's Tale. Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Nicolas Roeg, cinematographer on films such as The Caretaker and The Masque of the Red Death, directed Don't Look Now and The Man Who Fell to Earth. Ellen Kuras, ASC photographed Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind as well as a number of Spike Lee films such as Summer of Sam and He Got Game before directing episodes of Legion and Ozark.

In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's three Batman films, made his directorial debut with Transcendence. In the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was also the director and the person physically handling the camera; as the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. With the advent of artificial lighting and faster film stocks, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area. Cinematography was key during the silent movie era. In 1919 Hollywood, the then-new motion picture capital of the world, one of the first trade societies was formed: the American Society of Cinematographers, which stood to recognize the cinematographer's contribution to the art and science of motion picture making. Similar trade associations have been established in other countries too; the ASC Vision Committee is known for working to encourage and support the advancement of underrepresented cinematographers, their crews and other filmmakers, to inspire us all to enact positive changes through hiring talent that reflects society at large.

However, the Soviet filmmaker, Dziga Vertov, writing in Kino-fot No.1 rejected the role of Cinematographer in the "We: Variant of a Manifesto": "We call ourselves kinoks – as opposed to "cinematographers", a herd of junkmen doing rather well peddling their rags. We see the cunning and calculation of the profiteers. We consider the psychological Russo-German film-drama – weighed down with apparitions and childhood memories – an absurdity." There are a number of national associations of cinematographers that represent members and are dedicated to the advancement of cinematography. These include: the American Society of Cinematographers the International Collective of Women Cinematographers the Canadian Society of Cinematographers the {{Guild of British Camera Technicians]] the British Society of Cinematographers the Australian Cinematographers Society the Cinematographers Guild of Korea the Filipino Society of Cinematographers the French Society of Cinematographers the Italian Society of Cinematographers the Western India Cinematographers Association the Indian Society of Cinematographers the German Society of Cinematographers the Netherlands Society of Cinematographers the Spanish Society of Cinematography Works the International Federation of Cinematographers the Uruguayan Society of Cinematographers the Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers Cinematographers XX IlluminatrixThe A.

S. C. defines cinematography as: A creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than the simple recording of a physical event. Cinematography is not a subcategory of photography. Rather, photography is but one craft that the cinematographer uses in addition to other physical, managerial and image-manipulating techniques to effect one coherent process. Camerimage Cinematography Cinematography Mailing List, a communication forum for cinematographers Filmmaking Glossary of motion picture terms Indian cinematographers List of film director and cinematographer collaborations List of film formats List of motion picture-related topics Cinematography Mailing List International Cinematographers Guild The History of the Discovery of Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers The Guild of British Camera Technicians British Society of Cinematographers Indian Society of Cinematographers European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO Australian Cinematographers Society German Society o

Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church

The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church is an offshoot of the Rastafari movement that flourished in the 1970s in Jamaica and was incorporated in Florida in 1975. Members of the movement say it is based on the teachings of Marcus Garvey and that they use cannabis as the Rastafari sacrament. In 1979 the group was accused and convicted of smuggling massive amounts of potent cannabis from Jamaica to Miami in actions that kept the Jamaican economy afloat that decade; the then-Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga told a U. S. interview "It's just a little sinsemilla that it keep the country going right now". The Coptics published a free newspaper promoting Garveyism and the decriminalization of marijuana titled "Coptic Times", they appeared on 60 Minutes on October 28, 1979. The group's leader was Thomas Reilly known as Brother Louv. During the same year, The Supreme Court of Florida found: " the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church represents a religion within the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States, the “use of cannabis is an essential portion of the religious practice."

"Further, the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church is not a new church or religion but the record reflects it is centuries old and has used cannabis as its sacrament”. In 1986 the organization participated in the Drug Enforcement Administration's hearings on cannabis rescheduling in the United States. On August 8, 1994 Jim Tranmer, a former member of the group, wrote a letter to Carl Olsen while meditating on his 35-year prison sentence and his departure from the EZCC's "malicious hierarchy". Olsen ran for governor in Iowa, as a Libertarian, in 1994 and for the U. S. House of Representatives, again as a Libertarian, in 1996, he is a priest in the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, resides in Iowa. The EZCC is not associated with either the Coptic Orthodox Church or the Coptic Catholic Church, both based in Egypt; the Coptic Orthodox Church has an Ethiopian sister church, unrelated. The Zion Coptic Church appeared in the 2011 Billy Corben documentary Square Grouper: The Godfathers of Ganja, whose first section concerns the group and features interviews with former members.

In Brazil there are the First Niubingui Church Etiope Coptic of Zion of Brasil. History of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, by Walter Wells; the Law and Brother Louv, The Miami Herald, August 2, 1981 Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, CBS News - 60 Minutes, Volume XII, Number 7, Oct. 28, 1979. Coptic Gets 35 Years, Jim Tranmer, Aug. 8, 1994. Https:// I got away with it.

Jack Simmons (cricketer)

Jack Simmons, MBE is a former cricketer who played for Lancashire and Tasmania. Born 28 March 1941, Clayton-le-Moors, Simmons grew up there, he attended Accrington Technical School and Blackburn Technical College, where he proved to be a gifted cricketer. However he did not show enough consistency at an early stage to attract the attention of County selectors. Instead following leaving school he became a journeyman professional cricketer in the lower Lancashire leagues; however his reputation and ability soon developed, by his late 20s, Lancashire County Cricket Club had begun to scout him. Simmons was a lower-order right-hand batsman and a right-arm off break bowler who achieved iconic status for both the major teams that he played for. Solidly-built, he looked little like an athlete, yet his close fielding was sharp and he remained fit into his late 40s. A late arrival in county cricket at the age of 28, Simmons enjoyed a 20-year career in which he was an integral part of the Lancashire side, though hitting the headlines.

His flat bowling trajectory and his accuracy meant that he could be economical in one-day cricket, he was part of the successful Lancashire side under Jack Bond that won the Gillette Cup, the premier one-day competition in England, for three years in a row from 1970 to 1972. Simmons and slow left-arm bowler David Hughes were the first pair of spin bowlers to be used and in one-day cricket, the preserve of seam bowling. In first-class cricket, Simmons reliably contributed more than 500 runs and 50 wickets in most seasons in his career, at the age of 47, he took 63 wickets in the 1988 season; the affection for "Flat Jack" in Lancashire was shown by his 1980 benefit, which raised £128,000. He was a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1985. In 1972–73, he was invited to Tasmania to captain the local state side, whose first-class matches were restricted to games against touring sides. In six seasons as captain, Simmons led Tasmania into full first-class status and into the Sheffield Shield competition from 1977–78.

After half a dozen matches in the 1989 English season, Simmons retired. He has been County Chairman of Lancashire County Cricket Club since 1998 and was elected as the Chairman of Cricket for the England and Wales Cricket Board in January 2008. List of Tasmanian representative cricketers Jack Simmons at ESPNcricinfo CricketArchive Cricinfo profile