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Cinyras

In Greek mythology, Cinyras was a famous hero and king of Cyprus. Accounts vary as to his genealogy and provide a variety of stories concerning him; some scholars have proposed a connection with the god of the lyre. The city Cinyreia on Cyprus was believed to have taken its name from Cinyras; the name Cinyras does not appear again until he is mentioned by Pindar as "beloved of Apollo," and the priest of Aphrodite. Pindar mentions Cinyras as being fabulously rich in Nemean Ode 8, line 18. In Greek and Roman literature and in the Christian fathers such as Clement of Alexandria, the story of Cinyras is elaborated, they say that on Cyprus, Cinyras was revered as the creator of art and of musical instruments, such as the flute. In one source, he is noted for his physical beauty. If Cinyras was the Cinyra, mentioned by Pliny, the son of Agriopas and a Cyprian, he was credited to have invented tiles and discovered copper-mines, both of which were found in the island, he was regarded as the inventor of tongs, the hammer, the lever, the anvil.

According to the Bibliotheca, Cinyras was a descendant of Cephalus. His parents were Sandocus, son of Astynous, Pharnace, daughter of Megassares. Cinyras' father, Sandocus was an immigrant from Syria who settled in Cilicia and founded a city Celenderis. Cinyras upon his arrival in Cyprus with some of his people, founded the town of Paphos and married Metharme the daughter of Pygmalion, the king of Cyprus, his children according to Pseudo-Apollodorus are Adonis and Oxyporos, daughters Braesia, Orsedice. These maidens by reason of the wrath of Aphrodite cohabited with foreigners, ended their life in Egypt. Laodice was called the daughter of Cinyras, she married Elatus, son of Arcas, had by him two sons Stymphalus and Pereus. Pausanias mentions a daughter of Cinyras as the consort of Teucer, known to have received the kingdom of Cyprus from Belus for having assisted him in the invasion of the island, her name is not given in Pausanias' account, but Tzetzes writes that Teucer married Eune "daughter of Cyprus".

Stephanus of Byzantium informs that Cinyras' mother was named Amathousa, it was either from her or Amathous, a son of Heracles, that Amathous, the oldest city of Cyprus, received its name. Stephanus mentions three otherwise unknown children of Cinyras: a daughter Cyprus, who had the island named after her, two sons and Marieus, eponyms of the towns Kourion and Marion respectively. Hesychius says he was a son of Apollo, while Hyginus calls him a son of Paphos, a scholiast on Pindar makes him a son of Eurymedon and the nymph Paphia. In other sources he is the husband of Galatea. Cinyras was called the father of Myrrha. In the earliest testimony for this character in ancient Greek literature, Cinyras was a ruler on Cyprus who gave a corselet to Agamemnon as a guest-gift when he heard that the Greeks were planning to sail to Troy. Eustathius in his commentary on this passage relates that Cinyras promised assistance to Agamemnon, but did not keep his word: having promised to send fifty ships, he sent only one commanded by the son of Mygdalion, while the rest were sculpted from earth, with figures of men imitating the crew.

He was cursed by Agamemnon and subsequently punished by Apollo, who beat him in a musical contest and killed him, whereupon Cinyras' fifty daughters threw themselves into the sea and were changed into sea birds. According to Ovid, Cinyras' daughter Myrrha, impelled by an unnatural lust for her own father, slept with him, became pregnant, asked the gods to change her into something other than human. From this incestuous union sprang the child Adonis. Cinyras was said to have committed suicide over the matter. Other authors equate Cinyras and Myrrha with king Theias of Assyria and his daughter Smyrna, relate the same story of them. Hyginus uses Smyrna for the daughter. Clement of Alexandria in his Protrepticus talks about the "Cyprian Islander Cinyras, who dared to bring forth from night to the light of day the lewd orgies of Aphrodite in his eagerness to deify a strumpet of his own country." In his Histories, Tacitus relates the account of divination rites at the famous Temple of Venus at Paphos.

Here Tacitus describes him as having come to Cyprus from Cilicia, whence he introduced the worship of Paphian Aphrodite. The divination practices at the temple are said to have been introduced by Tamiras of Cilicia; the office of priesthood became hereditary in the families of both Cinyras and Tamiras, but the descendants of the latter were displaced by those of the former. The footnotes to this story state that Cinyras is "Another mythical king of Cyprus. Hesychius calls him a son of Apollo, Ovid makes him the father of Adonis." William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, s.v. Cinyras. London

Blue Paul Terrier

The Blue Paul Terrier known as the Blue Poll, was a Scottish breed of dog, now extinct. The Blue Paul Terrier's origins are disputed but it was once numerous in various parts of Scotland. One story of the Blue Paul Terrier's origins is that John Paul Jones brought them from abroad and when he visited his native town of Kirkcudbright around 1770; the gypsies around the Kirkintilloch district kept Blue Paul Terriers for dog fighting, they claimed the dogs came from the Galloway coast. A more story is a British military officer posted to the Glasgow area brought with him an Irish Blue Terrier bitch from the Earl of Kerry's kennels, when he was reposted he left his bitch with friends who bred her with a white bull and terrier of the Duke of Hamilton's breeding to create the breed. Another story states the breed descend from a bitch named Blue Poll from a village near Newcastle, that a visiting Scotsman purchased several of her pups and returned with them to his homeland; the Blue Paul Terrier was a bull and terrier cross, most bred from bulldogs and terriers in Scotland with infusions other similar dogs brought from England and Ireland.

The breed was popular in Scotland in the mid 19th century, but it progressively lost popularity and is believed to have become extinct in the early 20th century. The Blue Paul Terrier weighed around 45 lb, sources vary about its height, some state it stood around 14 in at the shoulder, others as tall as 20 in; the breed resembled early bull terriers. The Blue Paul Terrier's head was large, its forehead was flat, short and broad but not receding like that of the bulldog, its jaws and teeth were with no overhanging flews, they had a slight dip between the eyes, which were dark hazel and not sunken, nor showing haw, its eyebrows were contracted or knit. The ears were small, high set and cropped, the face was not wrinkled; the facial expression of the Blue Paul Terrier has never been seen in any other breed, although it is recognised in some mixed-breed dogs. The Blue Paul Terrier had a smooth coat, the usual colour was dark blue, similar to some Greyhounds, however some were brindle or red, known as red smuts.

The Blue Paul Terrier was known for its courage and strength, it was said to be game to the death and could suffer great punishment, when fighting they were considered expert and tricky in their tactics, making them great favorites with those who indulged in dog fighting. Mike Homan, A complete history of fighting dogs, Howell Book House Inc, London, 2000, ISBN 978-1582451282, chap 19. Molosser dogs, "Scottish Blue Paul Bullterrier", molosserdogs.com, retrieved 7 May 18

Armenian energy crisis of 1990s

The energy crisis in Armenia, popularly known as the dark and cold years, refers to the energy crisis in Armenia during the 1990s, when the newly-independent Armenia's population lived in shortage of energy and basic consumer goods. Although it only lasted 3 -- 4 years, it left a deep impression. Local people have dubbed the years from 1992 to 1995 in different ways, such as "hungry", "cold", "bad", but the most common title used is "the dark." During this period, the population of Armenia and Artsakh had to make do with well water and cut wood for their needs. Many creative solutions came to exist to deal with the severe lack of electricity and lack of other basic resources. On 20 February 1988, the Karabakh movement started as the Supreme Council of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, ethnically Armenian, voted to request to transfer its jurisdiction from Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic to the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. On 7 December of the same year, an earthquake of 6.9 magnitude occurred centered in the town of Spitak in Armenia, leaving 25,000 people dead and 500,000 people homeless.

The Metsamor NPP, 100 km away from the epicenter of the earthquake, had had a safe shutdown, had no damages according to the authorities and the IAEA. However, due to the panic, raised afterwards and protests by the Green party of Armenia, it was decided to shut down both units of Metsamor, the only nuclear power plant of Armenia providing about 36% of the electricity needs of the country at the time. Unit 1 of ANPP was shut down in February 1989 and Unit 2 followed in March 1989. Armenian independence from the Soviet Union came on September 21, 1991, when the war over Nagorno-Karabakh was in full fledge. Armenia's energy supply during the Soviet Union was designed as an integrated part of the Trans-Caucasus electrical grid. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, because of the lack of internal energy supply, Armenia faced a critical situation." Turkey and Azerbaijan closed their borders with Armenia. Azerbaijan blocked a natural gas pipeline from Turkmenistan, flowing through Azerbaijan cutting off about 90% of the natural gas supply of the country.

During the clash, which lasted until May 1994, Azerbaijan blockaded roads, rail lines and energy supplies, leading to severe energy shortages in Armenia. Attempt was made to direct gas pipelines from Georgia to Armenia. However, Georgia's internal conflicts lent themselves to failure of the project on multiple occasions. From late January to mid-March 1993, Azerbaijani saboteurs blew up the gas pipeline, crossing Marneuli, a region of Georgia populated with Azerbaijani, seven times. With thermal and nuclear power stations unable to function, Armenia was left to rely entirely on its hydro power resources, at a great environmental expense to one of the country's greatest natural resources, Lake Sevan. There was the issue of providing daily subsistence to the public besides energy, as the whole country was short of bread. People had to wait in queues for a long time, because there was no bread, sometimes the queues could last for a few days. Many basic necessities such as sugar and eggs were in scarcity.

By the winter of 1994-95, Yerevan residents had access to electricity for only 1–2 hours a day. Each district had its own set time for electricity availability; the energy crisis ended when Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 was brought back online in October 1995, making it the only reactor in the world, restarted after closing. The restart of the NPP increased the electricity available to the public to 10–12 hours a day; the electricity supply increased to 24-hours a day, 7 days a week. The bombing of pipelines by Azerbaijanis coming from Georgia stopped afterwards as it did not have the same effect as before, since Armenia was not as reliant on the pipeline system anymore. Furthermore, other power plants, such as Hrazdan Thermal Power Plant, Vorotan Cascade and Sevan-Hrazdan Cascade, provided daily load capacity, while Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant provided base load capacity. Thermal power plants operated to provide electricity in winter when electricity demand was peak, as it was quite a cold winter in Armenia.

Although these times have passed, Armenia still relies on imported resources like gas and oil, which had collapsed the whole electricity production system in the 1990s. All the imported gas and oil is supplied from Russia via Georgia. Only a small amount of gas is supplied by Iran; the Armenian electricity system reached 3914 MW of installed capacity. However, only 2845 MW is operating. Electricity is produced from 3 sources: nuclear and hydro. Over the past few years this number has increased. Gas-powered turbines provide 25% of Armenia's electricity; these turbines not only produce a large amount of electricity, but they are very efficient, which in turn has reduced the price for 1 kWh from 400 AMD to 160-170 AMD. There are a few small power plants with a capacity of 50 MW. One is Yerevan Thermoelectric Plant, which produces electricity for Nairit Chemical Plant; the other is Vanadzor Thermoelectric Plant, not operational, but will operate for Vanadzor Chemical Plant when it opens. Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant produces 440 MW of electricity at full capacity, but only 1 of the units is operating.

The largest portion of electricity production comes from hydropower plants. The largest hydropower plants in Armenia are Sevan-Hrazdan and Vorotan cascades, which can produce up to 960 MW of electricity; the Armenian electr