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Circe

Circe is a goddess of magic or sometimes a nymph, enchantress or sorceress in Greek mythology. She is either the Oceanid nymph Perse or the goddess Hecate. Circe was renowned for her vast knowledge of herbs. Through the use of these and a magic wand or staff, she would transform her enemies, or those who offended her, into animals; the best known of her legends is told in Homer's Odyssey when Odysseus visits her island of Aeaea on the way back from the Trojan War and she changes most of his crew into swine. He forces her to return them to human shape, lives with her for a year and has sons by her, including Latinus and Telegonus, her ability to change others into animals is further highlighted by the story of Picus, an Italian king whom she turns into a woodpecker for resisting her advances. Another story makes her fall in love with the sea-god Glaucus. In revenge, Circe poisoned the water where her rival turned her into a dreadful monster. Depictions in Classical times, wandered away from the detail in Homer's narrative, to be reinterpreted morally as a cautionary story against drunkenness.

Early philosophical questions were raised whether the change from a reasoning being to a beast was not preferable after all, this paradox was to have a powerful impact during the Renaissance. Circe was taken as the archetype of the predatory female. In the eyes of those from a age, this behaviour made her notorious both as a magician and as a type of the sexually free woman; as such she has been depicted in all the arts from the Renaissance down to modern times. Western paintings established a visual iconography for the figure, but went for inspiration to other stories concerning Circe that appear in Ovid's Metamorphoses; the episodes of Scylla and Picus added the vice of violent jealousy to her bad qualities and made her a figure of fear as well as of desire. By most accounts, she was the daughter of Helios, the Titan sun god, Perse, one of the three thousand Oceanid nymphs, her brothers were Aeëtes, keeper of the Golden Fleece, Perses. Her sister was the wife of King Minos and mother of the Minotaur.

Other accounts make her the daughter of the goddess of witchcraft. She was confused with Calypso, due to her shifts in behavior and personality, the association that both of them had with Odysseus. In Homer's Odyssey, an 8th-century BCE sequel to his Trojan War epic Iliad, Circe is described as a beautiful enchantress living in a palace isolated in the midst of a dense wood on her island of Aeaea. Around her home prowl strangely docile wolves, she lures any who land on the island to her home with her lovely singing while weaving on an enormous loom, but drugs them so that they change shape. She invites the hero Odysseus' crew to a feast of familiar food, a pottage of cheese and meal, sweetened with honey and laced with wine, but mixed with one of her magical potions that turns them into swine. Only Eurylochus, who suspects treachery, does not go in, he escapes to warn the others who have remained with the ship. Before Odysseus reaches Circe's palace, the messenger god sent by Athena, intercepts him and reveals how he might defeat Circe in order to free his crew from their enchantment.

Hermes provides Odysseus with the herb moly to protect him from Circe's magic. He tells Odysseus that he must draw his sword and act as if he were going to attack her. From there, as Hermes foretold, Circe would ask Odysseus to bed, but Hermes advises caution, for the treacherous goddess could still "unman" him unless he has her swear by the names of the gods that she will not take any further action against him. Following this advice, Odysseus is able to free his men. After they have all remained on the island for a year, Circe advises Odysseus that he must first visit the Underworld, something a mortal has never yet done, in order to gain knowledge about how to appease the gods, return home safely and recover his kingdom. Circe advises him on how this might be achieved and furnishes him with the protections he will need and the means to communicate with the dead. On his return, she further advises him about two possible routes home, warning him, that both carry great danger. Towards the end of Hesiod's Theogony, it is stated that Circe bore Odysseus three sons: Ardeas or Agrius.

The Telegony, an epic now lost, relates the history of the last of these. Circe informed him who his absent father was and, when he set out to find Odysseus, gave him a poisoned spear. With this he killed his father unknowingly. Telegonus brought back his father's corpse to Aeaea, together with Penelope and Odysseus' other son Telemachus. After burying Odysseus, Circe made the others immortal. In the 5th-century CE epic Dionysiaca, author Nonnus mentions Phaunos, Circe's son by the sea god Poseidon. According to Lycophron's 3rd-century BCE poem Alexandra, John Tzetzes' scholia on it, Circe used magical herbs to bring Odysseus back to life after he had been killed by Telegonus. Odysseus gave Telemachus to Circe's daughter Cassiphone in marriage; some time Telemachus had a quarrel with his mother-in-law and killed her. On hearing of this, Odysseus died of grief. In his 3rd-century BCE epic, the Argonautica, Apollonius Rhodius relates that Circe purified the Argonauts for the death of Absyrtus reflecting an early tradition.

In this poem, th

Miyamori Station

Miyamori Station is a railway station on the Kamaishi Line in the city of Tōno, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Miyamori Station is served by the Kamaishi Line, is located 25.1 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Hanamaki Station. Miyamori Station has a single island platform connected to the station building by an underground passage; the station is unattended. Miyamori Station opened on 23 November 1915 as a station on the Iwate Light Railway, a 762 mm light railway extending 65.4 km from Hanamaki to the now-defunct Sennintōge Station. The line was nationalized in 1936; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987. A new station building was completed in 2106. Miyamori Post Office former Miyamori village hall Japan National Route 107 Japan National Route 283 Japan National Route 396 List of railway stations in Japan Official website

Dialect levelling

Dialect levelling or leveling is the process of an overall reduction in the variation or diversity of features in one or more dialects. This comes about through assimilation and merging of certain dialects by language standardization, it has been observed in most languages with large numbers of speakers after industrialisation and modernisation of the areas in which they are spoken. Dialect levelling has been defined as the process by which structural variation in dialects is reduced, "the process of eliminating prominent stereotypical features of differences between dialects", "a social process consists in negotiation between speakers of different dialects aimed at setting the properties of, for example, a lexical entry", "the reduction of variation between dialects of the same language in situations where speakers of these dialects are brought together", "the eradication of or locally marked variants in conditions of social or geographical mobility and resultant dialect contact", the "reduction... of structural similarities between languages in contact", of which "interference and convergence are two manifestations".

Leonard Bloomfield implicitly distinguished between the short-term process of accommodation between speakers and the long-term process of levelling between varieties and between the social and the geographical dimensions. On the geographical dimension, levelling may disrupt the regularity, the result of the application of sound laws, it may leave behind relic forms. Dialect levelling and Mischung, or dialect mixing, have been suggested as the key mechanisms that destroy regularity and the alleged exceptionlessness of sound laws. Dialect levelling is triggered by contact between dialects because of migration, it has been observed in most languages with large numbers of speakers after the industrialisation and the modernisation of the area or areas in which they are spoken, it results in unique features of dialects being eliminated and "may occur over several generations until a stable compromise dialect develops". It is separate from the levelling of variation between dialectal or vernacular versions of a language and standard versions.

Contact leading to dialect levelling can stem from geographical and social mobility, which brings together speakers from different regions and social levels. Adolescents can drive levelling, as they adapt their speech under the influence of their peers, rather than their parents. In 20th-century British English, dialect levelling was caused by social upheaval leading to larger social networks. Agricultural advancements caused movement from rural to urban areas, the construction of suburbs caused city-dwellers to return to former rural areas; the World Wars brought women into men into contact with more diverse backgrounds. It has been suggested, it is responsible for standardising the multiple language variants that are produced by the relexification of substrate languages with words from the lexifier language. Features that are not common to all of the substrata and so are different across the varieties of the emerging creole tend to be eliminated; the process begins "when the speakers of the creole community stop targeting the lexifier language and start targeting the relexified lexicons, that is, the early creole".

Dialect levelling in such a situation may not be complete, however. Variation that remains after dialect levelling may result in the "reallocation" of surviving variants to "new functions, such as stylistic or social markers". Differences between substrata, including between dialects of a single substratum, may not be levelled at all but instead persist, as differences between dialects of the creole. New Zealand English is a new native variety of English; the English language was brought to the islands in 1800 but became influential only in the 1840s because of large-scale migration from Britain. The most distinctive part of the language is the formation of the accent that has developed through complex series of processes involving dialect contact between different varieties of British English, followed by dialect mixture. Although New Zealand English sounds similar to Australian English, it is not a direct transplant, as Australians were only 7% of the immigrants before 1881, the majority of the linguistic change in New Zealand English happened between 1840 and 1880.

The speed with which New Zealand English became a unique, independent form of English can be attributed to the diversity of speakers who came into contact through colonisation. Features from all over the British Isles and the Māori people, who had inhabited the island for 600 years prior to colonisation, can be identified in the form that New Zealand English has taken. Rudimentary levelling in New Zealand English occurred around 1860, the result of contact between adult speakers of different regional and social varieties and the accommodation, required from the speakers in face-to-face interaction. Settlements attracted people from all walks of life and created highly-diverse linguistic variation, but there were still families that lived in total isolation. Thus, the children did not gain the dialect of their peers, as was expected, but instead maintained the dialect of their parents. Speakers who grow up in that type of situation are more to demonstrate intra-individual variability than speakers whose main source of influence is their peers.

When the emerging dialect stabilises, it is the result of a focusing process, which allowed for a small amount of regional variation. New Zealand English is based around the typology and forms of southeastern England becau