"Railbus" may refer to Rail replacement bus service. A railbus is a lightweight passenger rail vehicle that shares many aspects of its construction with a bus having a bus body and four wheels on a fixed base, instead of on bogies. Designed and developed during the 1930s, railbuses have evolved into larger dimensions, with characteristics similar in appearance to a light railcar, with the terms railcar and railbus used interchangeably. Railbuses designed for use on little-used railway lines were employed in countries such as Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Sweden. Today, railbuses are being replaced by modern light DMU railcar designs. Locally manufactured TecnoTren railbuses are in use around Argentina, most notably on the University train of La Plata, they are used in rural parts of the country where the tracks have not yet been repaired and so can't handle the weight of regular trains. In 1937, the NSW Department of Railways added six four-wheel streamlined rail buses to serve on small branch lines in Cowra and Harden that did not have enough passengers to justify a rail motor.
Powered by a Ford V8 engine, they were given the designation FP1 to FP6. When the railbus service wasn't popular, several of the buses became mobile pay cars used to pay railway employees at stations and working on tracks. In December 1941, one of these railbuses was destroyed when dynamite was placed on railway tracks near Yanderra; the three-man crew of the railbus were killed in the explosion. Though £2000 of loose cash was taken, the safe in the railcar could not be opened by the robbers. No one was prosecuted for the offence; the first railbus, FP1, has been restored where it is on display at New South Wales Rail Transport Museum in Thirlmere, New South Wales. In Queensland, Australia, "RailBus service" refers to the bus service running parallel to portions of some railway lines, substituting for commuter train. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, railbuses are used on less frequented rural lines. Most railbuses are based on a former ČSD M 152.0 diesel multiple unit known as ČD/ŽSR Class 810.
The Kaoham Shuttle utilizes DMU railbuses for its daily service between D'Arcy. In Germany, the Schienenbus was developed in the 1930s to fulfill the need for an inexpensive rail vehicle, it was built to standard specifications on Germany’s Reichsbahn to meet the demand for cost-effective services on light railways or Kleinbahnen After the Second World War, the ubiquitous Uerdingen railbuses were developed by Deutsche Bundesbahn in single-engined and double-engined versions. The latter were powerful enough to haul through coaches and freight cars. Matching trailers and driving trailers were developed as well; these railbuses were a predecessor of the modern diesel multiple units. In the late 1950s, Deutsche Reichsbahn in the GDR developed the single-engined class VT 2.09 with matching trailers and driving trailers, built by Waggonbau Bautzen. A number of serious accidents in Germany in the late 1970s involving railbuses resulted in the specification and development of larger, more robustly designed diesel railcars.
Although these cars were more similar in size to the U. S. produced diesel railcars, they would not have complied with current FRA requirements, like their North American cousin rail diesel cars, are railroad-derivative designs. The DB Class 628 exemplifies the contemporary German diesel railcar; this type of car replaced the Schienenbus and locomotive-hauled train consists where possible on branch-line and main-line assignments during the 1980s and 1990s. Both the Uerdingen Schienenbus and the Bautzen railbuses have disappeared from regular revenue service, but its diesel rail car successors are still used. DMUs of a third generation in succession after the Schienenbus are now being ordered by the hundreds in a variety of modular design combinations. Indian Railways operates many railbuses on its branch lines, they are electric. These railbuses are being replaced by EMUs due to increase in passengers. On August 5, 2012, the first Batara Kresna Railbus service in Indonesia is launched to accommodate a part of commuter Prameks Train passengers from Solo to Yogyakarta City v.v through Sukoharjo.
In 2014, PT Kereta Api launched railbus between Kertapati Palembang to Indralaya Ogan Ilir v.v. to ease road traffic. In 2016, Mak Buih Railbus operated by PT Kereta Api in Padang ready to serve route from Padang to Minangkabau International Airport; the Great Northern Railway of Ireland produced railbuses at the Railway Works in Dundalk. The president of JNR was introduced to railbusses there. JNR subsequently drew up a plan for railbus introduction plan in JNR, a prototype was built in 1955. However, JNR found railbuses less reliable in daily operation as compared to standard rail equipment and discontinued their use in the 1960s. One railbus produced by Fuji Heavy Industries was operational on a minor line until the company withdrew the line from service. Motorization soared in Japan from the 1970s on, reducing consuming passenger numbers on local private railway. Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. in 1982 began development of an "LE-Car that incorporates the structure of the bus, deficit local lines of JNR has been adopted by many of the railway company that local governments and private companies are operated by joint investment.
In areas without significant demand for regular commuter trains, such as in the Eastern province, railbus connects towns and cities. These buses were built by converting two buses built for road transport. British Rail produced a variety of railbuses as a means both of building new rolling
Boda bodas are bicycle & motorcycle taxis found in East Africa. While motorcycle taxis like boda bodas are present throughout Africa and beyond, the term boda boda is specific to East Africa. In Kenya, they are more called boda boda, their ubiquitous presence in East African cities is the result of a number of factors including an increasing demand for public transit, the ability to purchase motorcycles on credit, an influx of cheap imports from Indian manufacturers like Bajaj. In the countries where they are present, boda bodas can provide transportation options to riders and job opportunities to drivers while at the same time resulting in an increase in road hazards and collisions and unnecessary injuries and deaths. A BBC journalist imagined its origin to be onomatopoeia. A competing suggestion is that the boda boda had an apocryphal ability to transport people across a border without a need to complete the paperwork using a motor vehicle would necessitate. While there is no doubt boda bodas are commonplace in East African cities like Kampala and Nairobi, estimates of their number vary.
Dar es Salaam Figures show a substantial increase of motorcycle imports to Tanzania in the three years from 2013 to 2015. Kampala In 2013, one source claims 300,000 were operating in Uganda. Data from the Kampala Capital City Authority show 120,000 registered motorcycles in the city around the same time although the number of boda bodas could be higher as some are unregistered according to a representative of the Kampala Boda-boda Riders Association; the same source indicated in 2015. Another knowledgeable source suggested in 2015. Across Uganda riding boda bodas has become a substantial source of income for many youths, providing livelihood to thousands of families in the country. In Kampala, the business has attracted tour and travel investors with one company'Uganda Adventure Safaris and Boda Boda Tours' providing city maneuver as one of their exciting tour packages for many visitors and tourists in Kampala. Kigali Unlike in most other cities, motorcycle taxi drivers in Kigali, are registered and considered law-abiding.
Here, the preferred term for this form of transport is moto. An Uber-style e-hailing mobile app for motorcycle taxis, SafeBoda was founded in late 2014, and, as of 2015, restricted its operations to Kampala, Uganda, it provides training and helmets to drivers. The smartphones carried by drivers can collect braking data allowing the firm to rank operators' safety, a routing system that relies more on landmarks than maps helps ensure only those who possess thorough local knowledge will attempt to pick up a potential fare. SafeMotos was launched in Kigali and has expanded to the DR Congo. Taxify launched their boda boda e-hailing services in Uganda to complement its e-taxi services, it has however suffered criticisms about poor service delivery and threatened the termination of their services in February 2019. Uber added their e-boda services in Uganda in March 2018 and operates in Kampala. Motorcycle taxi Okada The Boda-boda Boom. BBC; the Documentary. The Big Boda Boda Book
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system. A BRT system includes roadways that are dedicated to buses, gives priority to buses at intersections where buses may interact with other traffic. BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of a metro with the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity of a bus system; the first BRT system was the Rede Integrada de Transporte in Curitiba, which entered service in 1974. As of March 2018, a total of 166 cities in six continents have implemented BRT systems, accounting for 4,906 km of BRT lanes and about 32.2 million passengers every day, of which about 19.6 million passengers ride daily in Latin America, which has the most cities with BRT systems, with 54, led by Brazil with 21 cities. The Latin American countries with the most daily ridership are Brazil and Mexico. In the other regions and Iran stand out. TransJakarta is considered as the largest BRT network in the world with 230.9 kilometres of corridors connecting the Indonesian capital city.
Bus rapid transit takes its name from rail rapid transit, which describes a high-capacity urban public-transit system with its own right of way, multiple-car vehicles at short headways, longer stop spacing than traditional streetcars and buses. BRT uses buses on a wide variety of rights-of-way, including mixed traffic, dedicated lanes on surface streets, busways separated from traffic; the expression "BRT" is used in the Americas and China. Critics have charged that the term "bus rapid transit" has sometimes been misapplied to systems that lack most or all the essential features which differentiate it from conventional bus services; the term "bus rapid transit creep" has been used to describe degraded levels of bus service which fall far short of the BRT Standard promoted by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy and other organizations. The first use of a protected busway was the East Side Trolley Tunnel in Rhode Island, it was converted from trolley to bus use in 1948. However, the first BRT system in the world was the OC Transpo system in Canada.
Introduced in 1973, the first element of its BRT system was dedicated bus lanes through the city centre, with platformed stops. The introduction of the first exclusive separate busways occurred in 1983. By 1996, all of the envisioned 31 km Transitway system was in operation; as of 2017, the central part of the Transitway is being converted to a Light Rail Transit, due to the downtown section being operated beyond its designed capacity. The second BRT system in the world was the Rede Integrada de Transporte, implemented in Curitiba, Brazil, in 1974. Most of the elements that have become associated with BRT were innovations first suggested by Curitiba Mayor Architect Jaime Lerner. Just dedicated bus lanes in the center of major arterial roads, in 1980 the Curitiba system added a feeder bus network and inter-zone connections, in 1992 introduced off-board fare collection, enclosed stations, platform-level boarding. Other systems made further innovations, including platooning in Porto Alegre, passing lanes and express service in São Paulo.
In the United States, BRT began in 1977, with Pittsburgh's South Busway, operating on 4.3 miles of exclusive lanes. Its success led to the Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway in 1983, a fuller BRT deployment including a dedicated busway of 9.1 miles, traffic signal preemption, peak service headway as low as two minutes. After the opening of the West Busway, 5.1 miles in length in 1990, Pittsburgh’s Busway system is today over 18.5 miles long. In 1995, Ecuador, opened trolleybus BRT; the TransMilenio in Bogotá, opening in 2000, was the first BRT system to combine the best elements of Curitiba's BRT with other BRT advances, achieved the highest capacity and highest speed BRT system in the world. The success of TransMilenio spurred other cities to develop high quality BRT systems. In January 2004 the first BRT in Asia, TransJakarta, opened in Indonesia; as of 2015, at 210 kilometres, it is the longest BRT system in the world. Africa's first BRT system was opened in Lagos, Nigeria, in March 2008 but is considered as a light BRT system by many people.
Johannesburg’s BRT, Rea Vaya, was the first true BRT in Africa, in August 2009, carrying 16,000 daily passengers. Rea Vaya and MIO were the first two systems to combine full BRT with some services that operated in mixed traffic joined the BRT trunk infrastructure. BRT systems include most of the following features: Bus-only lanes make for faster travel and ensure that buses are not delayed by mixed traffic congestion. A median alignment bus-only keeps buses away from busy curb-side side conflicts, where cars and trucks are parking and turning. Separate rights of way may be used such as the elevated Xiamen BRT. Transit malls or'bus streets' may be created in city centers. Fare prepayment at the station, instead of on board the bus, eliminates the delay caused by passengers paying on board. P
Higher-speed rail known as high-performance rail, higher-performance rail, or almost-high-speed rail, is a jargon used to describe inter-city passenger rail services that have top speeds of more than conventional rail but are not high enough to be called high-speed rail services. The term is used by planners to identify the incremental rail improvements to increase train speeds and reduce travel time as alternatives to larger efforts to create or expand the high-speed rail networks; some countries use semi-high speed rail instead. As with the definitions of high-speed rail, there is no universal definition of higher-speed rail either; the term has been used by government agencies, government officials, transportation planners, the rail industry, the media, but sometime with overlaps in the speed definitions. Some countries with an established definition of higher-speed rail include: In Canada, according to the Surface Transportation Policy, Department of Transport, the speed range for higher-speed rail is between 160 and 240 km/h.
In India, according to the Minister of Railways, the speed range for India's higher-speed rail will be between 160 and 200 km/h. In Indonesia, the government is considering higher-speed rail options, referred to as medium-speed railway; the speed range is between 200 and 250 km/h In Pakistan, Currently the speed range for higher speed rail is between 130 and 160 km/h. In the United Kingdom, the term higher-speed rail is used for upgraded tracks with train speeds up to 125 mph In the United States, the term "higher-speed rail", as opposed to "high-speed rail", is used by regional planners in many U. S. states to describe inter-city passenger rail services with top speeds of between 90 mph and 110 mph. This is the equivalent of the definition of "Emerging High-Speed Rail" as defined by the Federal Railroad Administration. However, the Congressional Research Service defines "Higher Speed Rail" as rail services with speeds up to 150 mph and defines rail services on dedicated tracks with speeds over 150 mph as "Very High Speed Rail".
State-level departments of transportation and council of governments may use different definitions. Below is the list of known definitions of higher-speed rail which use some of the 5 speed levels, 80 mph, 90 mph, 110 mph, 125 mph and 150 mph:In Thailand, higher-speed rail, called medium-speed rail there, has top speeds of up to 250 km/h. In Canada, the assumption about grade crossing is that operating higher-speed rail services between 160 and 200 km/h would require "improved levels of protection in acceptable areas". In the United States, railroad tracks are used for freight with at-grade crossings. Passenger trains in many corridors run on shared tracks with freight trains. Most trains are limited to top speeds of 79 mph unless they are equipped with an automatic cab signal, automatic train stop, automatic train control or positive train control system approved by the Federal Railroad Administration. In developing higher-speed rail services, one of those safety systems must be used. Additionally, the FRA establishes classification of track quality which regulates the speed limits of the trains with Class 5, Class 6, Class 7 and Class 8 for top speeds of 90 mph, 110 mph, 125 mph and 160 mph, respectively.
The FRA regulates passenger train design and safety standards to ensure trains that operate at speeds of 80 mph up to 125 mph comply with its Tier I standard and trains that operate at speeds up to 150 mph comply with its Tier II standard. Another limitation is the safety of grade crossings. FRA regulations set speed limits for tracks with grade crossings as follows: Level crossings are the most dangerous part of the railway network with a large number of fatal incidents occurring at a grade crossing. For 110 mph or less: Grade crossings are permitted. States and railroads cooperate to determine the needed warning devices, including passive crossbucks, flashing lights, two quadrant gates, long gate arms, median barriers, various combinations. Lights and/or gates are activated by circuits wired to the track. For 110 to 125 mph: The FRA permits crossings only if an "impenetrable barrier" blocks highway traffic when a train approaches. Above 125 mph: No crossings will be permitted. In Europe, the limit is 160 km/h over grade crossings.
In Sweden there is a special rule permitting 200 km/h if there are barriers and automatic detection of road vehicles standing on the track. In Russia 250 km/h is permitted over grade crossings; the United Kingdom has railway lines of 200 km/h. With the above limitations, many regional transportation planners focus on rail improvements to have the top speeds up to 110 mph when proposing a new higher-speed rail service. In countries where there had been rail improvement projects in the part of the 20th century and into the 2000s, there are inter-city rail services with comparable speed ranges of higher-speed rail, but they are not called "higher-speed rail". Below are some examples of such services. Europe: The InterCity services in many European countries have top speeds of up to 160 km/h, but it can go up to 200 km/h. Intercity trains that cross international bord
A heritage railway is a railway operated as living history to re-create or preserve railway scenes of the past. Heritage railways are old railway lines preserved in a state depicting a period in the history of rail transport; the British Office of Rail and Road defines heritage railways as follows: "...'lines of local interest', museum railways or tourist railways that have retained or assumed the character and appearance and operating practices of railways of former times. Several lines that operate in isolation provide genuine transport facilities, providing community links. Most lines constitute tourist or educational attractions in their own right. Much of the rolling stock and other equipment used on these systems is original and is of historic value in its own right. Many systems aim to replicate both the look and operating practices of historic former railways companies." Heritage railway lines have historic rail infrastructure, substituted in modern rail systems. Historical installations, such as hand-operated points, water cranes, rails fastened with hand-hammered rail spikes, are characteristic features of heritage lines.
Unlike tourist railways, which carry tourists and have modern installations and vehicles, heritage-line infrastructure creates views and soundscapes of the past in operation. Due to a lack of modern technology or the desire for historical accuracy, railway operations can be handled with traditional practices such as the use of tokens. Heritage infrastructure and operations require the assignment of roles, based on historical occupations, to the railway staff. Some, or all and volunteers, including Station masters and signalmen, sometimes wearing period-appropriate attire, can be seen on some heritage railways. Most heritage railways use heritage rolling stock, although modern rail vehicles can be used to showcase railway scenes with historical-line infrastructure. While some heritage railways are profitable tourist attractions, many are not-for-profit entities. Still other heritage railways offer a viable public-transit option, can maintain operations with revenue from regular riders or government subsidies.
Children's railways are extracurricular educational institutions where children and teenagers learn about railway work. The railways developed in the USSR during the Soviet era. Many were called "Pioneer railways", after the youth organisation of that name; the first children's railway opened in Moscow in 1932 and, at the breakup of the USSR, 52 children's railways existed in the country. Although the fall of communist governments has led to the closure of some, preserved children's railways are still functioning in post-Soviet states and Eastern European countries. Many children's railways were built on parkland in urban areas. Unlike many industrial areas served by a narrow-gauge railway, parks were free of redevelopment. Child volunteers and socialist fiscal policy enabled the existence of many of these railways. Children's railways which still carry traffic have retained their original infrastructure and rolling stock, including vintage steam locomotives. Examples of children's railways with steam locomotives include the Dresden Park Railway in Germany.
Creating passages for trains up steep hills and through mountain regions offers many obstacles which call for technical solutions. Steep grade railway technologies and extensive tunneling may be employed; the use of narrow gauge allows tighter curves in the track, offers a smaller structure gauge and tunnel size. At high altitudes and logistical difficulties, limited urban development and demand for transport and special rolling-stock requirements have left many mountain railways unmodernized; the engineering feats of past railway builders and views of pristine mountain scenes have made many railways in mountainous areas profitable tourist attractions. Pit railways have been in operation in underground mines all over the world. Small rail vehicles transport ore, waste rock, workers through narrow tunnels. Sometimes trains were the sole mode of transport in the passages between the work sites and the mine entrance; the railway's loading gauge dictated the cross-section of passages to be dug. At many mining sites, pit railways have been abandoned due to mine closure or adoption of new transportation equipment.
Some show mines offer mantrip rides into the mine. The Metro 1, built from 1894 to 1896, is the oldest line of the Budapest Metro system and the second-oldest underground railway in the world; the M1 underwent major reconstruction during the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 now serves eight original stations whose original appearance has been preserved. In 2002, the line was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the Deák Ferenc Square concourse's Millennium Underground Museum, many other artifacts of the metro's early history may be seen; the first heritage railway to be rescued and run by volunteers was the Talyllyn Railway in Wales. This narrow-gauge line, taken over by a group of enthusiasts in 1950, was the beginning of the preservation movement worldwide. In Britain, heritage railways are railway lines which
A monorail is a railway in which the track consists of a single rail or a beam. The term is used to describe the beam of the system, or the trains traveling on such a beam or track; the term originates from joining "mono" and "rail", from 1897 from German engineer Eugen Langen, who called an elevated railway system with wagons suspended the Eugen Langen One-railed Suspension Tramway. Colloquially, the term "monorail" is used to describe any form of elevated rail or people mover. More the term refers to the style of track, not its elevation, with'Mono' meaning'one', and'Rail' meaning'rail'. Monorails have found applications in airport medium capacity metros. To differentiate monorails from other transport modes, the Monorail Society defines a monorail as a "single rail serving as a track for passenger or freight vehicles. In most cases rail is elevated, but monorails can run at grade, below grade or in subway tunnels. Vehicles either straddle a narrow guide way. Monorail vehicles are wider than the guide way that supports them.”
Monorails are elevated, sometimes leading to confusion with other elevated systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, Vancouver SkyTrain and the AirTrain JFK, which run on two rails. Monorail vehicles appear similar to light rail vehicles, can be manned or unmanned, they can be individual rigid vehicles, articulated single units, or multiple units coupled into trains. Like other advanced rapid transit systems, monorails can be driven by linear induction motors. Unlike some trams and light rail systems, modern monorails are always separated from other traffic and pedestrians, they are both guided and supported via interaction with the same single beam, in contrast to other guided systems like rubber-tyred metros, the Sapporo Municipal Subway. Monorails do not use pantographs. From the passenger's perspective, monorails can have some advantages over trains and automobiles; as with other grade-separated transit systems, monorails avoid red lights, intersection turns, traffic jams. Surface-level trains, buses and pedestrians can collide each one with the other, while vehicles on dedicated, grade-separated rights-of-way such as monorails can collide only with other vehicles on the same system, with much fewer opportunities for collision.
As with other elevated transit systems, monorail passengers enjoy sunlight and views and by watching for familiar landmarks, they can know better when to get off to reach their destinations. As with other systems and noisy ventilation systems are not necessary if the cars have traditional windows that can be opened by passengers. Monorails can be quieter than diesel trains, they obtain electricity from the track structure, eliminating costly and, to many people, unsightly overhead power lines and poles. Compared to the elevated train systems of New York and elsewhere, a monorail beamway casts a narrow shadow. Under the Monorail Society's beam-width criterion, but not all, maglev systems are considered monorails, such as the Transrapid and Linimo. Maglevs differ from other monorails; the first monorail prototype was made in Russia in 1820 by Ivan Elmanov. Attempts at creating monorail alternatives to conventional railways have been made since the early part of the 19th century; the Centennial Monorail was featured at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876.
Around 1879 a "one-rail" system was proposed independently by Haddon and by Stringfellow, which used an inverted "V" rail. It was intended for military use, but was seen to have civilian use as a "cheap railway." The Boynton Bicycle Railroad was a steam-powered monorail in Brooklyn on New York. It ran on a single load-bearing rail at ground level, but with a wooden overhead stabilising rail engaged by a pair of horizontally opposed wheels; the railway operated for only two years beginning in 1890. The Hotchkiss Bicycle Railroad was a monorail; the first example was built between Smithville and Mount Holly, New Jersey, in 1892. It closed in 1897. Other examples were built in Norfolk from 1895 to 1909, Great Yarmouth, Blackpool, UK from 1896. Early designs used a double-flanged single metal rail alternative to the double rail of conventional railways, both guiding and supporting the monorail car. A surviving suspended version is the oldest still in service system: the Wuppertal monorail in Germany.
In the early 1900s, Gyro monorails with cars gyroscopically balanced on top of a single rail were tested, but never developed beyond the prototype stage. The Ewing System, used in the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in Punjab, relies on a hybrid model with a load-bearing single rail and an external wheel for balance. One of the first systems put into practical use was that of French engineer Charles Larigue, who built a line between Ballybunion and Listowel in Ireland, opened in 1888 and closed in 1924, it uses a load-bearing single rail and two lower, external rails for balance, the three carried on triangular supports. The first monorail locomotive was a 0-3-0 steam locomotive. A highspeed monorail using the Lartigue system was proposed in 1901 between Liverpool and Manchester. In 1910, the Brennan gyroscopic monorail was considered for use to a coal mine in Alaska. In June 1920, t
Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains. There is no precise definition of inter-city rail. Most broadly, it can include any rail services that are neither short-distance commuter rail trains within one city area, nor slow regional rail trains calling at all stations and covering local journeys only. Most an inter-city train is an express train with limited stops and comfortable carriages to serve long-distance travel. Inter-city rail sometimes provides international services; this is most prevalent in Europe, due to the close proximity of its 50 countries in a 10,180,000 square kilometre area. Eurostar and EuroCity are examples of this. In many European countries the word "InterCity" or "Inter-City" is an official brand name for a network of regular-interval long-distance train services that meet certain criteria of speed and comfort; this use of the term appeared in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and has been imitated.
The speeds of inter-city rail lines are quite diverse, ranging from 50 km/h in a mountainous area or on undeveloped tracks to 200–350 km/h on newly constructed or improved tracks. As a result, Inter-city rail may or may not fall into the category of higher-speed rail or high-speed rail. Ideally, the average speed of inter-city rail service would be faster than 100 km/h in order to be competitive with car and other methods of transport. 50–100 kmThe distance of an inter-city rail journey is at least 50–100 km, although in many large metropolitan areas commuter and regional services cover equal or longer distances. 100–500 kmA distance of 100–500 km is a common journey distance for inter-city rail in many countries. In many cases, railway travel is most competitive at about 2–3 hours journey time. Inter-city rail can compete with highways and short-haul air travel for journeys of this distance. 500–1,000 kmIn journeys of 500–1,000 km, the role of inter-city rail is replaced by faster air travel.
Development of high-speed rail in some countries increases the share of railway for such longer-distance journeys. The Paris-Marseille TGV and Tokyo-Aomori Shinkansen are examples of this type of journey. In conventional non high-speed rail, overnight trains are common for this distance. 1,000 km or moreIn some countries with a dense rail network, large territory, or less air and car transport, such as China and Russia, overnight long-distance train services are provided and used practically. In many other countries, such long-distance rail journey has been replaced by air travel except for tourism or hobbyist purposes, luxury train journeys, or significant cost benefit. Discount Eurail Pass in Europe, Amtrak in the United States, Indian Pacific in Australia are examples. Faster high-speed rail of 350 km, such as the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway in China and Tokyo-Sapporo in the proposed Hokkaido Shinkansen in Japan, may play a significant role in long-distance travel in the future. Railways in Africa are still developing or not used for passenger purposes in many countries, but the following countries have inter-city services between major cities: Algeria SNTF Egypt: Egyptian National Railways Morocco: ONCF South Africa: Shosholoza Meyl Tunisia Tunisian Railways Trains run by China Railway link every town and city in the People's Republic of China mainland, including Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Xi'an, as well as onwards from Shenzhen across the border to Kowloon, Hong Kong.
New high-speed lines from 200–350 km/h operation are constructed, many conventional lines are upgraded to 200 km/h operation. There are seven High-Speed Inter-City lines in China, with up to 21 planned, they are operated independently from the parallel High-Speed-Rail-Lines. Japan has six main regional passenger railway companies, known collectively as Japan Railways Group or as JR. Four JR companies operate the "bullet trains" on fast and frequent Shinkansen lines that link all the larger cities, including Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima and many more. Many other cities are covered by a network of JR's "limited express" inter-city trains on 1,067 mm, narrow gauge, lines. Major cities are covered by convenient train services of every one hour or more frequent. In addition to the JR Group, Japan has several major regional carriers such as the Kintetsu and Nagoya Railroads. Rail services that connect the towns in the New Territories with the city centres of Kowloon and Hong Kong are provided by the East Rail Line, West Rail Line and Tung Chung Line.
Inter-city railway services crossing the Hong Kong-China border are jointly operated by Hong Kong's MTR Corporation Limited and the Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China. Hung Hom Station is the only station in the territory where passengers can catch these cross-border trains. Passengers are required to go through immigration and customs inspections of Hong Kong before boarding a cross-border train or alighting from such a train. There are four cross-border train services: Between Hong Kong and Beijing Between Hong Kong and Shanghai Between Hong Kong and Guangzhou Between Hong Kong and Zhaoqing A new bo